- Gene-environment interaction
Gene-environment interaction, also called genotype-environment interaction or GxE, is a term used to describe any phenotypic effects that are due to interactions between the environment and
genes. Naive nature versus nurturedebates assume that variation in a given trait is primarily due to either genetic variabilityor exposure to environmental experiences. The current scientific view is that neither genetics nor environment are solely responsible for producing individual variation, and that virtually all traits show gene-environment interaction.
Gene-environment interaction is exploited by plant and animal breeders to benefit agriculture. For example, plants can be bred to have tolerance for specific environments, such as high or low water availability. The way that trait expression varies across a range of environments for a given
genotypeis called its norm of reaction.
genetic epidemiologyit is frequently observed that diseases cluster in families, but family members may not inherit disease as such. Often, they inherit sensitivity to the effects of various environmental risk factors. Individuals may be differently affected by exposure to the same environment in medically significant ways. For example, sunlight exposure has a much stronger influence on skin cancerrisk in fair-skinned humans than in individuals with an inherited tendency to darker skin. [cite book | author= Green A | coauthor= Trichopoulos D | title= Skin cancer. In Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology (eds Adami, H., Hunter, D. & Trichopoulos, D.) pp. 281–300 | publisher= Oxford University Press | location= Oxford | year= 2002 ]
# A classic example of gene-environment interaction is Tryon's
artificial selectionexperiment on maze-running ability in rats. [ cite book | author= Tryon RC | year= 1942 | title= Individual differences. In F. A. Moss (Ed.), "Comparative psychology" | edition= Rev. Ed. | publisher= Prentice-Hall | location= NY ] [cite journal | author= Tryon RC | year= 1940 | title= Genetic differences in maze-learning ability in rats | journal= Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education | volume= 39 | pages= 111-119] Tryon produced a remarkable difference in maze running ability in two selected lines after seven generations of selecting "bright" and "dull" lines by breeding the best and worst maze running rats with others of similar abilities. The difference between these lines was clearly genetic since offspring of the two lines, raised under identical typical lab conditions, performed too differently. This difference disappeared in a single generation, if those rats were raised in an enriched environment with more objects to explore and more social interaction. [cite journal | author= Cooper RM & Zubek JP | year= 1958 | title= Effects of enriched and restricted early environments on the learning ability of bright and dull rats | journal= Canadian Journal of Psychology | volume= 12 | pages= 159–164] This result shows that maze running ability is the product of a gene-by-environment interaction, the genetic effect is only seen under some environmental conditions.
# Seven genetically distinct yarrow plants were collected and three cuttings taken from each plant. One cutting of each genotype was planted at low, medium, and high elevations, respectively. When the plants matured, no one genotype grew best at all altitudes, and at each altitude the seven genotypes fared differently. For example, one genotype grew the tallest at the medium elevation but attained only middling height at the other two elevations. The best growers at low and high elevation grew poorly at medium elevation. The medium altitude produced the worst overall results, but still yielded one tall and two medium-tall samples. Altitude had an effect on each genotype, but not to the same degree nor in the same way. [cite journal | author= Clausen J, Keck D, Hiesey WM | year= 1948 | title= Experimental studies on the nature of species. III. Environmental responses of climatic races of Achillea, Carnegie Inst Washington Publ 581 | pages= 1–129]
# Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a human genetic condition caused by mutations to a gene coding for a particular liver enzyme. In the absence of this enzyme, an
amino acidknown as phenylalanine does not get converted into the next amino acid in a biochemical pathway, and therefore too much phenylalanine passes into the blood and other tissues. This disturbs brain development leading to mental retardationand other problems. PKU affects approximately 1 out of every 15,000 infants in the U.S. However, most affected infants do not grow up impaired because of a standard screening program used in the U.S. and other industrialized societies. Newborns found to have high levels of phenylalanine in their blood can be put on a special, phenylalanine-free diet. If they are put on this diet right away and stay on it, these children avoid the severe effects of PKU. [ [http://www.aaas.org/spp/bgenes/Chapter3.pdf AAAS publication on Behavioral Genetics] ]
polymorphismin the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene promoter can moderate the association between early life trauma and increased risk for violence and antisocial behavior. Low MAOA activity is a significant risk factorfor aggressive and antisocial behavior in adults who report victimization as children. Persons who were abused as children but have a genotype conferring high levels of MAOA expression are less likely to develop symptoms of antisocial behavior. [ cite journal | author= Caspi A, et al. | title= Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children | journal= Science | volume= 297 | issue=5582 | year= 2002 | page= 851-854 | doi= 10.1126/science.1072290]
* Doctors are interested in knowing whether disease can be prevented by reducing exposure to environmental risks. Gene-environment interaction means that some people carry genetic factors that confer susceptibility or resistance to a certain disorder in a particular environment. It has been argued that there may be significant
public healthbenefits in using genetic information to stratify the allocation of environmental interventions that prevent disease, [cite journal | author= Khoury MJ, Davis R, Gwinn M, Lindegren ML & Yoon P | title= Do we need genomic research for the prevention of common diseases with environmental causes? | journal= Am J Epidemiol | year= 2005 | volume= 161 | pages= 799–805 ] although this viewpoint is not universally held. [cite journal | author= Willet W | title= Balancing lifestyle and genomic research for disease prevention | journal= Science | year= 2002 | volume= 269 | pages= 695–698]
Pharmacogeneticsis the study of genetic variationthat causes people to respond differently to drugs. The clinical importance of pharmacogenetics comes from the possibility that drug treatment can be made safer and more effective when the patient's genotype is known. Pharmacogenetic studies can be considered studies of gene-environment interaction, with drug treatment as the environmental variable.
Timing of environmental effects
The popular description of an animal being "born that way" does not necessarily discriminate genetic from environmental effects. In viviparous animals, such as
humans, environmental influences may act during either pre- or post-natal development; similarly environmental influences may act before and after hatching to affect development in oviparousanimals. Environmental influences in uteromay be as strong and lasting as genetic or post-natal environmental influence.
Evolutionary developmental psychology
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