- USS New Mexico (BB-40)
USS "New Mexico" (BB-40) was a
United States Navy battleship, the lead shipof her class. She was the first Navy ship named in honor of the state of New Mexico.
Prior to World War II
1915 – 1918: Construction
"New Mexico" was laid down 14 October 1915 by the
New York Navy Yard; launched 13 April 1917; sponsored by Miss Margaret Cabeza De Baca, daughter of the late Governor of New Mexico; and commissioned 20 May 1918, Capt. Ashley H. Robertsonin command.
1919 – 1939
After initial training, "New Mexico" departed New York 15 January 1919 for Brest,
France, to escort home transport "George Washington" carrying President Woodrow Wilsonfrom the Versailles Peace Conference, returning to Hampton Roads27 February. There on 16 July she became flagshipof the newly-organized Pacific Fleet, and three days later sailed for the Panama Canaland San Pedro, California, arriving 9 August. Two of the original fourteen 5"/51 caliber guns (127 mm) were removed in 1922. The next 12 years were marked by frequent combined maneuvers with the U.S. Atlantic Fleetboth in the Pacificand Caribbeanwhich included visits to South American ports and a 1925 cruise to Australiaand New Zealand.
Modernized and overhauled at
Philadelphiabetween March 1931 and January 1933, including an anti-aircraftbattery of eight 5"/25 caliber guns (127 mm), "New Mexico" returned to the Pacific in October 1934 to resume training exercises and tactical development operations.
World War II
1940 – 1943
As war threatened, her base was
Pearl Harborfrom 6 December 1940 until 20 May 1941, Then she sailed to join the Atlantic fleet at Norfolk 16 June for duty on neutrality patrol.
On 10 December, while headed to
Hampton Roads(en route to the west coast after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor), "New Mexico" rammed and sank U.S. freighter "Oregon" south of the Nantucket Lightship.cite book | url = http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-Chron/| title = The official chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II | chapter = Chapter III: 1941 | chapterurl = http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-Chron/USN-Chron-1941.html | first = Robert | last = Cressman | location = Annapolis, Maryland | publisher = Naval Institute Press | year = 2000 | isbn = 9781557501493 | oclc = 41977179 | accessdate = 2007-12-14 ]
The original secondary battery of
5"/51 caliber guns was removed beginning in May, 1942 to make room for additional anti-aircraft machine guns. On 1 August 1942, she steamed from San Francisco to Hawaiito prepare for action. Between 6 December and 22 March 1943, she sailed escort for troop transports to the Fijis, then patrolled the southwest Pacific, returning to Pearl Harbor to prepare for the campaign against the Japanese in the Aleutians. On 17 May she arrived Adak, her base while serving on the blockade of Attu, and on 21 July she joined in the massive bombardment of Kiskathat forced its evacuation a week later.
After refitting at
Puget Sound Navy Yard, "New Mexico" returned to Pearl Harbor 25 October to rehearse the assault on the Gilbert Islands. During the invasion, begun 20 November, she pounded Makin atoll, guarded transports during their night withdrawals from the islands, and provided antiaircraft cover during unloading operations, as well as screening aircraft carriers. She returned to Pearl Harbor 5 December.
Underway with the
Marshall Islandsassault force 12 January 1944, "New Mexico" bombarded Kwajaleinand Ebeye31 January and 1 February, then replenished at Majuro. She blasted Wotje20 February and Kavieng, New Ireland 20 March, then visited Sydneybefore arriving in the Solomonsin May to rehearse the Marianas operation.
"New Mexico" bombarded
Tinian14 June, Saipan15 June, and Guam16 June, and twice helped drive off enemy air attacks 18 June. She protected transports off the Marianaswhile the carrier task force spelled the doom of Japanese naval aviation in its great victory, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, 20 June. "New Mexico" escorted transports to Eniwetok, then sailed 9 July guarding escort carriers until 12 July, when her guns opened on Guam in preparation for the landings 21 July. Until 30 July she blasted enemy positions and installations on the island.
Bremerton, WashingtonAugust to October, "New Mexico" arrived in Leyte Gulf22 November to cover the movement of reinforcement and supply convoys, firing in the almost daily air attacks over the Gulf, as the Japanese posed desperate resistance to the reconquest of the Philippines. She left Leyte Gulf 2 December for the Palaus, where she joined a force covering the Mindoro-bound assault convoy. Again she sent up antiaircraft fire as invasion troops stormed ashore 15 December, providing cover for two days until sailing for the Palaus.
Her next operation was the invasion of
Luzon, fought under a sky full of would-be suicide planes, against whom she was almost continually at general quarters. She fired pre-landing bombardment 6 January 1945, and that day took a suicide hit on her bridge which killed her commanding officer, Captain Robert W. Fleming, British Lieutenant General Herbert Lumsden(Winston Churchill's personal military representative to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur), and 29 others of her crew, with 87 injured. Commander-designate of the British Pacific Fleet, Vice Admiral Bruce Fraser, another passenger, narrowly escaped injury whilst on the "New Mexico's" bridge, whilst his secretary was killed. Her guns remained in action as she repaired damage, and she was still in action January as troops went ashore.
After repairs at Pearl Harbor, "New Mexico" arrived at
Ulithito stage for the invasion of Okinawa, sailing 21 March with a heavy fire support group. Her guns opened on Okinawa26 March, and were not silent until 17 April as she gave aid to troops engaged ashore. Again on 21 April and 29 April she opened fire, and on 11 May she destroyed eight suicide boats. While approaching her berth in Hagushianchorage just after sunset 12 May, "New Mexico" was attacked by two suicides; one plunged into her, the other managed to hit her with his bomb. She was set on fire, and 54 of her men were killed, with 119 wounded. Swift action extinguished the fires within half an hour, and on 28 May she departed for repairs at Leyte, followed by rehearsals for the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands. Word of the war's end reached her at Saipan15 August, and next day she sailed for Okinawa to join the occupation force. She entered Sagami Wan27 August to support the airborne occupation of Atsugi Airfield, then next day passed into Tokyo Bayto witness the surrender 2 September.
"New Mexico" was homeward bound 6 September, calling at Okinawa, Pearl Harbor, and the Panama Canal before arriving at
Post World War II
The USS "New Mexico" was decommissioned 19 July 1946, in
Boston. She was sold for scrapping 13 October 1947.
Awards and honors
"New Mexico" received six
battle stars for World War II service.
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-n/bb40.htm Photos of "New Mexico"] at the Naval Historical Center
* [http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/ships/battleships/nmexico/bb40-nmex.html USS "New Mexico" (BB-40)] at the U.S. Navy Office of Information
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/uss_new_mexico_bb40.htm "New Mexico" BB-40 Photo Gallery] at Maritimequest
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