Tang Dynasty in Inner Asia

Tang Dynasty in Inner Asia

Inner Asia in the 7th and, to a lesser degree, 8th centuries AD was marked by the expansion of the Tang Dynasty's realm in the Tarim Basin, across the Gobi Desert and into Middle Asia. Wars were fought against the Gokturk Empires and Xueyantuo, but also against the states of the Tarim basin. This expansion was not steady; for example, the Tang did lose control of the Tarim basin temporarily to the Tibetans in the 680s, and their expansion north of the Gobi was thwarted in 682. Emperor Taizong's military success was, in part, a consequence of changes he initiated in the Chinese army, including improved weaponry. The emperor placed a new emphasis on cavalry, which was very important because his non-Chinese opponents used the horse effectively in warfare.[1]

Contents

History

History of China
History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BCE
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BCE
Zhou Dynasty 1045–256 BCE
 Western Zhou
 Eastern Zhou
   Spring and Autumn Period
   Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BCE–206 BCE
Han Dynasty 206 BCE–220 CE
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu and Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
  Eastern Jin
Southern and Northern Dynasties
420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–618
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  (Second Zhou 690–705)
5 Dynasties and
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia
  Southern Song Jin
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China

1949–present
Republic of
China (Taiwan)

1949–present
This box: view · talk · edit

Tang expansion

The Tang Dynasty was one of the Golden Ages of Chinese history. Coming out of the devastation of the late Sui, Tang emperors were eager to secure China's borders by defeating the Gokturks who were the primary military threat to North China. As a result, Tang forces mounted several campaigns against the Gokturks in order to neutralize them and secure China's borders in the process. Securing the Tarim Basin, which contained key trade routes, was also a secondary objective.

Tang Conquest of the Eastern Gokturks

The Eastern Gokturks were the primary threat to the Tang dynasty.[2].Following Liang Shidu's defeat and death, the Tang dynasty prepared to march against the Eastern Gokturks.[3] In 630, the Tang army marched against the Gokturks and defeated them in Southern Mongolia, sending them to flight.[4] However, the real victory came when Li Jin, regarded as one of China's best generals, surprised the Eastern Gokturk Khan with a fast force of 3,000 Cavalry at the battle of Ying shan, which also involved a rear guard of over 100,000 Tang troops.[5] This battle destroyed the Gokturk army, resulting in the capture of the Khan and over 120,000 Gokturks.[6] Thus ended the Eastern Gokturk Empire. Emperor Taizong of Tang took up the title of Tian Kehan, or "Heavenly Khan" of the Gokturks.[7]

Tang conquest of Xueyantuo

Xueyantuo had helped Tang armies defeat the Eastern Gokturks, but after the demise of the Eastern Gokturks, Xueyantuo-Tang relations turned hostile because Xueyantuo kept on making attacks on Gokturks who were now Tang subjects.[8]

In 642, Taizong sent an army to attack Xueyantuo and destroyed it.[9][10]

Tang Conquest of the Western Gokturks

The Western Gokturks were not an initial threat to the Tang, so initially relations were peaceful[11].However, Civil war and dispute in the Western Gokturks gave the Tang the opportunity to expand into Central Asia.[12].From 642 to 645, the Tang army defeated the Western Gokturks and drove them out of Dzungaria.[13].

In 657, the Tang defeated the last Western Gokturk Khan and took over all Western Gokturk territory.[14].

The second Göktürk Kaghanate

In what has been described as "a response to a surge of something like national sentiment"[15], the Eastern Türkish Kaghanate was restored in 682 by Elterish (a.k.a. Qutlugh) [16]. In the Orkhon inscriptions, Elterish's son describes the modest beginnings of Elterish's struggle against the Tang Dynasty thus:

My father the kaghan set out with seventeen men, and as the word spread that he had set out and was advancing, those who were in the towns went up into the mountains and those who were in the mountains came down, they gathered, and there were seventy-seven men. Because heaven gave them strength, the army of my father was like wolves and his enemies were like sheep. [...] When they were seven hundred, in accordance with the institutions of my ancestors my father organized those who had been deprived of their state, those who had been deprived of their kaghan, who had become slaves and servants, who had lost their Türk institutions"[17]

The new Kaghanate was centered on the upper Orkhon river and in the Ötükän, presumably the Khangai mountains. After decades of war and border raids with China, peace was made in 721-22.[18] The second Gokturk Khanate remained a tributary and vassal of the Tang Dynasty. It then survived until the 740s, when it fell due to internal conflicts and was succeeded by the Uighur Kaghanate[19]

Retrenchment of Tang influence post-763

In 755, the Tang Dynasty was subject to the devastating Anshi Rebellion and lost much influence in Inner Asia, which came to be dominated by the Ughyurs. Tang influence and rule over the Northwestern regions, however, continued until the dynasty's fall in 907, at which time these areas were taken over by the Tanguts, who later established Xi Xia[20].

Tang-Ughyur relations

Although they now controlled most of the Mongolian region, the Ughyur Khans still maintained relatively cordial relations with the Tang Dynasty, accepting many titles from the Tang emperors. in 788, the Ughyur Khan pleaded the Tang emperor to change the title of the Ughyurs from Huihe (回紇) to Huihu (回鶻)[21].

Fall of the Ughyur Khanate

By the mid-800's, the power of the Ughyur Khanate was on the wane. Attacked on all sides, the Ughyurs retreated to the Xinjiang area and their Khanate collapsed, to be replaced by other peoples[22]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Latourette, Kenneth Scott. (1965). The Chinese: Their History and Culture, p. 144.
  2. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 764-765.
  3. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 766.
  4. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 765.
  5. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 765.
  6. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 766.
  7. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 765.
  8. ^ Bo, Outlines of the History of the Chinese vol. 2, p. 512.
  9. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 766
  10. ^ Bo, Outlines of the History of the Chinese vol. 2, p. 512
  11. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 767.
  12. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 767.
  13. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 767.
  14. ^ Li, Zheng, 5000 years of Chinese history, p. 767.
  15. ^ Grousset, René. (1970). The Empire of the Steppes, p. 103.
  16. ^ Sinor, Denis. (1990). Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, p. 310.
  17. ^ Sinor, p. 311.
  18. ^ Grousset, p. 112.
  19. ^ Sinor, p. 313.
  20. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 768
  21. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 768
  22. ^ Li and Zheng, pg 768

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies. - Mongolia


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tang Dynasty — For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). Tang 唐 ← …   Wikipedia

  • Inner Mongolia — Coordinates: 44°N 113°E / 44°N 113°E / 44; 113 …   Wikipedia

  • Society of the Song Dynasty — …   Wikipedia

  • Tibet during the Ming Dynasty — The exact nature of Sino Tibetan relations during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) of China is unclear. Some modern scholars living and working in the People s Republic of China assert that the Ming Dynasty had unquestioned sovereignty over Tibet,… …   Wikipedia

  • Song Dynasty — This article is about the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties. For the Southern Dynasty, see Liu Song Dynasty. Song 宋 ← …   Wikipedia

  • Yuan Dynasty — Great Yuan 大元 Dai Ön Ulus ← …   Wikipedia

  • Qing Dynasty — Not to be confused with the Qin Dynasty, the first dynasty of Imperial China. Qing redirects here. For other uses, see Qing (disambiguation). Great Qing 大清帝国, Dà Qīng Dìguó …   Wikipedia

  • Ming Dynasty — Great Ming 大明 ← 1368–1644 …   Wikipedia

  • Han Dynasty — 漢朝 ← 206 BCE–220 CE …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Ming Dynasty — The History of the Ming Dynasty (zh cp|c=明朝|p=Míng Cháo) covers a period including its rule as the dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol led Yuan Dynasty. At its height, the Ming Dynasty had a population of 160… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”