Cross tuning

Cross tuning

Cross tuning or cross-tuning is an alternative tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. The term refers to the practice of retuning the strings; it also refers to the various tunings commonly used, or in some contexts it may refer to the AEAE fiddle tuning. In folk music traditions cross-tunings are used to give the instrument a different sound by altering the pitch of string resonances and drones. It may be notated in the normal way, with notes written at the sounding pitch, or the written notes may represent the finger position as if played in regular tuning, while the sounded pitch is altered.

In American folk fiddle music

Cross tuning is commonly used on the fiddle in folk music of Appalachia, the southern United States and Scandinavia. The fiddle may be re-tuned in any number of ways in these musical idioms, but there are two common re-tunings. While the standard tuning for open strings of the violin is GDAE—with the G being the tuning of the lowest-pitched string and the E being the tuning for the highest-pitched string—fiddlers playing tunes in the key of D major sometimes employ a tuning of ADAE. In this tuning the open G string is raised to the A directly above it. Even more frequently used is a cross tuning of AEAE for music played in the key of A major.[1] Among fiddlers this is referred to as "cross-tuning." Both of these tunings facilitate a drone on an open string next to the string on which the melody is being played. Relatively well-known American folk tunes that are often played in cross-tuning include "Breaking Up Christmas," "Cluck Old Hen," "Hangman's Reel," "Horse and Buggy," and "Ways of the World."

GDAE is known in some North American Old-Timey fiddling circles as "that Eye-Talian (Italian) tuning," the implication being that it is only one of many possibilities. Other tunings include:

  • FCGD = Cajun Tuning (one whole step down from GDAE)
  • GDGB = Open G Tuning
  • GDGD = Sawmill Tuning or "Cross G"
  • GDAD = "Gee-Dad"
  • DDAD = Dead Man's Tuning, or Open D Tuning, or Bonaparte's Retreat Tuning, or "Dee-Dad"
  • ADAE = Old-Timey D Tuning
  • AEAE = Cross Tuning, "Cross A", "High Bass, High Counter" (or "High Bass, High Tenor"); similar to Sawmill Tuning
  • AEAC = Black Mountain Rag Tuning, Calico Tuning, Open A Tuning, or Drunken Hiccups Tuning
  • AEAD for Old Sledge, Silver Lake
  • EDAE for Glory in the Meeting House
  • EEAE for Get up in the Cool

See also


  1. ^ Reiner, David; Anick, Peter (1989). Old-Time Fiddling Across America. Mel Bay. p. 43. ISBN 0-7866-5381-7. "Some cross-tunings are named for the key they imply; others are named after tunes usually played in that tuning." 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cross-strung harp — The cross strung harp is a multi course harp that has two rows of strings which intersect without touching. While accidentals are played on the pedal harp via the pedals and on the lever harp with levers, the cross strung harp features two rows… …   Wikipedia

  • Cross-validation (statistics) — Cross validation, sometimes called rotation estimation,[1][2][3] is a technique for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. It is mainly used in settings where the goal is prediction, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Cross Racing Championship Extreme 2005 — Developer(s) Invictus Games Publisher(s) Invictus Games Series CRC Platform(s) …   Wikipedia

  • Tuning fork — A tuning fork is an acoustic resonator in the form of a two pronged fork with the tines formed from a U shaped bar of elastic metal (usually steel). It resonates at a specific constant pitch when set vibrating by striking it against a surface or… …   Wikipedia

  • Richter tuning — is a system of choosing the reeds for a diatonic wind instrument (such as a harmonica or accordion). It is named after Joseph Richter, a Bohemian instrument maker who adopted the tuning for his harmonicas the early 19th century and is credited… …   Wikipedia

  • Diminished tuning — is a system of choosing the reeds for a diatonic wind instrument (such as a harmonica or accordion) in which the blow notes repeat a sequence of C E♭ F♯ A and draw notes follow a repeating sequence of D F G♯ B (perhaps shifted to begin with E♭… …   Wikipedia

  • C tuning (guitar) — C tuning is a type of guitar tuning. The strings of the guitar are tuned two whole steps lower than standard tuning. The resulting notes can be described as either C F A# D# G C or more often C F Bb Eb G C.The tuning is commonly used by metal and …   Wikipedia

  • David Cross (musician) — This article refers to the musician, for other people named David Cross, see David Cross (disambiguation) David Cross (born April 23, 1949) is an electric violinist born in Turnchapel near Plymouth, England, best known for playing with… …   Wikipedia

  • Scordatura — A scordatura (literally Italian for mistuning ), also called cross tuning, is an alternative tuning used for the open strings of a string instrument. In the Western classical music tradition it is an extended technique to allow the playing of… …   Wikipedia

  • Violin — Infobox Instrument name=Violin names=Fiddle, de: Violine or Geige, fr: Violon, it: Violino classification=String instrument (bowed) range= related= *Violin family (viola, cello) *Viol family (includes double bass) musicians= *List of violinists… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”