Friday the 13th (franchise)

Friday the 13th (franchise)

"Friday the 13th" is an American horror franchise that consists of eleven slasher films, a television show, novels, and comic books. The franchise is mainly based on the fictional character of Jason Voorhees, who drowned at Camp Crystal Lake as a boy due to the negligence of the teenage counselors. Decades later, the lake is rumored to be "cursed" and is the setting for a series of mass murders. Jason is featured in all of the films, either as the killer or as the motivation for the killings. The original film was written by Victor Miller, and was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham; later films brought in others for these positions.

Originally created to cash in on the success of John Carpenter's "Halloween" (1978),cite book|last=Grove|first=David|title=Making Friday the 13th: The Legend of Camp Blood|publisher=FAB Press|month=February|year=2005|location=United Kingdom|pages=11–12|isbn=1903254310] the success led Paramount Pictures to purchase the full rights to the "Friday the 13th" franchise. Frank Mancuso, Jr., who produced the films, also developed the television show "" after Paramount released what would be their last film. The television series is not connected to the rest of the franchise by any character or setting, but was created out of the idea of "bad luck and curses," which the film series symbolized.Grove, David, pp. 189–196] While the franchise was owned by Paramount, four films were adapted into novels, with the film "Friday the 13th Part III" receiving two separate adaptations. When the franchise was sold to New Line Cinema, Cunningham returned to oversee two additional films, and a crossover film with Freddy Krueger from another horror film series, "A Nightmare on Elm Street". Under New Line, thirteen novellas and various comic book series were published featuring Jason Voorhees.

The film series was never favored by critics, but still became a financial success at the box office. The franchise is considered one of the most successful franchises in American cinema thanks to the success of the films, but also because of the comic book, expansive merchandising that includes various toylines, video games, soundtrack releases and references in popular culture. In addition, the franchise tops other American horror franchises in adjusted 2008 dollars for box office gross.



In the original "Friday the 13th" (1980), Mrs. Voorhees (Betsy Palmer) stalks and murders a group of camp counselors. She is determined to make sure Camp Crystal Lake does not reopen, after her son Jason (Ari Lehman) drowned in the lake while two counselors, who were supposed to be watching him, were off having sex and not paying attention. The last girl, Alice (Adrienne King), fends off Mrs. Voorhees long enough to grab a machete to decapitate her.cite video|people=Sean S. Cunningham (Director)|title=Friday the 13th|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1980] For "Friday the 13th Part 2" (1981), Jason's death as a boy is retconned, and he gets his revenge on the girl who decapitated his mother. Afterward, Jason (Steve Daskewisz) returns to Crystal Lake, guarding it from all intruders. Five years later, a group of teenagers come to Crystal Lake to set up a new camp, only for Jason to murder them, one by one. Ginny Field (Amy Steel), the lone survivor, finds a cabin in the woods with a shrine built around the severed head of Mrs. Voorhees, and surrounded by mutilated corpses. Ginny fights back, and slams a machete through Jason's shoulder. Jason is left for dead as Ginny is taken away in an ambulance.cite video|people=Steve Miner (Director)|title=Friday the 13th Part 2|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1981] In "Friday the 13th Part III" (1982), Jason (Richard Brooker) finds his way to Higgins Haven, Chris' family land at Crystal Lake. At the same time, Chris Higgins (Dana Kimmell) returns to the property with some friends. An unmasked and reclusive Jason kills anyone who wanders into the barn where he is hiding. Taking a hockey mask from a victim to hide his face, he leaves the barn to kill the rest of the group. Chris seemingly kills Jason with an axe to his head, but the night's events drive her into hysteria as the police take her away.cite video|people=Steve Miner (Director)|title=Friday the 13th Part 3|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1982]

' (1984) continues where "Part III" leaves off, with Jason (Ted White) found by the police and taken to the morgue at the Wessex County Medical Center. Once delivered, Jason, not dead, awakens and kills the coroner and a nurse, and then makes his way back to Crystal Lake. A group of friends rent a house on Crystal Lake and fall victim to Jason's rampage. After killing all of the teens next door, Jason seeks out Trish (Kimberly Beck) and Tommy Jarvis (Corey Feldman). While distracted by Trish, Jason is attacked and killed by Tommy.cite video|people=Joseph Zito (Director)|title=Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1984] ' (1985) tried to move in a new direction. Tommy Jarvis (John Shepherd) was committed to a mental hospital after the events of "The Final Chapter" and has grown up constantly afraid that Jason (Tom Morga) will return. Jason's body was supposedly cremated after Tommy killed him. Roy Burns (Dick Wieand) uses Jason's persona to become a copycat killer at the halfway home to which Tommy was moved. Tommy, supervisor Pam (Melanie Kinnaman), and a young boy named Reggie (Shavar Ross) manage to defeat Roy. They learn Roy was motivated to become Jason after witnessing the remains of his son, whom no one knew about, butchered at the hands of one of the patients at the institution.cite video|people=Danny Steinmann (Director)|title=Friday the 13th: A New Beginning|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1985] "" (1986) had Tommy (Thom Mathews) visiting Jason's grave after being released from a mental institution. It is revealed that Jason's body was never actually cremated, but buried in Forest Green cemetery (formerly Crystal Lake cemetery). Tommy inadvertently resurrects Jason (C.J. Graham) via a piece of cemetery fence, which acts as a lightning rod. Jason remains in Forest Green, believing it is Crystal Lake. After killing the new camp counselors working there, Jason is chained to a boulder by Tommy, and left at the bottom of the lake to die.cite video|people=Tom McLoughlin (Director)|title=Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1986]

' (1988) begins an indeterminate amount of time after "Jason Lives". Jason (Kane Hodder) is resurrected again, this time by the telekinetic Tina Shepard (Lar Park Lincoln), who was trying to resurrect her father. Jason once again begins killing those who occupy Crystal Lake, and, after a battle with Tina, is returned to the bottom of the lake.cite video|people=John Carl Buechler (Director)|title=Friday the 13th Part VII: The New Blood|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1988] ' (1989) sees Jason return from the lake, brought back to life via an underwater electrical cable. He follows a group of students on their senior class trip to Manhattan, boarding the "Lazarus" to wreak havoc. Upon reaching Manhattan, Jason kills the rest of the survivors, with the exception of Rennie (Jensen Daggett) and Sean (Scott Reeves); he chases the final two into the sewers, where Jason is caught and melted away by toxic waste.cite video|people=Rob Hedden (Director)|title=Friday the 13th Part VIII: Jason Takes Manhattan|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=Paramount Pictures|year=1989] In "" (1993), Jason, through unexplained resurrection, returns to Crystal Lake, where he is being hunted by the F.B.I.. The F.B.I. sets up a sting to kill Jason, which proves successful. Through possession, Jason manages to survive by passing his black heart from one being to the next. Though Jason is hardly seen throughout the film, it is learned that he has a sister and niece, and that he needs them to get his body back. After resurrecting his own body, Jason is finally killed by his niece, Jessica Kimble (Kari Keegan), and dragged to Hell.cite video|people=Adam Marcus (Director)|title=Jason Goes to Hell: The Final Friday|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=New Line Cinema|year=1993]

"Jason X" (2002) takes place in the future, where Jason has again been inexplicably resurrected. He is being held and experimented upon in a research facility. It is determined that he has regenerative capabilities and that cryonic suspension is the only possible solution to stop him since he cannot be killed. Jason breaks out of captivity and manages to slice through the cryo-chamber, spilling the cryonics into the room freezing the only other survivor, Rowan (Lexa Doig). Four hundred and fifty-five years later, Jason's body is discovered by a team of students studying Earth. Upon being thawed by the team, he proceeds to murder everyone aboard the spacecraft, before finally being blown into space, and landing on Earth 2.cite video|people=James Isaac (Director)|title=Jason X|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=New Line Cinema|year=2002] The most recent "Friday the 13th" film was a crossover with "A Nightmare on Elm Street", entitled "Freddy vs. Jason" (2003). Set in the contemporary period, Freddy Krueger (Robert Englund) has grown weak, as people in Springwood, his home, have suppressed their fear of him. Freddy, who is impersonating Pamela Voorhees (Paula Shaw), sends Jason (Ken Kirzinger) to Springwood to cause panic and fear. Jason accomplishes this, but refuses to stop killing. A battle ensues in both the dream-world and Crystal Lake. The outcome is left ambiguous, as Jason surfaces from the lake holding Freddy's severed head, which winks and laughs.cite video|people=Ronny Yu (Director)|title=Freddy vs. Jason|medium=DVD|location=United States|publisher=New Line Cinema|year=2003]


The original "Friday the 13th" film was produced and directed by Sean S. Cunningham, who had previously worked with filmmaker Wes Craven on the film "The Last House on the Left" (1972). Cunningham, inspired by John Carpenter's "Halloween" (1978) and films by Mario Bava, wanted "Friday the 13th" to be shocking, visually stunning, and " [make] you jump out of your seat". Distancing himself from "The Last House on the Left", Cunningham wanted "Friday the 13th" to be more of a "roller-coaster ride".

The first film was meant to be "a real scary movie" and at the same time make the audience laugh. "Friday the 13th" began its life as nothing more than a title. "Long Night at Camp Blood" was the working title during the writing process, but Cunningham believed in his "Friday the 13th" moniker and rushed to place an ad in "Variety". Worried that someone else owned the rights to the title and wanting to avoid potential lawsuits, Cunningham thought it would be best to find out immediately. Cunningham commissioned a New York advertising agency to develop his concept of the "Friday the 13th" logo, which consisted of big block letters bursting through a pane of glass.Grove, David, pp.15–16] In the end, Cunningham believed there were "no problems" with the title, but distributor George Mansour stated, "There was a movie before ours called "Friday the 13th: The Orphan". Moderately successful. But someone still threatened to sue. I don't know whether Phil [Scuderi] paid them off, but it was finally resolved." [cite book|last=Bracke|first=Peter|title=Crystal Lake Memories|publisher=Titan Books|date=2006-10-11|location=United Kingdom|page=17|isbn=1845763432]

Following the success of "Friday the 13th" in 1980, Paramount Pictures began plans to make a sequel. First acquiring the worldwide distribution rights, Frank Mancuso, Sr. stated, "We wanted it to be an event, where teenagers would flock to the theaters on that Friday night to see the latest episode." The initial ideas for a sequel involved the "Friday the 13th" title being used for a series of films, released once a year, that would not have direct continuity with each other, but be a separate "scary movie" of their own right. Phil Scuderi—one of three owners of Esquire Theaters, along with Steve Minasian and Bob Barsamian, who produced the original film—insisted that the sequel have Jason Voorhees, Pamela's son, even though his appearance in the original film was only meant to be a joke. Steve Miner, associate producer on the first film, believed in the idea and would go on to direct the first two sequels, after Cunningham opted not to return to the director's chair. Miner would use many of the same crew members from the first film while working on the sequels.Brack, Peter, pp. 50–52]

The studio would continue to produce more sequels over the years, based on the financial success they produced from the relatively low budgets of the films. With every film repeating the same premise, the filmmakers had to come up with little tweaks to provide freshness so the audience would return. Changes could involve an addition to the title—as opposed to just a number attached to the end—like "The Final Chapter" and "Jason Takes Manhattan", or filming the movie in 3-D, as Miner did for "Friday the 13th Part 3".Bracke, Peter, pp.73–74] The third film would also be the birthplace of one of the most recognizable images in popular culture, that of Jason's hockey mask.cite news|author=Gary Kemble|url=|title=Movie Minutiae: the Friday the 13th series (1980-?)|publisher=ABC|date=2006-01-13|accessdate=2007-05-21] Frank Mancuso, Jr., who was constantly associated with the "Friday the 13th" film series in the filmmaking community, was prevented from being able to "read anything that wasn't in that ilk". Mancuso, Jr. felt that the next logical step was to kill Jason for good.Bracke, Peter, pg.98]

Jason would not stay buried for long, as the success of "The Final Chapter" would ensure another "Friday the 13th" film. Paramount Picture's Chairman and CEO Frank Mancuso, Sr. stated, "Quite simply, the public still wanted to see these films. So until they really stopped coming, why not continue to make more?" "A New Beginning" attempted to shift the focus of the story to the character of Tommy Jarvis, and how he battles his inner demons, hallucinations, and "rages to kill" after his ordeal with Jason.Bracke, Peter, pg.122–123] This premise was not repeated, as the very next installment brought Jason back from the dead, appropriately subtitled "Jason Lives". The film attempted to create a "funnier, faster and more action-packed […] "Friday" than had previously been done.Bracke, Peter, pp.147–148] The limited success of "Jason Lives" provided enough incentive to create another sequel, "The New Blood", which screenwriter Daryl Haney believes Paramount was hoping the movie would provide for them. The idea proposed by screenwriter Daryl Haney stemmed from his recognition that the films always ended with Jason battling the final girl; Haney proposed this time the final girl should have telekinetic powers. Producer Barbara Sachs would dub the film, "Jason vs. Carrie". [Bracke, Peter, pg.173]


In January 2007, producers Andrew Form and Brad Fuller outlined their intended goal to bring the remake to life. Fuller and Form were approached by New Line to create a remake, but because Paramount still owned certain copyrights to the first film the remake would not be able to use anything from the original. Paramount, who wanted to be included in the remake, approached the producers and gave them license to use anything from the original films, including the title. With Paramount on board, Fuller and Form decided they wanted to use pieces from each of the first three films. Fuller stated, "I think there are moments we want to address, like how does the hockey mask happen. It’ll happen differently in our movie than in the third one. Where is Jason from, why do these killings happen, and what is Crystal Lake?" The producers expressed an interest in using the character of Tommy Jarvis and stated that they were currently working out a sensible origin story for Jason. [cite news|author=Devin Faraci|url=|title=EXCLUSIVE: PAGING TOMMY JARVIS?|publisher=CHUD|date=2007-01-08|accessdate=2007-10-21]

Damian Shannon and Mark Swift, writers of "Freddy vs. Jason", were announced in October 2007 to have been hired to pen a script for the remake.cite news|author=Borys Kit|url=|title=Duo pumps new blood into 'Friday the 13th'|publisher=The Hollywood Reporter|date=2007-10-02|accessdate=2007-10-21] The film was reported to focus on Jason Voorhees, and that he will keep his trademark hockey mask. [cite web|url=|title=Platinum Confirmations: Near Dark, Friday the 13th Remakes|publisher=Bloody-Disgusting|work=The Hollywood Reporter|date=2007-10-03|accessate=2007-10-21] The film is being produced by Michael Bay, Andrew Form, and Brad Fuller through Bay's production company Platinum Dunes, for New Line Cinema. Director Jonathan Liebesman was originally in negotiations to direct the remake in February 2006, [cite web|url=|title=Jonathan Liebesman Directing Friday the 13th Remake|publisher=Movie Web|work=The Hollywood Reporter|date=2006-02-22|accessdate=2007-10-21] but was replaced by Marcus Nispel, director of "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" remake of 2003, in November 2007. [cite news|author=Borys Kit|url=|title=Nispel scores a date with next 'Friday'|publisher=The Hollywood Reporter|date=2007-11-14|accessdate=2007-11-14] On March 21, 2008, it was confirmed that Jared Padalecki was in final negotiations to star as the lead who investigates what happened at Crystal Lake. [cite news|url=,,20185711,00.html|title=Padalecki in Final Talks for 'Friday the 13th'|publication=Entertainment Weekly|work=The Hollywood Reporter|date=2008-03-21|accessdate=2008-03-21] On March 31, 2008 iFMagazine reports that Derek Mears is in final talks to portray Jason Voorhees, [cite news|author=Jay Frasco|url=|title=Casting of new 'Friday the 13th' villain splits fans down the middle|publisher=IFMagazine|date=2008-03-31|accessdate=2008-04-05] while "Variety" reported on April 2, 2008 that Amanda Righetti was in final negotiations to take the female lead in the new "Friday the 13th". [cite news|author=Bryon Perry|title=Amanda Righetti|url=|publisher=Variety|date=2008-04-02|accessdate=2008-04-05] On April 16, 2008, it was reported that Danielle Panabaker, Jonathan Sadowski, Travis Van Winkle and Aaron Yoo have joined the cast of the new film. [cite news|url=,0,4558141.story|title='Shark' Co-Star Floats to 'Friday the 13th'|publisher=Zap2it|work=The Hollywood Reporter|date=2008-04-16|accessdate=2008-04-18] Nana Visitor has been cast as Pamela Voorhees. [cite news|url=|title=Nana Visitor is Mrs. Voorhees|date=2008-04-22|accessdate=2008-04-18] A young Jason is to be played by Caleb Guss. [cite web|title=Young Jason Voorhees Cast in "Friday the 13th"|url=|publisher=Worst Previews|date=2008-05-15|accessdate=2008-05-27] The film will have its U.S. release on Friday, February 13, 2009. [cite web|url=|title=Young Jason Cast in Friday the 13th remake|publisher=FearNet|date=2008-05-15|accessdate=2008-05-28]


On September 28, 1987, [Bracke, Peter, pg. 171] Paramount, after the release of what would be their final "Friday the 13th" film, began airing "", a television series that focuses on two cousins' attempts to recover cursed antiques that were sold from a shop they inherited from their uncle. The show starred John D. LeMay as Ryan Dallion and Louise Robey as Michelle Foster. It was created by Frank Mancuso, Jr. and Larry B. Williams originally under the title of "The 13th Hour"; the series ran for 77 episodes. Mancuso, Jr. never intended to link the television show directly to the film series, but "take the idea of "Friday the 13th", which is that it symbolizes bad luck and curses". A plan for the show called for a tie-in to Jason's trademark hockey mask, but the idea was eventually discarded so that the show could have a chance to exist on its own. Mancuso, Jr. was afraid that mentioning any events from the films would take the audience away from "the new world that we were trying to create". The decision to name the show "Friday the 13th", over the original title, was made because Mancuso, Jr. believed a "Friday the 13th" moniker would better help to sell the show to networks. Filming took place in Toronto, Canada.

"Friday the 13th: The Series" began airing as a first-run syndication late at night on Fox, but the first season performed so well that Paramount shopped for better time-slots. Produced on a budgeted estimated below $500,000 an episode, in its first season "Friday the 13th" placed second in the male 18 to 49 year old demographic, just behind Paramount's "". The first season also placed fifth in the female 18 to 49 year old demographic. [cite news|author=Aljean Harmetz|url=|title=TV Producers Discover New Path to Prime Time (page 2)|publisher=The New York Times|date=1988-07-05|accessdate=2007-11-01]

In September 2003, during a panel session at the Maniafest convention, Sean S. Cunningham spoke about possibly bringing "Friday the 13th" back to the television screen, but this time taking place around Camp Crystal Lake and a group of teenagers living in the area. [cite web|author=Peter H.|url=|title='Friday the 13th' Box-Set News and More!|publisher=Bloody-Disgusting|date=2003-09-20|accessdate=2007-10-23] On October 22, 2005, Cunningham spoke to "Slasherama" of a potential "Friday the 13th" television series. Cunningham stated that the show would be called "Crystal Lake Chronicles" and be "set in a town with all this Jason history". Jason would be a recurring character, "part of the background", but the series would focus more on "coming-of-age issues", in a similar style to "Buffy the Vampire Slayer", "Dawson's Creek", and "Smallville". [cite web|url=|title=The Godfather|publisher=Slasherama|date=2005-10-22|accessdate=2007-10-23]



Six of the eleven films have been novelized—"Friday the 13th 1 - 3", "Jason Lives", "Jason X" and "Freddy vs. Jason"—with "Friday the 13th Part 3" having been adapted twice, by two different authors. The first novel was the 1982 adaptation of "Friday the 13th Part 3" by Michael Avallone,cite book|author=Michael Avallone|url=|title=Friday the 13th Part 3|publisher=Star|year=1982|location=United Kingdom|isbn=0352312491] who had previously adapted "Beneath the Planet of the Apes" and "Shock Treatment".Gove, David, pp.89–90] Avallone chose to use an alternate ending, one that was filmed for "Part 3" but never used, as the conclusion for his 1982 adaptation. In the alternate ending, Chris, who is in the canoe, hears Rick's voice and immediately rushes back to the house. When she opens the door, Jason is standing there with a machete and proceeds to decapitate her.Bracke, Peter, pg.92]

The next book was not until 1986, with the novelization of "Jason Lives" by Simon Hawke,cite book|author=Simon Hawke|url=|title=Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives|publisher=Signet|year=1986|location=New York|isbn=0451146417] who went on to adapt the first three films into novels. Hawke novelized the original film in 1987,cite book|author=Simon Hawke|url=|title=Friday the 13th|publisher=Signet|year=1987|location=New York|isbn=0451150899] and "Part 2 & 3" in 1988.cite book|author=Simon Hawke|url=|title=Friday the 13th Part 2|publisher=Signet|year=1988|location=New York|isbn=0451153375] cite book|author=Simon Hawke|url=|title=Friday the 13th Part 3|publisher=Signet|year=1988|location=New York|isbn=0451153111] "Jason Lives" specifically introduced Elias Voorhees, Jason's father, who was slated to appear in the film but was cut by the studio. In the story, instead of being cremated, Elias has Jason buried after his death.Grove, David, pg.147] In 1994, four young adult novels were released under the title of "Friday the 13th". These stories focused on different people finding Jason's mask and becoming possessed by his spirit, but the actual character did not appear in the novels. [cite book|last=Morse|first=Eric|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Mother's Day|publisher=Berkley Books|year=1994|isbn=0425142922] [cite book|last=Morse|first=Eric|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Jason's Curse|publisher=Berkley Books|year=1994|isbn=0425143392] [cite book|last=Morse|first=Eric|url=|title=Friday the 13th: The Carnival|publisher= Berkley Books|year=1994|isbn=042515825X] [cite book|last=Morse|first=Eric|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Road Trip|publisher=Berkley Books|year=1994|isbn=042514383X]

In 2003 and 2005, Black Flame published novelizations of "Freddy vs. Jason" and "Jason X" respectively.cite book|last=Hand|first=Stephen|url=|title=Freddy vs. Jason|publisher=Black Flame|date=July 29, 2003|isbn=1844160599] cite book|last=Cadigan|first=Pat|url=|title=Jason X|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-01-25|isbn=1844161684] After the novelization of "Jason X", they began publishing a new series of novels; one set was published under the "Jason X" title, while the second set used the "Friday the 13th" title. The "Jason X" series consisted of four sequels to the adaptation of the film. "Jason X: The Experiment" was the first published. In this novel, Jason is being used by the government in an attempt to use his indestructibility to create an army of "super soldiers".cite book|last=Cadigan|first=Pat|url=|title=Jason X: The Experiment|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-01-25|isbn=1844161692] "Planet of the Beast" follows the efforts of Dr. Bardox and his crew as they try to clone a comatose Jason, and their efforts to stay alive when he awakens.cite book|last=Kilpatrick|first=Nancy|url=|title=Jason X: Planet of the Beast|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-06-07|isbn=1844161838] "Death Moon" revolves around Jason crash-landing at Moon Camp Americana.cite book|last=Johnson|first=Alex|url=|title=Jason X: Death Moon|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-11-29|isbn=1844162737] A clone of Jason is discovered below a prison site and unknowingly awakened in "To The Third Power".cite book|last=Kilpatrick|first=Nancy|url=|title=Jason X: To The Third Power|publisher=Black Flame|date=2006-04-25|isbn=1844162818]

The "Friday the 13th" novel storyline was not connected to the "Jason X" series and did not continue the stories set forth by the films, but furthered the character of Jason in its own way. "Friday the 13th: Church of the Divine Psychopath" has Jason resurrected by a religious cult.cite book|last=Phillips|first=Scott|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Church of the Divine Psychopath|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-08-05|isbn =1844161811] Jason is stuck in Hell, where recently executed serial killer Wayne Sanchez persuades Jason to help him return to the real world with an army of the damned in "Friday the 13th: Hell Lake".cite book|last=Woods|first=Paul|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Hell Lake|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-08-09|isbn=184416182X] In "Hate-Kill-Repeat", two religious serial killers attempt to find Jason at Crystal Lake, believing that the three of them share the same contempt for those that break the moral code.cite book|last=Arnopp|first=Jason|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Hate Kill Repeat|publisher=Black Flame|date=2005-10-25|isbn=1844162710] "The Jason Strain" has Jason on an island with a group of death row convicts, placed there by television executives running a reality game show. A scientist attempts to create an age-retarding "super drug" from Jason's DNA, but accidentally creates a virus that can reanimate the dead as zombie-like creatures instead.cite book|author=Christa Faust|url=|title=Friday the 13th: The Jason Strain|publisher=Black Flame|date=2006-01-31|isbn=1844163202] The character of Pamela Voorhees returns from the grave in "Carnival of Maniacs". Pamela is in search of Jason, who is now part of a traveling sideshow and about to be auctioned off to the highest bidder.cite book|last=Hand|first=Stephen|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Carnival of Maniacs|publisher=Black Flame|date=2006-06-06|isbn=1844163806]

Comic books

Since New Line Cinema's acquisition of the franchise, several "Friday the 13th" comic books have been published by Topps Comics, Avatar Press, and DC Comics imprint Wildstorm. The first comic book release for the franchise was the 1993 Topps Comics adaptation of "Jason Goes to Hell", written by Andy Mangels. The three-issue series was a condensed version of the film, with a few added scenes that were not in the film.Comic book reference|writer=Andy Mangels|artist=Cynthia Martin (Issue # 1 & 2) and Bobby Rubio (Issue #3)|title=Jason Goes to Hell (comic)|publisher=Topps Comics|date=1993|issue=1-3] Topps Comics published another series in 1995, with Nancy A. Collins writing a 3 issue, non-canonical miniseries involving a crossover between Jason and "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre's" Leatherface. The story has Jason stowing away aboard a train, after being released from Crystal Lake when the lake is drained due to heavy pollution. Jason meets Leatherface, who adopts him into his family after the two become friends. Eventually, they turn on each other after a series of misunderstandings. [cite web|url=|publisher=Digital-Retribution|title=Jason vs. Leatherface (review)|accessdate=2007-07-12]

On May 13, 2005, New Line exercised their rights to use the "Friday the 13th" monicker for the first time when they, along with Avatar comics, released a special issue of "Friday the 13th", written by Brian Pulido and illustrated by Mike Wolfer and Greg Waller. The story takes place after the events of "Freddy vs. Jason", where siblings Miles and Laura Upland inherit Camp Crystal Lake. Knowing that Jason caused the recent destruction, Laura, unknown to her brother, sets out to kill Jason with a paramilitary group, so that she and her brother can sell the property. [cite web|url=|title=Avatar's "Friday the 13th"|publisher=Avatar Press|accessdate=2007-10-21] The issue went on to pre-sell more than 17,500 copies. [cite web|url=|title=May 2005 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] Avatar released a three-issue mini series titled "Friday the 13th: Bloodbath" in September 2005. The series was written by Brian Pulido and illustrated by Mike Wolfer and Andrew Dalhouse. The story revolves around a group of teenagers who come to Camp Tomorrow, a camp that sits on Crystal Lake, for work and a "party-filled weekend". The teenagers begin to discover they share common family backgrounds and soon awaken Jason who proceeds to hunt them. [cite web|url=|title=Avatar's "Friday the 13th: Bloodbath"||accessdate=2007-10-21] Brian Pulido returned for a third time in October 2005 to write another special issue for Avatar, entitled "Jason X". Picking up after the events of the "Jason X" film, Über-Jason is now on Earth 2 where a biological-engineer, Kristen, attempts to subdue him, in hopes that she can use his regenerative tissue to save her own life and the life of those she loves. [cite web|url=|title=Avatar's "Jason X"||accessdate=2007-10-21] In February 2006, Avatar published their final "Friday the 13th" comic, a two-issue mini series titled "Friday the 13th: Jason vs. Jason X". The series was written and illustrated by Mike Wolfer. The story takes place after the events of the film "Jason X", where a salvage team discovers the spaceship Grendel and awakens a regenerated Jason Voorhees. The "original" Jason and Über-Jason are drawn to each other resulting in a battle to the death. [cite web|url=|title=Avatar's "Friday the 13th: Jason vs. Jason X"||accessdate=2007-10-21] In June 2006, a one-shot comic entitled "Friday the 13th: Fearbook" was released, written by Mike Wolfer with art by Sebastian Fiumara. The comic has Jason captured and experimented upon by the Trent Organization; Jason escapes and seeks out Violet, the survivor of "Friday the 13th: Bloodbath", whom the Trent Organization is holding in their Crystal Lake headquarters. [cite web|url=|title=June 2006 Solicited Releases||accessdate=2008-01-25]

In December 2006, Wildstorm began publishing comic books about Jason Voorhees under the "Friday the 13th" moniker. The first set was a six-issue miniseries. The miniseries involves Jason's return to Crystal Lake, a lone survivor's tale of the murder of her friends by a monster, a new revelation about the evil surrounding Crystal Lake, and the truth of what Jason really embodies. [cite web|url=|title=Wildstorm comics||accessdate=2007-07-18] [cite web|url=|title=Wildstorm comics #6|publisher=G-Mart|accessdate=2007-07-18] The mini series pre-sold approximately 60,318 copies altogether, with issues pre-selling 15,800, [cite web|url=|title=December 2006 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] 9,600, [cite web|url=|title=January 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] 8,964, [cite web|url=|title=February 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] 8,637, [cite web|url=|title=March 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] 8,715, [cite web|url=|title=April 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] and 8,602 respectively. [cite web|url=|title=May 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] On July 11 and August 15, 2007, Wildstorm published a two part special entitled "Friday the 13th: Pamela's Tale". The two issue comic book covers Pamela Voorhees' journey to Camp Crystal Lake and the story of her pregnancy with Jason as she recounts it to hitchhiker Annie, a camp counselor who is killed in the original film. [cite web|url=|title=Wildstorm: Pamela's tale|publisher=DC Comics|accessdate=2007-07-18] "Pamela's Tale" pre-sold an estimated 16,051 copies. [cite web|url=|title=July 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] [cite web|url=|title=August 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28]

Wildstorm released another two-part special, entitled "Friday the 13th: How I Spent My Summer Vacation", consisting of two issues that were released on September 12 and October 10, 2007. The comic book provides new insight into the psychology of Jason Voorhees, as he befriends a boy born with a skull deformity. [cite web|url=|title=Wildstorm: How I Spent My Summer Vacation|publisher=DC Comics|accessdate=2007-07-18] The first issue of "How I Spent My Summer Vacation" pre-sold approximately 7,837 copies. [cite web|url=|title=September 2007 comic sales chart|publisher=CBG Xtra|accessdate=2007-10-28] Wildstorm has planned a six issue series called "Freddy vs. Jason vs. Ash", starring the two killers and Ash from the "Evil Dead" series. The story focuses on Freddy using the Necronomicon, which is in the Voorhees' basement, to escape from Jason's subconscious and "gain powers unlike anything he’s had before". Freddy attempts to use Jason to retrieve the book, but Ash, who is working at the local S-Mart in Crystal Lake, learns of the book's existence and sets out to destroy it once and for all. [cite web|url=|title=Freddy vs Jason vs Ash|publisher=Fangoria|accessdate=2007-10-01] The story, by Jeff Katz, was planned as the intended sequel to the "Freddy vs. Jason" film before it was ever released, but after a few meetings the negotiations ended and the story was shelved. After the success of "Freddy vs. Jason" the idea of including Ash was brought up again, but New Line ultimately decided they would put the story in comic book form, written by James Kuhoric, with art by Jason Craig.cite web|url=|title=FREDDY vs. JASON vs. ASH #1: Interview with Jeff Katz|publisher=Newsarama|date=2007-11-07|accessdate=2007-11-08] Wildstorm released another two-issue miniseries on January 9 and February 13, 2008, titled "Friday the 13th: Bad Land", written and illustrated by Ron Marz and Mike Huddleston respectively. The series explores the history of Crystal Lake before Pamela and Jason Voorhees arrived. [cite web|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Bad Land #1|publisher=Wildstorm|accessdate=2007-10-23] [cite web|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Bad Land #2|publisher=Wildstorm|accessdate=2007-12-20] The story takes place in two time frames, the "present day" and 250 years before "present day". It follows three hikers in the present, and three fur trappers in the past, each of whom is snowed in by a blizzard at Crystal Lake. Each group experiences similar events, suggesting that what is happening to the hikers in the present day is what happened to the fur trappers in the past. [cite web|url=|title=Ron Marz on Friday the 13th: Bad Land|publisher=Newsarama|date=2008-01-09|accessdate=2008-01-09] A one-shot comic, entitled "Friday the 13th: Abuser and the Abused", written by Joshua Hale Fialkov with artwork by Andy B., was released on April 30, 2008. The story involves a teenager named Maggie tricking her abusive boyfriend into travelling Crystal Lake, where she plans to murder him, only to encounter Jason shortly after arriving at the camp. [cite web|url=|title=Friday the 13th: Abuser and the Abused||accessdate=2008-01-25]


Released in February 2005, "Making Friday the 13th: The Legend of Camp Blood" is a comprehensive book detailing the creation of the "Friday the 13th" films. It was written by David Grove, a film journalist who has written for "Fangoria", "Cinefantastique", and various other British magazines. Grove interviewed the "key personnel involved in making the films" to collect "detailed production histories of each of the eleven films". [cite web|url=|title=The definitive history of the world's most popular horror film franchise!|publisher=FAB Press|accessdate=2007-10-22] Eight months after the release of David Grove's book, published by FAB Press, Titan Books, in association with Sparkplug Press, released a detailed history on the "Friday the 13th" series of their own. "Crystal Lake Memories: The Complete History of Friday the 13th" by Peter M. Bracke, was released on October 24, 2005. The book chronicles the creation of the series up to the release of "Freddy vs. Jason". Author Peter Bracke spent three years researching the series and collecting over 200 interviews from the cast and crew of each of the films. Bracke's extensive work for the book prompted Sean S. Cunningham to provide a foreword. The book includes images that had not been previously released to the public, as well as storyboard and concept art, and publicity material. A private party was held on October 22, 2005 at Universal Studios CityWalk Hollywood for the book's release.cite web|url=|title=Cinematic Icon Jason Voorhees Slashes His Way into Bookstores With Crystal Lake Memories: The Complete History of Friday the 13th|publisher=PR Web|date=2005-10-14|accessdate=2007-10-22]


"Friday the 13th" has stretched beyond film, television and literature into other collectables. There have been over one hundred licensed products, which have grossed more than $125 million in revenue. There have been three video games released since the series' inception; all of the games have been released under the title "Friday the 13th". The first was in May 1986, when Domark, who had previously released a video game version of "A View to a Kill", released a game for the Amstrad CPC, Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum. The plot revolved around the user picking a "sanctuary" on a map and then trying to persuade other teenagers to go hide there; Jason appears as a normal character in the game until he decides to attack. [cite web|url=|title="Friday the 13th" - 1986 game|publisher=Your Sinclair Rock 'n' Roll Years|accessdate=2007-10-24] In January 1989, LJN, an American game company known for its games based on popular movies in the 80s and early 90s, released "Friday the 13th" on the Nintendo Entertainment System, developed by Pack-In-Video (the same Japanese company that produced the NES game "Rambo"). The game is not based on any particular film from the series, but a set of themes and elements from all the films that had come before it. The premise involved the gamer, who picks one of six camp counselors as their player, trying to save the campers from Jason, while battling various enemies—wolves, bats, and Pamela Voorhees's head—throughout the game. [cite web|url=;img;0|title=Friday the 13th (NES game)|publisher=GameSpot|accessdate=2007-07-14] On October 13, 2006, another "Friday the 13th" game was released for mobile phones. The game puts the user in the persona of Jason as he battles the undead. [cite web|url=|title=Friday the 13th (mobile phone game)|publisher=GameSpot|accessdate=2007-07-14]

Over the years, the characters of "Friday the 13th" have been marketed under various toylines. In 1988, Screamin' toys produced a model kit where you could build your own Jason statuette. The kit required the owner to cut and paint various parts in order to assemble the figure. [cite web|url=|title=Jason model kit|publisher=Friday the 13th films|accessdate=2007-07-16] Six years later, Screamin' toys issued a new model kit for "Jason Goes to Hell". Both kits are now out of production. [cite web|url=|title=Jason Goes to Hell model kit|publisher=Friday the 13th films|accessdate=2007-07-16] McFarlane Toys has released various figures from the series. In 1998, as part of McFarlane's Movie Maniacs 1 collection, a figure of Jason from "Jason Goes to Hell" was released. [cite web|url=|title=McFarlane Toys: Jason Goes to Hell||accessdate=2007-10-24] Jason, Freddy, and Leatherface were the three most popular figures sold from Movie Maniacs 1. [cite web|url=|title=Movie Maniacs III Monster Roster Growing|date=1999-12-15|accessdate=2007-10-24
] The following year, a six-inch (152 mm) scale model of Jason and Freddy in a glass display case was released. [cite web|url=|title=McFarlane Toys: Jason and Freddy in glass case||accessdate=2007-10-24] In 2002, as part of Movie Maniacs 5, McFarlane released a model of Über-Jason from "Jason X". [cite web|url=|title=McFarlane Toys: Jason X||accessdate=2007-10-24] Another "Friday the 13th" figure did not arrive from McFarlane until November 2006, when a 3-dimensional movie poster was released. [cite web|url=|title=3D MOVIE POSTER: FRIDAY THE 13TH||accessdate=2007-10-24] Since McFarlane's last line in 2002, there has been a steady production of action figures, dolls, and statuettes. Some of the more recent merchandise has tied in with the latest film, "Freddy vs. Jason". [cite web|url=|title=Jason Voorhees Toys|publisher=Friday the 13th films|accessdate=2007-07-16]

Apart from video games and toylines, the series has also seen the release of several soundtracks comprised of the music score created by Harry Manfredini and Fred Mollin. In 1982, Gramavision Records released a LP album of selected pieces of music from the first three films. [Bracke, Peter, pg. 94] In 1993, the musical score for "Jason Goes to Hell" was released, featuring seventeen tracks from the film. [cite web|url=|title="Jason Goes to Hell" soundtrack|publisher=Soundtrack Collector|accessdate=2008-04-27] Between May and August 2002, the "Jason X" soundtrack saw release in Germany, Japan, and the United States. All releases contained eighteen tracks from Harry Manfredini's composition. [cite web|url=|title="Jason X" soundtrack|publisher=Soundtrack Collector|accessdate=2008-04-27] The "Freddy vs. Jason" soundtrack was released in Germany and the United States in 2003, containing the twenty tracks composed by Graeme Revell. A second soundtrack was released for the film containing tracks from various musical artists who had lent their work to the film. [cite web|url=|title="Freddy vs. Jason" soundtracks|publisher=Soundtrack Collector|accessdate=2008-04-27] Two years later, a new soundtrack was released comprised of music from "Jason Takes Manhattan" and "The New Blood", all composed by Fred Mollin. Unlike the previous three soundtracks that had been released alongside the release of their respective films, this soundtrack was released seventeen years after "The New Blood" and "Jason Takes Manhattan" were in theaters. [cite web|url=|title=Soundtrack release for "Friday the 13th VII" and "VIII"|publisher=Soundtrack Collector|accessdate=2008-04-27] The television series produced by Mancuso Jr. released its own soundtrack in 1992, consisting of songs composed and performed by Fred Mollin. [cite web|url=|title="Friday the 13th: The Series"|publisher=Soundtrack Collector|accessdate=2008-04-27]


In December 2006, IGN began counting down the top 25 movie franchises and "Friday the 13th" came in at # 7. Qualifications included having at least three films released before December 2006; the franchises had to be either commercial or artistic success, as well as having an impact on popular culture. Three senior editors, the Editor-In-Chief, and IGN's Entertainment Editorial Manager commented on "Friday the 13th's" seventh place ranking. The general consensus among the reviewers was that even though the "Halloween" franchise started the slasher genre, "Friday the 13th" became one of "the most influential franchises of the 1980s" and that its commercial success through eleven films, novelizations, comic books, and other collectables is proof of its legacy.cite web|url=|title=IGN:Top 25 Movie Franchises of All Time: #7|publisher=IGN|date=2006-12-18|accessdate=2008-01-26]


External links

* [ "Friday the 13th" film series] at Allmovie
* [ "Friday the 13th" film series] at Box Office Mojo

;Video games
* [ "Friday the 13th" at Lemon64]
* [ "Friday the 13th" NES Video Game Museum Review]
* [ "Friday the 13th" NES in-depth review]

* [ "Friday the 13th" Timeline -]
* [ "Friday the 13th" wiki (beta)]
* [ Interview with Justin Gray and Jimmy Palmiotti] - Writers of Windstorm's six-issue "Friday the 13th" comic

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