- Stephen Hawking
box_width = 250x
name = Stephen Hawking
image_size = 200px
caption = NASA StarChild image of Stephen Hawking
birth_date = birth date and age|df=yes|1942|01|8
residence = England
nationality = English
fields = Applied mathematicianTheoretical physicist
University of Cambridge
University of Oxford University of Cambridge
doctoral_advisor = Dennis Sciama
doctoral_students = Bruce Allen
Fay DowkerMalcolm Perry Bernard Carr Gary Gibbons
Black holesTheoretical cosmology Quantum gravity
awards = nowrap|
Prince of Asturias Award(1989) Copley Medal(2006)
Stephen William Hawking CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. Hawking is the
Lucasian Professor of Mathematicsat the University of Cambridge, and a Fellowof Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmologyand quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes, and his popular works in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. These include the runaway popular science bestseller " A Brief History of Time", which stayed on the British "Sunday Times" bestseller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.cite book | author=Hawking, Stephen | title= A Brief History of Time| publisher= Bantam Books| date=1988 | isbn=0-553-38016-8]
His key scientific works to date have included providing, with
Roger Penrose, theorems regarding singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation, or sometimes as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation. [cite web|url=http://projecteuclid.org/Dienst/UI/1.0/Summarize/euclid.cmp/1103899181|title=Particle creation by black holes|publisher=Project Euclid|accessdate=2008-05-19] His scientific career spans over 40 years and his books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity and world-renowned theoretical physicist. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of ArtsCite web|url=http://www.rsa.org.uk/acrobat/honorary_fellows.pdf|title=Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts|publisher= Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce|accessdate=2007-03-25] , a member of the Mensa society and a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Science. [cite journal | last =Mason | first =Michael | authorlink =Michael Mason | title =Alliance, Many of the greatest minds of science meet regularly in Vatican City to counsel the pope on the hot topics of the day' | journal =Discover Magazine | volume = | issue =September 2008 | pages =43 | publisher =Discover Magazine | date = | url = | doi = | id = | accessdate =2008-08-19 ] Hawking is physically challengedby amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS). The illness has progressed over the years and he is now almost completely paralysed.
Stephen William Hawking was born to Dr. Frank Hawking, a
research biologist, and Isobel Hawking, a political activist. He had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary and an adopted brother, Edward. cite book | title = Current Biography, 1984 | publisher = H. W. Wilson Company| location = New York City | date = 1984] Though Hawking’s parents were living in North London, they moved to Oxfordwhile Isobel was pregnant with Stephen, desiring a safer location for the birth of their first child (London was under attack at the time by the Luftwaffe). [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Hawking.html|title=Stephen William Hawking|publisher= University of St Andrews] After Hawking was born, the family moved back to London, where his father headed the division of parasitologyat the National Institute for Medical Research.
In 1950, Hawking and his family moved to
St Albansin Hertfordshirewhere he attended St Albans High School for Girlsfrom 1950 to 1953. (At that time, boys could attend the Girls school until the age of 10. cite book | title = Stephen Hawking A Biography| publisher = Greenwood Press| date = 1995] ) From the age of 11, he attended St Albans School, where he was a good, but not an exceptional, student. cite book | title = Current Biography, 1984 | publisher = H. W. Wilson Company| location = New York City | date = 1984] When asked later to name a teacher who had inspired him, Hawking named his Mathematics teacher, "Mr Tahta". [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/obituaries/story/0,,1983173,00.html|title=Dick Tahta|work= The Guardian] He maintains his connection with the school, giving his name to one of the four houses and to an extracurricular science lecture series. He has visited to deliver one of the lectures and has also granted a lengthy interview to pupils working on the school magazine, "The Albanian".
Hawking was always interested in science. He enrolled at
University College, Oxfordwith the intent of studying mathematics, although his father preferred he go into medicine. It was here that he met his life-long friend Joshua Adamson. Since mathematics was not offered at University College, Hawking instead chose physics. His interests during this time were in thermodynamics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in the "New York Times Magazine":
It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it. ... He didn’t have very many books, and he didn’t take notes. Of course, his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries.
Hawking was passing with his fellow students, but his unimpressive study habits gave him a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary. Berman said of the oral examination:
And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves.
After receiving his
B.A.degree at Oxford University in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspots, which was all the observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theorythan in observation. He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.
Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(colloquially known as Lou Gehrig’s disease), a type of motor neuron diseasewhich would cost him almost all neuromuscular control. During his first two years at Cambridge, he did not distinguish himself, but, after the disease had stabilized and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis William Sciama, he returned to working on his Ph.D.He revealed that he did not see much point in obtaining a doctorateif he were to die soon. Hawking later said that the real turning point was his 1965 marriage to Jane Wilde, a language student. After gaining his Ph.D., Stephen became first a Research Fellow, and later on a Professorial Fellow at Gonville and Caius College.
Hawking was elected as one of the youngest Fellows of the
Royal Societyin 1974, was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empirein 1982, and became a Companion of Honour in 1989. Hawking is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
Jane Hawking (
néeWilde), Hawking’s first wife, with whom he had three children, cared for him until 1991 when the couple separated, reportedly due to the pressures of fame and his increasing disability. Hawking married his nurse, Elaine Mason (who was also the previous wife of David Mason, designer of the first version of Hawking’s talking computer), in 1995. In October 2006, Hawking filed for divorce from his second wife. [cite news | title = Hawking and second wife agree to divorce | work = Telegraph.co.uk| date = 2007-01-09| url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/10/20/nhawking20.xml | accessdate = 2007-03-18]
In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, "Music to Move the Stars", detailing her own long-term relationship with a family friend whom she later married. Hawking’s daughter
Lucy Hawkingis a novelist. Their son Robert Hawking emigrated to the United States, married, and has one child, George Edward Hawking. Reportedly, Hawking and his first family were reconciled in 2007. [cite news|url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article1751518.ece|title=Welcome back to the family, Stephen| work = The Times| date = 2007-05-06|accessdate = 2007-05-06]
At the celebration of his 65th birthday on 8 January 2007, Hawking announced his plans for a zero-gravity flight in 2007 to prepare for a
sub-orbital spaceflightin 2009 on Virgin Galactic’s space service. Billionaire Richard Bransonpledged to pay all expenses for the latter, costing an estimated £100,000. [cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/08/nhawking08.xml|title=Stephen Hawking plans to see space| work = Telegraph.co.uk| date = 2007-01-09|accessdate = 2007-03-18] Stephen Hawking’s zero-gravity flight in a " Vomit Comet" of Zero Gravity Corporation, during which he experienced weightlessness eight times, took place on 26 April 2007. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6594821.stm|title=Hawking takes zero-gravity flight| work = news.bbc.co.uk| date = 2007-04-26|accessdate = 2007-04-26]
He became the first quadriplegic to float free in a weightless state. This was the first time in 40 years that he moved freely beyond the confines of his wheelchair. The fee is normally US$3,750 for 10-15 plunges, but Hawking was not required to pay the fee. A bit of a
futurist, [cite news | title = Move To New Planet, says Hawking | publisher = BBC| date = 2006-11-06| url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6158855.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-21] Hawking was quoted before the flight saying::Many people have asked me why I am taking this flight. I am doing it for many reasons. First of all, I believe that life on Earth is at an ever increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus, or other dangers. I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space. [cite news|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070504171857/http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/space/04/26/hawking.flight.ap/index.html|title=Physicist Hawking experiences zero gravity| publisher = CNN| date = 2007-04-26|accessdate = 2007-05-04]
Hawking’s principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and
In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague,
Roger Penrose, applied a new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/03/16_hawking_text.shtml/|title= Origins of the universe: Stephen Hawking's J. Robert Oppenheimer Lecture |publisher= University of California, Berkeley] This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity theorems; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a singularity in space-time. This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity. [cite journal|last = Hawking|first = SW|title = The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology|publisher= Royal Society|journal=Mathematical and Physical Sciences|volume = 314|issue = 1519|date = 1970-01-27|pages = 529–548|doi = 10.1098/rspa.1970.0021]
He supplied a
mathematical proof, along with Brandon Carter, Werner Israeland D. Robinson, of John Wheeler’s “No-Hair Theorem” – namely, that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.
Hawking also suggested that, upon analysis of
gamma rayemissions, after the Big Bang, primordialor mini black holes were formed. With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics. In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles, known today as Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and evaporate. [cite journal|last = Hawking|first = SW|title = Black Hole Explosions|journal = Nature|volume = 248|issue = 1|pages = 30–31|date = 1974|url = http://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/hawking/|accessdate = 2007-03-23|doi = 10.1038/248030a0]
In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which the Universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical
Big Bangmodels with a region akin to the North pole: One cannot travel North of the North pole, as there is no boundary there. While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed Universe, discussions with Neil Turokled to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a Universe which is not closed.
Among Hawking’s many other scientific investigations, included are the study of:
quantum cosmology, cosmic inflation, heliumproduction in anisotropic Big Bang universes, large N cosmology, the density matrixof the universe, topologyand structure of the universe, baby universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix; anti de Sitter space, quantum entanglementand entropy; the nature of spaceand time, including the arrow of time; spacetime foam, string theory, supergravity, Euclideanquantum gravity, the gravitational Hamiltonian; Brans-Dickeand Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation; gravitational radiation, and wormholes.
George Washington Universitylecture in honour of NASA's 50th anniversary, Prof. Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life: "Primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare." [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://ukpress.google.com/article/ALeqM5hCeV4oH8O1BAn1Zw73cKAEAoirug|title=Primitive life 'likely elsewhere'|publisher= Press Association|date=2008-04-21]
= Losing an old bet = Hawking was in the news in July 2004 for presenting a new theory about
black holes which goes against his own long-held belief about their behavior, thus losing a bet he made with Kip Thorneand John Preskillof Caltech. Classically, it can be shown that information crossing the event horizonof a black hole is lost to our universe, and that thus all black holes are identical beyond their mass, electrical chargeand angular velocity(the “ no hair theorem”). The problem with this theorem is that it implies the black hole will emit the same radiationregardless of what goes into it, and as a consequence that if a pure quantum state is thrown into a black hole, an “ordinary” mixed state will be returned. This runs counter to the rules of quantum mechanics and is known as the black hole information paradox.
Hawking had earlier speculated that the singularity at the centre of a black hole could form a bridge to a “baby universe” into which the lost information could pass; such theories have been very popular in
science fiction. But according to Hawking’s new idea, presented at the 17th International Conference on General Relativityand Gravitation, on 21 July 2004 in Dublin, Republic of Ireland, black holes eventually transmit, in a garbled form, information about all matter they swallow: Having concluded that information is conserved, Hawking conceded his bet in Preskill’s favour, awarding him "Total Baseball, The Ultimate Baseball Encyclopedia". Thorne, however, remained unconvinced of Hawking’s proof and declined to contribute to the award. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.theory.caltech.edu/~preskill/jp_24jul04.html|title=On Hawking’s Concession|publisher= California Institute of Technology|date= 2004-07-24|author=Preskill, John] Another older bet – about the existence of black holes – was described by Hawking as an “insurance policy” of sorts. To quote from his book, "A Brief History of Time": cquote|This was a form of insurance policy for me. I have done a lot of work on black holes, and it would all be wasted if it turned out that black holes do not exist. But in that case, I would have the consolation of winning my bet, which would win me four years of the magazine "Private Eye". If black holes do exist, Kip will get one year of "Penthouse". When we made the bet in 1975, we were 80 % certain that Cygnus was a black hole. By now, I would say that we are about 95 % certain, but the bet has yet to be settled.|20px|20px|Stephen Hawking|"A Brief History of Time (1988)"cite book | author=Hawking, Stephen | title= A Brief History of Time | publisher= Bantam Books| year=1988 | isbn=0-553-38016-8]
According to the updated 10th anniversary edition of "A Brief History of Time", Hawking has conceded the bet “to the outrage of Kip’s liberated wife” due to subsequent observational data in favour of black holes.
Hawking is severely disabled by
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS (a type of motor neurone disease); this condition is commonly known in the United States as Lou Gehrig’s Disease.
When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other children. At Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped relieve his immense boredom at the university. Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at Cambridge; he lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head. Worried that he would lose his genius, he took the Mensa test to verify that his intellectual abilities were intact. The diagnosis of motor neurone disease came when Hawking was 21, shortly before his first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or three years. Hawking gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and voice, and is now almost completely paralysed. During a visit to the research centre
CERNin Genevain 1985, Hawking contracted pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already limited respiratory capacity. He had an emergency tracheotomy, and as a result lost what remained of his ability to speak. He has since used an electronic voice synthesizerto communicate. The DECtalkDTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American accent, is no longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept it after so many years, Hawking mentioned that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it. Hawking is said to be looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the synthesizer is both large and fragile by modern standards. However, as of present, finding a workable software alternative has been difficult. In Hawking's many media appearances, he appears to speak fluently through his synthesizer, but in reality, creating the text is a tedious drawn-out process. Hawking's setup uses a predictive textentry system, which only requires the first few characters in order to auto-complete the word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry, constructing complete sentences takes time. His speeches are prepared in advance, but having a live conversation with him provides insight as to the complexity and work involved in his responses. During a TED talk, a posed question took 7 minutes to answer. [cite web|url=http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/242|title=Stephen Hawking: Asking big questions about the universe (Video time index 8:25)|publisher=TED Conferences, LLC|accessdate=2008-05-28]
Despite his disease, he describes himself as “lucky" – not only has the slow progress of his disease provided time to make influential discoveries, it has also afforded time to have, in his own words, “a very attractive family”. [cite web|url=http://www.hawking.org.uk/disable/dindex.html|title=My experience with ALS|publisher=Hawking, Stephen|accessdate=2008-05-19] When Jane was asked why she decided to marry a man with a 3-year life expectancy, she responded: “Those were the days of atomic gloom and doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."
* On 19 December 2007, a unique statue of Professor Stephen Hawking by renowned late artist
Ian Walterswas unveiled at Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Cambridge University. [cite web|accessdate=2008-05-19|url=http://www.admin.cam.ac.uk/news/dp/2007122111|title=Vice-Chancellor unveils Hawking statue|publisher= University of Cambridge|date=2007-12-21]
* In May 2008 the statue of Hawking was unveiled at the
African Institute for Mathematical Sciencesin Cape Town.
Stephen W. Hawking Science Museumin San Salvador, El Salvador is named in honor of Stephen Hawking, citing his scientific distinction and perseverance in dealing with adversity. [cite journal|accessdate=2008-09-28|last=Komar|first=Oliver|coauthors=Linda Buechner|title=The Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador Central America Honors the Fortitude of a Great Living Scientist|journal=Journal of College Science Teaching|volume=XXX|issue=2|date=October 2000|url=http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/5046/article.html]
Hawking’s belief that the lay person should have access to his work led him to write a series of popular science books in addition to his
academicwork. The first of these, " A Brief History of Time", was published on 1 April 1988 by Hawking, his family and friends, and some leading physicists. It surprisingly became a best-seller and was followed by " The Universe in a Nutshell" (2001). Both books have remained highly popular all over the world. A collection of essays titled "Black Holes and Baby Universes" (1993) was also popular. His most recent book, "A Briefer History of Time" (2005), co-written by Leonard Mlodinow, aims to update his earlier works and make them accessible to an even wider audience. He and his daughter, Lucy Hawking, have recently published a children’s book focusing on science that has been described to be “like " Harry Potter", but without the magic.” This book is called "George’s Secret Key to the Universe" and includes information on Hawking radiation.
Hawking is also known for his
wit; he is famous for his oft-made statement, “When I hear of Schrödinger's cat, I reach for my pistol.” This was a deliberately ironic paraphrase of “Whenever I hear the word culture... I release the safety-catch of my Browning”, from the play "Schlageter" (Act 1, Scene 1) by German playwright and Nazi Poet Laureate, Hanns Johst. His wit has both entertained the non-specialist public and helped them to understand complex questions. Asked in October 2005 on the British daytime chat show Richard & Judy, to explain his assertion that the question “What came before the Big Bang?” was meaningless, he compared it to asking “What lies north of the North Pole?”
Hawking is an active supporter of various causes. He appeared on a political broadcast for the United Kingdom’s Labour Party, and actively supports the children’s charity
SOS Children's Villages UK. [cite web|url=http://www.soschildrensvillages.org.uk/sos-children-charity/our-friends.htm|publisher=SOS Children’s Villages|title=Our Friends|accessdate=2006-05-06]
* "Singularities in Collapsing Stars and Expanding Universes" with
Dennis William Sciama, 1969 Comments on Astrophysics and Space Physics Vol 1 #1
* "The Nature of Space and Time" with
Roger Penrose, foreword by Michael Atiyah, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-691-05084-8
The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime" with George Ellis, 1973 ISBN 0521099064
* "The Large, the Small, and the Human Mind", (with Abner Shimony, Nancy Cartwright, and Roger Penrose), Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-56330-5 (hardback), ISBN 0-521-65538-2 (paperback), Canto edition: ISBN 0-521-78572-3
* " [http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0507171 Information Loss in Black Holes] ", Cambridge University Press, 2005
* , Running Press, 2005 ISBN 0762419229
A Brief History of Time", (Bantam Press 1988) ISBN 055305340X
Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays", (Bantam Books 1993) ISBN 0553374117
The Universe in a Nutshell", (Bantam Press 2001) ISBN 055380202X
* "On The Shoulders of Giants. The Great Works of Physics and Astronomy", (Running Press 2002) ISBN 076241698X
* "A Briefer History of Time", (Bantam Books 2005) ISBN 0553804367
Footnote: On [http://www.hawking.org.uk Hawking’s website] , he denounces the unauthorised publication of "
The Theory of Everything" and asks consumers to be aware that he was not involved in its creation.
George's Secret Key to the Universe", (Random House, 2008) ISBN 9780552559584
* Unnamed sequel
Films and series
* "A Brief History of Time" (film)
Stephen Hawking's Universe"
* "Horizon: The Hawking Paradox" [Citation
title=The Hawking Paradox
publisher=Internet Movie Database
Masters of Science Fiction"
* [http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/article/?objid=44768 "Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe"] A list of Hawking’s publications through the year 2002 is available on his [http://www.hawking.org.uk/ website] .
Awards and honours
Hughes Medalof the Royal Society
Albert Einstein Medal
Order of the British Empire(Commander)
Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society
* 1986 Member of the
Pontifical Academy of Sciences
Wolf Prizein Physics
Prince of Asturias Awardsin Concord
* 1989 Companion of Honour
Julius Edgar LilienfeldPrize of the American Physical Society[Citation
title=Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize
publisher=American Physical Society
* 2003 Michelson Morley Award of
Case Western Reserve University
Copley Medalof the Royal Society[Citation
title=Oldest, space-travelled, science prize awarded to Hawking
date=24 August 2006
publisher=The Royal Society
Hawking has appeared as himself on many television shows. For example, he has played himself on a "
Red Dwarf" anniversary special, played a hologram of himself on the episode "" of "", appeared in a skit on " Late Night with Conan O'Brien", and appeared on the Discovery Channelspecial "Alien Planet". [cite web|url=http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0370071/|title=Stephen Hawking|publisher= Internet Movie Database|accessdate=2008-05-19]
He has also played himself in several episodes of "
The Simpsons" and " Futurama". When he was portrayed on episodes of " Family Guy", the voice was actually done by a speech synthesizer on a Macintoshcomputer, according to DVD Commentary. He has also appeared in an episode of the " Dilbert" cartoon. His name is mentioned in the song " White & Nerdy" by "Weird Al" Yankovic. His actual synthesiser voice was used on parts of the Pink Floydsong " Keep Talking" from the 1994 album " The Division Bell", as well as on Turbonegro’s "Intro: The Party Zone" on their 2005 album "Party Animals", Wolfsheim’s "Kein Zurück (Oliver Pinelli Mix)". As well as being fictionalised as nerdcore hip hopartist MC Hawking, he was impersonated in duet with Richard Cheese on a cover of " The Girl Is Mine".
In 2008, Hawking was the subject of and featured in the documentary series "Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe" for
Channel 4. He was also portrayed in the movie " Superhero Movie" by Robert Joy.
In September 2008, Hawking presided over the unveiling of the 'Chronophage'
Corpus Clock(time eating) clock at Corpus Christi College Cambridge. [http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/news/article/default.aspx?objid=51566]
In 2008, Hawking was featured in a commercial for Discovery Channel.
Kip S. Thorne
*cite book | author = Boslough, John | title=Stephen Hawking’s Universe | location=New York | publisher=Avon Books | year=1985 | id=ISBN 0-380-70763-2 A layman’s guide to Stephen Hawking.
*Ferguson, Kitty (1991). "Stephen Hawking: Quest For A Theory of Everything". Franklin Watts. ISBN 0-553-29895-X.
*. Highly influential in the field.
*. A much cited centennial survey.
Clifford A. Pickover, "Archimedes to Hawking: Laws of Science and the Great Minds Behind Them", Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0195336115
* [http://www.hawking.org.uk/ Stephen Hawking’s web site]
** [http://www.hawking.org.uk/disable/computer.html An overview of Hawking’s communication system]
** [http://www.hawking.org.uk/text/disable/disable.html An overview of Hawking’s physical disability]
* [http://cambridge.academia.edu/StephenHawking/ Stephen Hawking’s page on Academia.edu]
* [http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/242 TED Talks: Stephen Hawking: Asking big questions about the universe]
* [http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/html/id.phtml?id=78459 Hawking’s Students at the Mathematical Genealogy Project] .
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid_1746000/1746912.stm "Hawking celebrates own brief history"] , 7 January 2002,
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3913145.stm "Black holes turned “inside out", 22 July 2004, BBC]
* [http://www.counterbalance.net/intro/cosmohaw-frame.html Stephen Hawking’s concept of God]
* [http://www.counterbalance.net/intro/cosmotime-frame.html The role of God within the no boundary cosmology and Imaginary time]
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/story/0,3605,1579180,00.html "Return of the time lord"] , Interview about “A Brief History of Time”, 27 September 2005,
* [http://reason.com/0204/fe.gb.leaping.shtml “Leaping the Abyss”] , interview in "Reason" by Gregory Benford
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13340672/ Stephen Hawking touches on God and science – Physicist says Pope John Paul told scientists not to study universe’s origins] msnbc. com 15 June 2006
** [http://web.archive.org/web/20060720200605/http://www.catholicleague.org/06press_releases/quarter+2/060616_Hawking.htm Press Release from the Catholic League on misquote of Pope by Hawking]
* [http://www.asiaing.com/stephen-hawking-why-we-should-go-into-space.html Stephen Hawking: "Why We Should Go Into Space"]
* [http://www.maniacworld.com/Stephen-Hawking.htm Stephen Hawking – discussion of two views of the universe] Video
* [http://hayadan.org.il/english/2006/12/14/professor-stephen-hawking-in-israel/ Transcript of Stephen Hawking’s lecture “The Origin Of The Universe” in the Hebrew University In Jerusalem] , 14 December 2006
* [http://www.hawking.org.uk/lectures/public.html Public Lectures] , including debate with
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Hawking, Stephen William
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Theoretical physicist
DATE OF BIRTH=8 January 1942
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
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