China–Portugal relations

China–Portugal relations
People's Republic of China relations–Portugal relations
Map indicating locations of People's Republic of China and Portugal

China

Portugal

People's Republic of China–Portugal relations officially began in 2 February 1979.[1]

Contents

History

Ming dynasty

Sino-Portuguese relations developed from the first Portuguese explorer, Jorge Álvares arrived in southern Chinese city of Guangzhou in 1513.[2] Around this time Portugal established trading activities in southern China and gradually expanded into Macau and paid rent to the Ming Empire.[2]

The first official visit of Fernão Pires de Andrade to Guangzhou (1517-1518) was fairly successful, and the local Chinese authorities allowed the embassy led by Tomé Pires, brought by de Andrade's flotilla, to proceed to Beijing.[3]

However, Fernão's brother Simão de Andrade, whose fleet came to Guangzhou in 1519, managed to quickly spoil the Sino-Portuguese relations, due to his disregard for the host country's laws and customs. Under the pretext of a threat from pirates, and without a permission from the local authorities, he built a fort in Tamão Island, behaving there as if it were Portuguese territory. (Particularly offensive to the Chinese sensibilities was his building a gallows there, and executing one of his own sailors there for some offense).[4] He attacked a Chinese official who protested to the Portuguese captain's demands that his vessels should take precedence in trade with China before those from Asian countries.[4] The worst, however, were his kidnappings of Chinese children and taking them abroad to be enslaved; (untrue) rumors spread that they disappearing children were cannibalized.[4]

As a result, the Chinese posted an edict banning men with Caucasian features from entering Canton.[5] The Chinese responded by killing multiple Portuguese in Canton and drove the Portuguese back to sea.[6]

After the Sultan of Bintan detained several Portuguese, The Chinese then executed 23 members of Tomé Pires' ill-fated embassy, and threw the rest into prison where they resided in squalid, sometimes fatal conditions. Later on, the Chinese then massacred Portuguese who resided at Ningpo and Fujian trading posts in 1545 and 1549, due to extensive and damaging raids by the Portugese along the coast, which irritated the Chinese.[7]

After the Portuguese bribed their way into obtaining a trade mission in Ningbo and Quanzhou, they inflicted savage behaviour against the Chinese, and raided the Chinese ports. In retaliation, in 1545 the entire Portuguese community of Ningbo were exterminated by Chinese forces.[8][9][10][11][12] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[13][14] The resulting complaints made it to the province's governor who commanded the settlement destroyed and the inhabitants wiped out. In 1542 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1545, when a force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed.[15][16][17][18]

In 1564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631.[19]

Sino-Malay alliance against Portugal

The Malay Malacca Sultanate was a tributary state and ally to Ming Dynasty China. When Portugal conquered Malacca in 1511 and committed atrocities against the Malay Sultanate, the Chinese responded with violent force against Portugal.

The Chinese Imperial Government imprisoned and executed multiple Portuguese envoys after torturing them in Guangzhou. The Malaccans had informed the Chinese of the Portuguese seizure of Malacca, to which the Chinese responded with hostility toward the Portuguese. The Malaccans told the Chinese of the deception the Portuguese used, disguising plans for conquering territory as mere trading activities, and told of all the atrocities committed by the Portuguese. [20]

Due to the Malaccan Sultan lodging a complaint against the Portuguese invasion to the Chinese Emperor, the Portuguese were greeted with hostility from the Chinese when they arrived in China.[21][22][23][24][25] The Malaccan Sultan, based in Bintan after fleeing Malacca, sent a message to the Chinese, which combined with Portuguese banditry and violent activity in China, led the Chinese authorities to execute 23 Portuguese and torture the rest of them in jails. After the Portuguese set up posts for trading in China and committed piratical activities and raids in China, the Chinese responded with the complete extermination of the Portuguese in Ningbo and Quanzhou[26] Pires, a Portuguese trade envoy, was among those who died in the Chinese dungeons.[27][28][29]


Due to hostility from the Chinese regarding the trafficking in Chinese slaves, in 1595 a law was passed by Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese slaves.[30] On February 19, 1624, the King of Portugal forbade the enslavement of Chinese of either sex.[31][32]

Qing dynasty- Ningbo Massacre of Portuguese Pirates

During the Qing dynasty, in the 1800s, the Ningbo authorities contracted Cantonese pirates to exterminate and massacre Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonese shipping around Ningbo. The massacre was "successful", with 40 Portuguese dead and only 2 Chinese dead, being dubbed "THE NINGPO MASSACRE" by an English correspondent, who noted that the Portuguese pirates had behaved savagely towards the Chinese, and that the Portuguese authorities at Macau should have reigned in the pirates.

Portuguese pirates who raided Cantonesee shipping in the early 1800s were exterminated by Cantonese forces around Ningbo.[33]

The Ningbonese people supported the Cantonese massacre of the Portuguese pirates and the attack on the Portuguese consul. The Cantonese did not see the Portuguese as the same as other Europeans, not being afraid of them and fighting them man to man. The Ningbo authorities had made an agreement with a Cantonese pirate named A'Pak to exterminate the Portuguese pirates. The Portuguese did not even try to fight when the Cantonese pirates sacked their consulate, trying to flee and hide among the tombs, the Cantonese butchered around 40 Portuguese while sacking the consulate. Only two Chinese and one Englishman who sided with the Cantonese died.[34][35]

Modern era

As China underwent turbulent times in the 19th and 20th century, Portugal maintained its colony in Macau by stationing its troops, refusing to pay rent and opposing the ruling Qing Empire. With the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, formal diplomatic relations were not officially instated until 1979 and after the Carnation Revolution in Portugal which began the period of decolonization.[2] The Chinese government viewed Macau as Chinese territory under Portuguese administration.

Relations between Portugal and China began to improve as talks in relation to Macau's future were conducted and final agreement reach to return Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1999.[1][36] After Macau returned to China, Portugal's ties with China has largely been about cultural and economic exchanges.[37]

Bilateral relations

The trade between the two countries have increased since resolving the longstanding issue of Macau's future and the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping in the early 1980s. In 2002, trade between the two countries were valued at US$ 380 million in 2002.[1]

China's exports to Portugal are textile goods, garments, shoes, plastics, acoustic equipment, steel materials, ceramic goods, and lighting equipment.[1] China is Portugal's ninth biggest trading partner.[38][39]

Portugal's exports to China are electric condensers and accessory parts, primary plastics, paper, medicinal, textile goods and wine.[1][38][40]

Portugal has participated in Shanghai's Expo 2010 to further boost bilateral trade.[41]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e http://www.mfa.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/xos/gjlb/3351/t16989.htm
  2. ^ a b c http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-8304.html
  3. ^ Donald Ferguson, ed (1902). Title Letters from Portuguese captives in Canton, written in 1534 & 1536: with an introduction on Portuguese intercourse with China in the first half of the sixteenth century. Educ. Steam Press, Byculla. pp. 11–13. http://books.google.com/books?id=4njUAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA15.  According to Cortesão's later research, the letters were actually written in 1524.
  4. ^ a b c Ferguson 1902, pp. 14–15
  5. ^ Carlos Augusto Montalto Jesus (1902). Historic Macao. Kelly & Walsh, limited. p. 5. http://books.google.com/books?id=tMsNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA5&dq=Sim%C3%A3o+de+Andrade+kidnapping&hl=en&ei=XPgOTb7eH8H88AbQvOHsDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  6. ^ Richard Stephen Whiteway (1899). The rise of Portuguese power in India, 1497-1550. A. Constable. p. 339. http://books.google.com/books?id=jM4NAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA339&dq=Sim%C3%A3o+de+Andrade+kidnapping&hl=en&ei=XPgOTb7eH8H88AbQvOHsDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CD0Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  7. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0816608539. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=Sim%C3%A3o+de+Andrade+kidnapping&hl=en&ei=XPgOTb7eH8H88AbQvOHsDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  8. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0816608539. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=The+Portuguese,+who+considered+all+Eastern+peoples+legitimate+prey,+established+trading+settlements+at+Ningpo+and+in+Fukien,+but+both+were+wiped+out+by+massacres+in+1545+and+1549.&hl=en&ei=_C2fTurjFqrb0QHx9NytCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Portuguese%2C%20who%20considered%20all%20Eastern%20peoples%20legitimate%20prey%2C%20established%20trading%20settlements%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20in%20Fukien%2C%20but%20both%20were%20wiped%20out%20by%20massacres%20in%201545%20and%201549.&f=false. Retrieved 18 October 2011. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the" 
  9. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. http://books.google.com/books?ei=gzCfTsmcFYXI0AGv6PySCQ&ct=result&id=MkBwAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=Ningpo+massacre+1545. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  10. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=4TCfTpa8NKby0gHktryACQ&ct=result&id=ixAhAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=ningpo+massacre+1545. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  11. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co.. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=llo-AQAAIAAJ&q=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&dq=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&hl=en&ei=lzGfTrWnGsL40gGyh-2JCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a" (the University of California)
  12. ^ Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0080218067. http://books.google.com/books?ei=pjGfTvKME-H20gG_68DzCA&ct=result&id=X63tAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+1545+the+Portuguese+colony+in+Ningpo+was+completely+wiped+out+after+three+years+of+existence+and+later%2C+in+1+549%2C+the+same+fate+met+the+settlement+in+Ch%27+iianchou.+Somewhat+later%2C+the+Portuguese+did+succeed+finally+in+gaining&q=1545+wiped. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Af fonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch' uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1 549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch' iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining" (the University of Michigan)
  13. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=dCrVAAAAMAAJ&q=In+the+late+1540s,+there+were+more+than+3,000+people+there,+some+1,200+of+them+Portuguese.+From+this+base+the+latter+raided+neighbouring+coastal+cities,+pillaging+and+taking+people+into+slavery.+The+Chinese+authorities+responded+with+armed+expeditions+against+them+and,+finally,+the+Portuguese+had+to+abandon+the+factory+in+1540.&dq=In+the+late+1540s,+there+were+more+than+3,000+people+there,+some+1,200+of+them+Portuguese.+From+this+base+the+latter+raided+neighbouring+coastal+cities,+pillaging+and+taking+people+into+slavery.+The+Chinese+authorities+responded+with+armed+expeditions+against+them+and,+finally,+the+Portuguese+had+to+abandon+the+factory+in+1540.&hl=en&ei=NZO5TsSHJ-SJsgL_wZnYCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (Indiana University)
  14. ^ Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=sZdCAAAAYAAJ&q=1,200+portuguese+neighbouring+pillaging. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (the University of Virginia)
  15. ^ A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams. ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=VsEXAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=7pUlTrCjAqHe0QGy5JTLCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the University of California)
  16. ^ Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. 1909. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=_N1TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=npUlTtjfHojg0QGZlInQCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  17. ^ Charles Kendall Adams (1895). Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6. NEW YORK: A.J. Johnson Co.. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=jjFOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=WJUlToH1Mcjl0QHy8rj2Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from Princeton University)
  18. ^ Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=ntdTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=D5UlTvm8EeTd0QHW76X1Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  19. ^ The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. LONDON: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. http://books.google.com/books?id=AvRZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA262&dq=In+I564,+Portugal+commanded+the+trade+of+India,+Japan,+and+China,+though+their+pride+was+deeply+shocked+at+the+supreme+indifference+with+which+the+Chinese+treated+them.+Their+atrocities+at+Ningpo+and+Macao,+and+their+subsequent&hl=en&ei=mqG5Tv_DFcjNhAfYvqyaBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=In%20I564%2C%20Portugal%20commanded%20the%20trade%20of%20India%2C%20Japan%2C%20and%20China%2C%20though%20their%20pride%20was%20deeply%20shocked%20at%20the%20supreme%20indifference%20with%20which%20the%20Chinese%20treated%20them.%20Their%20atrocities%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20Macao%2C%20and%20their%20subsequent&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "In I564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macao. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection." (Princeton University)
  20. ^ Nigel Cameron (1976). Barbarians and mandarins: thirteen centuries of Western travelers in China. Volume 681 of A phoenix book (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 143. ISBN 0226092291. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZOc-AQAAIAAJ&q=envoy,+had+most+effectively+poured+out+his+tale+of+woe,+of+deprivation+at+the+hands+of+the+Portuguese+in+Malacca;+and+he+had+backed+up+the+tale+with+others+concerning+the+reprehensible+Portuguese+methods+in+the+Moluccas,+making+the+case+(quite+truthfully)&dq=envoy,+had+most+effectively+poured+out+his+tale+of+woe,+of+deprivation+at+the+hands+of+the+Portuguese+in+Malacca;+and+he+had+backed+up+the+tale+with+others+concerning+the+reprehensible+Portuguese+methods+in+the+Moluccas,+making+the+case+(quite+truthfully)&hl=en&ei=BHafTvGvLILo0QHDuNXeBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "envoy, had most effectively poured out his tale of woe, of deprivation at the hands of the Portuguese in Malacca; and he had backed up the tale with others concerning the reprehensible Portuguese methods in the Moluccas, making the case (quite truthfully) that European trading visits were no more than the prelude to annexation of territory. With the tiny sea power at this time available to the Chinese" )
  21. ^ Ahmad Ibrahim, Sharon Siddique, Yasmin Hussain, ed (1985). Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 11. ISBN 9971988089. http://books.google.com/books?id=BeDKqPTeHnUC&pg=PA11&dq=China+was+far+from+friendly;+this,+it+seems,+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca,+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511,+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor,+his+suzerain.+There+are+hints+that+Pires&hl=en&ei=WUifTuucEMfs0gHy07GaCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=China%20was%20far%20from%20friendly%3B%20this%2C%20it%20seems%2C%20had%20something%20to%20do%20with%20the%20complaint%20which%20the%20ruler%20of%20Malacca%2C%20conquered%20by%20the%20Portuguese%20in%201511%2C%20had%20lodged%20with%20the%20Chinese%20emperor%2C%20his%20suzerain.%20There%20are%20hints%20that%20Pires&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." )
  22. ^ Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1968). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Part 124. M. Nijhoff. p. 446. http://books.google.com/books?ei=WUifTuucEMfs0gHy07GaCQ&ct=result&id=Mz4iAQAAMAAJ&dq=China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.+There+are+hints+that+Pires&q=1511+lodged+chinese+emperor+suzerain. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (University of Minnesota)
  23. ^ Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde, Volume 124. 1968. p. 446. http://books.google.com/books?ei=WUifTuucEMfs0gHy07GaCQ&ct=result&id=KS8KAQAAIAAJ&dq=China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.+There+are+hints+that+Pires&q=1511+suzerain. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of California)
  24. ^ The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay archipelago. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute,. 2001. p. 136. ISBN 9839986627. http://books.google.com/books?ei=onqfTsyGMIHw0gHjx8jUBA&ct=result&id=4tHXAAAAMAAJ&dq=His+reception+in+China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Melaka%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.&q=1511+suzerain. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "His reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Melaka, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of Michigan)
  25. ^ Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië, Hague (1968). Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Volume 124. M. Nijhoff. p. 446. http://books.google.com/books?ei=-XqfTo7oH-rz0gHgpY34BA&ct=result&id=8FPjAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+reception+in+China+was+far+from+friendly%3B+this%2C+it+seems%2C+had+something+to+do+with+the+complaint+which+the+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+conquered+by+the+Portuguese+in+1511%2C+had+lodged+with+the+Chinese+emperor%2C+his+suzerain.&q=far+friendly. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The reception in China was far from friendly; this, it seems, had something to do with the complaint which the ruler of Malacca, conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, had lodged with the Chinese emperor, his suzerain." (the University of Michigan)
  26. ^ Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0816608539. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=The+inexusable+behavior+of+the+Portuguese,+combined+with+the+ill-chosen+language+of+the+letters+which+Pires+presented+to+the+celestial+emperor,+supplemented+by+a+warning+from+the+Malay+sultan+of+Bintan,+persuaded+the+Chinese+that+Pires+was+indeed+up+to+no+good&hl=en&ei=0nefTsPpB-n20gHF1NTWBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20inexusable%20behavior%20of%20the%20Portuguese%2C%20combined%20with%20the%20ill-chosen%20language%20of%20the%20letters%20which%20Pires%20presented%20to%20the%20celestial%20emperor%2C%20supplemented%20by%20a%20warning%20from%20the%20Malay%20sultan%20of%20Bintan%2C%20persuaded%20the%20Chinese%20that%20Pires%20was%20indeed%20up%20to%20no%20good&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The inexusable behavior of the Portuguese, combined with the ill-chosen language of the letters which Pires presented to the celestial emperor, supplemented by a warning from the Malay sultan of Bintan, persuaded the Chinese that Pires was indeed up to no good" )
  27. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. http://books.google.com/books?ei=wUifTpLqF8r50gHE45GFCQ&ct=result&id=MkBwAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Moslem+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+whom+they+had+dispossessed%2C+complained+of+them+to+the+Chinese+authorities.+A+Portuguese+envoy%2C+Pires%2C+who+reached+Peking+in+1520+was+treated+as+a+spy%2C+was+conveyed+by+imperial+order+to+Canton&q=moslem+pires+1520. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  28. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=EUmfTtD_MoXf0QG1qdjJCQ&ct=result&id=ixAhAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Moslem+ruler+of+Malacca%2C+whom+they+had+dispossessed%2C+complained+of+them+to+the+Chinese+authorities.+A+Portuguese+envoy%2C+Pires%2C+who+reached+Peking+in+1520+was+treated+as+a+spy%2C+was+conveyed+by+imperial+order+to+Canton&q=moslem+ruler+complained+pires. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Moslem ruler of Malacca, whom they had dispossessed, complained of them to the Chinese authorities. A Portuguese envoy, Pires, who reached Peking in 1520 was treated as a spy, was conveyed by imperial order to Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  29. ^ John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co.. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=llo-AQAAIAAJ&q=Fernao+Pires+de+Andrade+reached+Peking,+China,+in+1520,+but+unfortunately+for+that+Portuguese+envoy,+he+was+treated+as+a+spy+and+died+in+a+Cantonese+prison.&dq=Fernao+Pires+de+Andrade+reached+Peking,+China,+in+1520,+but+unfortunately+for+that+Portuguese+envoy,+he+was+treated+as+a+spy+and+died+in+a+Cantonese+prison.&hl=en&ei=bEmfTvfCD8f50gGC7Yi1BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Fernao Pires de Andrade reached Peking, China, in 1520, but unfortunately for that Portuguese envoy, he was treated as a spy and died in a Cantonese prison. establishing a" (the University of California)
  30. ^ Maria Suzette Fernandes Dias (2007). Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1847181112. http://books.google.com/books?id=XHm4AAAAIAAJ&q=The+Japanese+and+the+Chinese+showed+strong+reluctance+to+the+idea+of+their+people+being+taken+as+slaves+by+the+Portuguese.&dq=The+Japanese+and+the+Chinese+showed+strong+reluctance+to+the+idea+of+their+people+being+taken+as+slaves+by+the+Portuguese.&hl=en&ei=PdgOTdDACsP58AaIoLGXDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  31. ^ Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 114. ISBN 0826457495. http://books.google.com/books?id=SDvOJRO7qu8C&pg=PA115&dq=chinese+declared+that+they+cannot+and+should+not+be+made+captive&hl=en&ei=j7JdTPf4GYT58Abhw-S1DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1624%20royal%20decree&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  32. ^ Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 115. ISBN 0826457495. http://books.google.com/books?id=SDvOJRO7qu8C&pg=PA115&dq=chinese+declared+that+they+cannot+and+should+not+be+made+captive&hl=en&ei=j7JdTPf4GYT58Abhw-S1DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=chinese%20declared%20that%20they%20cannot%20and%20should%20not%20be%20made%20captive&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  33. ^ Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9888028545. http://books.google.com/books?id=LP9q1dzVRYQC&pg=PA67&dq=they+were+destroyed+in+Ningbo+by+a+fleet+of+Chinese+pirates+with+the+support+of+the+local+Chinese+government+and+other+Europeans.&hl=en&ei=hom5TqiXGsGysAL-ieTCCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=they%20were%20destroyed%20in%20Ningbo%20by%20a%20fleet%20of%20Chinese%20pirates%20with%20the%20support%20of%20the%20local%20Chinese%20government%20and%20other%20Europeans.&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "There was indeed a group of Portuguese who became pirates, called "Macau ruffians," or policemen who turned bad, along with "Manila-men" from the Philippines and escaped African slaves. Their fleet attacked “the Cantonese ships when they could get them at an advantage, and murdered their crews with circumstances of great atrocity.”55 They were destroyed in Ningbo by a fleet of Chinese pirates with the support of the local Chinese government and other Europeans." 
  34. ^ George Wingrove Cooke (1858). China: being "The Times" special correspondence from China in the years 1857-58 (reprint ed.). G. Routledge. p. 131. http://books.google.com/books?id=odJGAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA131&dq=The+Cantonese+do+not+look+upon+the+Portuguese+as+Europeans.+They+have+not+the+same+fear+of+them.+They+can+fight+them+man+to+man.+Macao+would+have+been+taken+by+the+Chinese+long+since,+had+they+not+dreaded+the+interference+of+the+other&hl=en&ei=Bo65Tsq4JK6CsAKCrrTKCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Cantonese%20do%20not%20look%20upon%20the%20Portuguese%20as%20Europeans.%20They%20have%20not%20the%20same%20fear%20of%20them.%20They%20can%20fight%20them%20man%20to%20man.%20Macao%20would%20have%20been%20taken%20by%20the%20Chinese%20long%20since%2C%20had%20they%20not%20dreaded%20the%20interference%20of%20the%20other&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. (the University of California)
  35. ^ George Wingrove Cooke (1861). China and lower Bengal: being "The Times" correspondence from China in the years 1857-58 (5 ed.). Routledge, Warne, & Routledge. p. 131. http://books.google.com/books?id=RCILAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA131&dq=The+Cantonese+do+not+look+upon+the+Portuguese+as+Europeans.+They+have+not+the+same+fear+of+them.+They+can+fight+them+man+to+man.+Macao+would+have+been+taken+by+the+Chinese+long+since,+had+they+not+dreaded+the+interference+of+the+other&hl=en&ei=Vo-5TqvSDOrosQLl5uHDCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Cantonese%20do%20not%20look%20upon%20the%20Portuguese%20as%20Europeans.%20They%20have%20not%20the%20same%20fear%20of%20them.%20They%20can%20fight%20them%20man%20to%20man.%20Macao%20would%20have%20been%20taken%20by%20the%20Chinese%20long%20since%2C%20had%20they%20not%20dreaded%20the%20interference%20of%20the%20other&f=false. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. (the New York Public Library)
  36. ^ Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macao
  37. ^ http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/2649/t180139.htm
  38. ^ a b http://www.fita.org/countries/portugal.html
  39. ^ http://www.fita.org/countries/economic_and_political_outline_41.html#classification_by_country
  40. ^ Portuguese Wine Makers Eye Growing Chinese Market
  41. ^ Sino-Portuguese ties to improve via Expo 2010, officials say

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