- Greater Blue Mountains Area
Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Greater Blue Mountains Area
State Party = AUS
Type = Natural
Criteria = ix, x
ID = 917
Region = Asia-Pacific
Year = 2000
Session = 24th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/917
The Greater Blue Mountains Area is a
World Heritage Sitein the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. It was inscribed on the World Heritage List at the 24th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairns from 27 November to 2 December 2000.
It is an area of rugged tablelands, sheer cliffs, deep, inaccessible valleys and
rivers and lakes teeming with life. The unique plants and animals that live in this natural place relate an extraordinary story of Australia's antiquity, its diversity of life. This is the story of the evolution of Australia's unique eucalypt vegetation and its associated communities, plants and animals.
The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 10,300 square kilometres of mostly forested landscape on a
sandstoneplateau 60 to 180 kilometres inland from central Sydney. The area includes vast expanses of wilderness and is equivalent in area to almost one third of Belgium, or twice the size of Brunei.
The area called "Blue Mountains" is based on the fact that when atmospheric
temperaturerise, the fatof Eucalyptus globulusevaporates and disperse in the air, then visible bluespectrum of sunlightpropergates more than other colors. Therefore the reflected landscapefrom mountains seems bluish by human eyes. [ [http://www.nhk.or.jp/sekaiisan/card/cards428.html Greater Blue Mountains Area(世界遺産の旅、世界遺産ライブラリー)] , NHKlibrary, World Heritage Site jp icon Retrieved on July 16, 2008]
The property, which includes eight protected areas in two blocks separated by a transportation and urban development corridor, is made up of seven outstanding national parks as well as the famous
Jenolan CavesKarst Conservation Reserve. These are the Blue Mountains National Park, Wollemi National Park, Yengo National Park, Nattai National Park, Kanangra-Boyd National Park, Gardens of Stone National Parkand Thirlmere Lakes National Park.
The area does not contain mountains in the conventional sense but is described as a deeply incised sandstone plateau rising from less than 100 metres above sea level to 1 300 metres at the highest point. There are
basaltoutcrops on the higher ridges. This plateau is thought to have enabled the survival of a rich diversity of plant and animal life by providing a refuge from climatic changes during recent geological history. It is particularly noted for its wide and balanced representation of eucalypt habitats from wet and dry sclerophyll, mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps, wetlands, and grassland. Ninety-one species of eucalypts (thirteen percent of the global total) occur in the Greater Blue Mountains Area. Twelve of these are believed to occur only in the Sydney sandstone region.
The area has been described as a natural laboratory for studying the evolution of the eucalypts. The largest area of high diversity of eucalypts on the continent is located in south-east Australia. The Greater Blue Mountains Area includes much of this eucalypt diversity.
As well as supporting such a significant proportion of the world's eucalypt species, the area provides examples of the range of structural adaptations of the eucalypts to Australian environments. These vary from tall forests at the margins of rainforest in the deep valleys, through open forests and woodlands, to shrublands of stunted mallees on the exposed tablelands.
In addition to its outstanding eucalypts, the Greater Blue Mountains Area also contains ancient, relict species of global significance. The most famous of these is the recently-discovered Wollemi pine, a "living fossil" dating back to the age of the dinosaurs. Thought to have been extinct for millions of years, the few surviving trees of this ancient species are known only from three small populations located in remote, inaccessible gorges within the area. The Wollemi pine is one of the world's rarest species.
More than 400 different kinds of animals live within the rugged gorges and tablelands of the Greater Blue Mountains Area. These include threatened or rare species of conservation significance, such as the
Tiger Quoll, the koala, the Yellow-bellied Gliderand the Long-nosed Potorooas well as rare reptiles including the Green and Golden Bell Frogand the Blue Mountains water skink.
* [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/917 Greater Blue Mountains Area] at UNESCO World Heritage Centre
* [http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/blue_mountain.html The Greater Blue Mountains Area, New South Wales, Australia] at United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre
* [http://bmwhi.org.au/ Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute]
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