- Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder
Not to be confused with Obsessive–compulsive disorder.
Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder Classification and external resources ICD-10 F60.5 ICD-9 301.4 MedlinePlus 000942 MeSH D003193 Personality
Cluster A (odd) Paranoid · Schizoid
Cluster B (dramatic) Antisocial · Borderline
Histrionic · Narcissistic
Cluster C (anxious) Avoidant · Dependent
Not specified Depressive
Sadistic · Self-defeating
v · personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency.
Signs and symptoms
The primary symptoms of OCPD can include preoccupation with remembering and paying attention to minute details and facts, following rules and regulations, compulsion to make lists and schedules, as well as rigidity/inflexibility of beliefs and/or exhibition of perfectionism that interferes with task-completion. Symptoms may cause extreme distress and interfere with a person's occupational and social functioning. According to the National Institute for Mental Health:
- OCPD has some of the same symptoms as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, people with OCD have unwanted thoughts, while people with OCPD believe that their thoughts are correct.
Most patients spend their early life avoiding symptoms and developing techniques to avoid dealing with these strenuous issues.
Some, but not all, patients with OCPD show an obsessive need for cleanliness. This OCPD trait is not to be confused with domestic efficiency; over-attention to related details may instead make these (and other) activities of daily living difficult to accomplish. Though obsessive behavior is in part a way to control anxiety, tension often remains. In the case of a hoarder, attention effectively to clean the home may be hindered by the amount of clutter that the hoarder resolves later to organize.
While there are superficial similarities between the list-making and obsessive aspects of Asperger's syndrome and OCPD, the former is different from OCPD especially regarding affective behaviors, including (but not limited to) empathy, social coping, and general social skills.
Perception of own and others' actions and beliefs tend to be polarised (i.e., "right" or "wrong", with little or no margin between the two) for people with this disorder. As might be expected, such rigidity places strain on interpersonal relationships, with frustration sometimes turning into anger and even violence. This is known as disinhibition. People with OCPD often tend to general pessimism and/or underlying form(s) of depression. This can at times become so serious that suicide is a risk. Indeed, one study suggests that personality disorders are a significant substrate to psychiatric morbidity. They may cause more problems in functioning than a major depressive episode.
Research into the familial tendency of OCPD may be illuminated by DNA studies. Two studies suggest that people with a particular form of the DRD3 gene are highly likely to develop OCPD and depression, particularly if they are male. Genetic concomitants, however, may lie dormant until triggered by events in the lives of those who are predisposed to OCPD. These events could include trauma faced during childhood, such as physical, emotional or sexual abuse, or other types of psychological trauma.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, (DSM IV-TR = 301.4), a widely used manual for diagnosing mental disorders, defines obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster C) as:
- A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. It is a requirement of DSM-IV that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.
Since DSM IV-TR was published in 2000, some studies have found fault with its OCPD coverage. A 2004 study challenged the usefulness of all but three of the criteria: perfectionism, rigidity and stubbornness, and miserliness. A study in 2007 found that OCPD is etiologically distinct from avoidant and dependent personality disorders, suggesting it is incorrectly categorized as a Cluster C disorder.
The World Health Organization's ICD-10 defines a conceptually similar disorder to obsessive–compulsive personality disorder called (F60.5) Anankastic personality disorder.
- It is characterized by at least three of the following:
- feelings of excessive doubt and caution;
- preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization or schedule;
- perfectionism that interferes with task completion;
- excessive conscientiousness, scrupulousness, and undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships;
- excessive pedantry and adherence to social conventions;
- rigidity and stubbornness;
- unreasonable insistence by the individual that others submit exactly to his or her way of doing things, or unreasonable reluctance to allow others to do things;
- intrusion of insistent and unwelcome thoughts or impulses.
- compulsive and obsessional personality (disorder)
- obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
- obsessive-compulsive disorder
It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.
Theodore Millon identified five subtypes of compulsive. Any individual compulsive may exhibit some or one of the following:
- conscientious compulsive—including dependent features
- puritanical compulsive—including paranoid features.
- bureaucratic compulsive—including narcissistic features
- parsimonious compulsive—including schizoid features. Resembles Fromm's hoarding orientation
- bedeviled compulsive—including negativistic (passive-aggressive) features
Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder is often confused with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the similar names, they are two distinct disorders, although some OCPD individuals also suffer from OCD, and the two are sometimes found in the same family, sometimes along with eating disorders. People experiencing OCPD do not generally feel the need to repeatedly perform ritualistic actions—a common symptom of OCD—and usually find pleasure in perfecting a task, whereas OCD patients are often more distressed after their actions.
Treatment for OCPD normally involves psychotherapy and self-help. However, in some cases, there can be an impediment to change in that the patient does not accept that they have OCPD, and/or believes (at least at some level) that their thoughts and/or behaviors are in some sense "correct" and therefore should not be changed. Medication in isolation is generally not indicated for this personality disorder, but fluoxetine has been prescribed with success. Anti-anxiety medication may reduce feelings of fear while SSRIs (anti-depressants) can ease frustration, reducing stubbornness and negative rumination.
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Behavior therapy: Discussing with a psychotherapist ways of changing compulsions into healthier, productive behaviors. An effective form of this therapy has been found to be cognitive analytic therapy.
- Psychotherapy: Discussion with a trained counselor or psychotherapist who understands the condition.
- Psychopharmacology: A psychiatrist may be able to prescribe medication to facilitate self-management and also enable more productive participation in other therapies.
Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder occurs in about 1 percent of the general population. It is seen in 3–10 percent of psychiatric outpatients. It is twice as common in males as females.
In 1908, Sigmund Freud named what is now known as obsessive–compulsive or anankastic personality disorder "anal retentive character". He identified the main strands of the personality type as a preoccupation with orderliness, parsimony (frugality), and obstinacy (rigidity and stubbornness). The concept fits his theory of psychosexual development.
Since the early 1990s, considerable new research continues to emerge into OCPD and its characteristics, including the tendency for it to run in families along with eating disorders and even to appear in childhood.
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- Penzel, Fred. (2000). Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: A Complete Guide to Getting Well and Staying Well. Oxford University Press, USA. MPN 0195140923
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- Salzman, Leon. (1995).Treatment of Obsessive and Compulsive Behaviors, Jason Aronson Publishers. ISBN 1-56821-422-7
- DSM IV-TR year 2000 criteria for OCPD
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder
v · d · eDSM personality disorders DSM-III-R only DSM-IV v · d · eICD-10 personality disorders Schizotypal SpecificAnankastic · Anxious (avoidant) · Dependent · Dissocial · Emotionally unstable · Histrionic · Paranoid · Schizoid ·Eccentric · Haltlose type · Immature · Narcissistic · Passive-aggressive · Psychoneurotic Unspecified Mixed and otherCategories:
- Personality disorders
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Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder
- Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder
Not to be confused with Obsessive–compulsive disorder.
Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder Classification and external resources ICD-10 F60.5 ICD-9 301.4 MedlinePlus 000942 MeSH D003193