Minifigures are small,
plasticfigural toys produced by Danish toy manufacturer Lego, which are customarily sold with Lego sets, as characters intended to populate modular Lego environments. Although many Lego sets include minifigures, Lego also sells collections of minifigures separate from other sets. They are also referred to as as "minifigs", "figs" or simply "Lego people". Minifigures are collected by both children and adults, sometimes independently of Lego bricks themselves.
When first reIeased in
1974, Lego minifigures were at the same scaIe as the current minifigures. However, these figures differed in tooling and articulation: they had [http://www.peeron.com/inv/parts/17 solid torsos] without separate movable arms, solid [http://www.peeron.com/inv/parts/15 lower body] pieces that were not moveable, and heads without printed features. They had a small variety of headpieces, including [http://www.peeron.com/inv/parts/3624 caps] , [http://www.peeron.com/inv/parts/390 pigtail hair] and [http://www.peeron.com/inv/parts/3629 cowboy hats] . An image on [http://www.minifigs.net/webpage/legofigs_intro.htm Minifigs.net] shows the earlier, larger scale, human figures.
The first modern minifigures were released in 1978, with seven different figures in Castle, Space, and Town themes.Lego Group, [http://www.lego.com/info/pdf/LEGO_company_profile_UK.pdf Company Profile 2006] (PDF) Retrieved on
June 15 2006] For the next 11 years, minifigure heads were produced with a simple facial expression, rendered as two solid black dots for eyes and a smile, also painted in solid black. In 1989, minifigures in the Pirates theme were produced with different facial expressions. The Pirates minifigures also included hooks for hands, as well as peg legs; this was the first departure from the traditional body parts.
Another departure from traditional parts was the use of spring-loaded legs. These legs are joined together at the top. These legs were only featured in basketball sets, 2002-2003.
2003, Lego had reportedly produced 3.7 billion minifigures.cite press release | publisher=The Lego Group|date= 2003 October 15| title=LEGO minifigure turns 25 | url=http://www.lego.com/eng/info/default.asp?page=pressdetail&contentid=2490 | accessdate=2006-06-18]
Design and construction
Minifigures generally feature
sixparts (widely referred to as "tools" in the toy industry): head, torso, hips, arms, hands, and legs; these six parts allow seven points of articulation: swivelhead, swivel arms, swivel wrists, and swivel legs. Minifigures are usually packaged as three separate parts in Lego sets: head, torso and legs.
Minifigure heads are cylindrical, and attach to a long, narrow cylinder molded onto the top of the torso, which allows the head to rotate. This feature also allows items to be attached to the figures over the torso, such as air tanks,
capes or breastplates. The heads have a stud on top which is the same size as studs on standard Lego bricks which could allow one to be placed on it. Head accessories vary widely, and include hair, helmets and hats. The legs rotate independently to 90 degrees forward, and nearly 45 degrees backward. Minifigures also connect to standard Lego bricks in both a sitting or standing position. The hands of a minifigure resemble the letter "C", which allows them to hold many Lego accessories. There are hundreds of different accessories, including swords, axes, wands, cups, guns, and, in the instance of " Star Wars" minifigures, lightsabers and blasters. Additionally the tops of the hands are approximately the same size as the studs on standard Lego bricks, which allows Lego pieces to be placed on top of them. These variations allow minifigures to be customized, keeping with the modular design of Lego elements.
2001Lego further expanded the minifigure system, with the introduction of Bioniclefigures. These figures are a part of a fictional story developed by Lego, and resemble biomechanical creatures. Initially, these figures were produced without articulation, only able to hold tools and weapons.
2003, the first minifigures with naturalistic skin tones (as opposed to the yellowused until this point) were released, as part of the Lego Basketballtheme; these minifigures were also created in the likeness of living people. The following year, the use of natural skin tones was expanded to all licensed products; in which figures were created to represent film actors and other living people. Popular examples include Star Wars, Indiana Jones, Harry Potter and Lego Batmanminifigures.
While nearly all minifigure heads, torsos, arms, hands and legs are the same size and shape, some sets have included figures that deviate from the standard. Minifigures built from special, uniquely molded pieces were first introduced in Life on Mars.
Martiansare composed of five tools: two pair of double arms, a mechanical torso, a conjoined leg piece, and a head. This configuration is also used for many Star Wars Droids; Battle Droids follow the same pattern, while Super Battle Droids feature a head fixed to a torso, General Grevioushas space for four arms, and IG-88has a head constructed of other Lego pieces. Other droids, such as Droidekas, Spider Droids and Pit Droids, are constructed entirely from standard Lego pieces, yet are still generally considered minifigures. R2-D2and other astromech droids are constructed from unique parts, with a separate top, body and legs. The robots of Exo-Forceand Bionicle miniatures have a design similar to the Star Wars Battle Droids, but with separate legs, movable hands, and a head affixed to a small torso. Hagrid, the half-giant character from the Harry Potterseries, uses a larger minifigure body, with only the head being separable. Minifigures have also featured unique head sculpts that differ from the traditional cylindrical shape; the first was Jar Jar Binks, included in a Star Wars set in 1999, followed by Yoda, C-3PO, Harry Potter goblinfigures, and Kit Fisto. Traditional accessories, such as hats and helmets, cannot be placed on these non-standard heads. Some minifigures, such as Wookiees, GamorreanGuards, Ewoks, and SpongeBob, have head pieces that fit like standard heads, but also cover part of the torso, similar to the ghost figures, except that these figures use short or standard legs instead of a brick. Collectors refer to this piece, and figures that use it, as sandwich boards, as it resembles the wearable sign of the same name.
Some minifigures created to resemble female characters, particularly in Castle and Pirate sets, use large sloped bricks instead of legs, to resemble
dresses or skirts. However, these sloped bricks are taller than standard minifigure legs, making some characters seem awkward when placed next to taller females. Skeletons, usually found in Castle and Pirate sets, use the standard minifigure head, but unique torsos, arms, and legs designed to resemble a skeletal structure which was redesigned in 2007; although different, these figure parts are still detachable. Ghost figures have a full-body cape which attaches to the head of the minifigure, and a solid brick-like torso instead of legs. Shorter legs, without joints at the hip, are sometimes used to create minifigures which are shorter in stature than standard figures. Such pieces were first created for Star Wars sets but have since been used elsewhere, although primarily in licensed sets. Yoda, young Boba Fett, and Ewoks in Star Wars, goblins and Dobbyin Harry Potter, The Penguinin Batman, both SpongeBoband Mr. Krabsin the Lego SpongeBob SquarePantsset, and the Dwarves from the Castle 2007 set all use this shorter piece in the place of standard legs. Additionally, Pirateminifigures sometimes include peg legs and hooks for hands, such as the Aquasharks and Aquraiders from Aquazone and characters in the Adventurers and Orient Expedition sets, most notably the villainous Baron character.
Other variations of the standard minifigure produced for Star Wars sets included the light-up lightsaber (LULS) minifigures. These figures were released as a part of the more expensive Star Wars Episode III sets in 2005. These figures look like standard minifigures, but to facilitate internal electronics, their parts cannot be removed; the only exception to this is the headgear, the left hand and arm, and each of the legs from the hips. When the head is pressed down, an LED illuminates the lightsaber blade. These figures rely on battery power for their special feature. The batteries last three hours and are not intended to be replaced, although replacement is possible. Many fans, especially children, were amenable to this innovation. Others however, particularly adult collectors, found these figures contentious, considering them to be an unwelcome gimmick. The fact that in two cases unique characters were produced solely as LUL minifigs, with no standard version available to collectors, was also an unpopular decision. Following the initial release of these figures Lego announced no more were to be produced, due to their unpopularity and more expensive production. One set, the 7261 Clone Turbo Tank, which featured an LUL version of Jedi Knight Mace Windu, was even reissued with a standard version of the minifig and an extra Clone Trooper figure to make up the cost of the set.
Yet another variation on the minifigure is the
magnetfigure, used in such sets as Star Wars, Batman, and City. These figures include magnets in their legs, which allow them to stick to metal surfaces. Magnet figures are nearly indistinguishable from stand figures in appearance. Unlike the LUL figures, only the torso and the hips of magnet minifigures are inseparable.
A variety of clothing and accessories has been produced for minifigures, including caps, hats, and helmets. In Lego Star Wars sets, Clone Troopers and Stormtroopers have uniquely sculpted helmets, adapting the original character designs to the minifigure format. Rock Raiders have green helmets, while
Astronauts feature standard helmets in an assortment of colors. Exo-Force minifigures feature anime-style hair, as does the Nightwingminifigure from the Batman Arkham Asylumset.
The most extreme design variation was a minifigure produced in an edition of five of the
Star Warscharacter C-3PO, cast in 14-carat gold.
Other Lego figures
In some Lego products, figures other than standard minifigures are used. Pre-1974 Lego sets included much larger figures where only the heads and hair were special pieces [http://www.minifigs.net/webpage/legofigs_intro.htm] , which is why the usual figures are "mini". Technic, has used larger scale
action figuressince 1986. These figures feature more realistic sculpts, although still distinctively angular, and feature more articulation, including bendable elbows and knees. These figures are further distinguished from minifigures in that they cannot be easily disassembled; even the hair pieces are non-removable. The Fabulandcollection, produced in the 1980s, consisted of larger anthropomorphized animalcharacters, which also could not be easily disassembled. Belvilleand Scala, Lego products marketed to girls, also include larger scale figures. These figures are similar to Technic figures in articulation, but feature less angular body sculpts. Scala figures more closely resemble dolls, in that clothes are separate from the figures and hair is made of strands rather than molded plastic. Lego has also produced Bionicle figures, which are much larger in scale than any other Lego figure, and feature considerably more articulation. Bionicle figures are also composed of separate parts, unlike other large scale Lego figures. In 2005, Lego released Bionicle playsets, with minifigure variations of characters that had previously been produced in the larger Bionicle scale, notably the Toa and Visorak characters. While these minifigures did not feature movable parts, Lego released Piraka and Inika playsets in 2006, which included minifigures with movable parts.
Minifigures have made a number of appearances in other media, particularly
brickfilms, short films which use minifigures as characters. Of particular note is the Lego-sanctioned spoof of "Star Wars" titled "", produced by Treehouse Animation. This short film features computer-animated minifigures with added articulation and mobility, as well as textural modifications to create a realistic effect. Promotional videos on the [http://batman.lego.com/en-US/default.aspx Batman Lego official site] are presented in a similar format, and are also produced by Treehouse Animation.
Lego has furthered the development of minifigures in entertainment media. In the video games ', ', "" , Lego Indiana Jones: the Video game and the upcoming Lego: Batman Video game playable characters are animated minifigures, which feature more articulation and mobility than real minifigures, but retain the same basic appearance. Most other Lego computer and video games have similarly animated minifigures, though depicted with varying degrees of realism.
Other instances of Lego in art include minifigures, such as photo comics or photo novels, graphic works which use photographs rather than illustrations to tell a story.
* [http://www.lego.com/ Official Lego Website]
* [http://www.minifigcustoms.com/ Minifig Customization Network]
* [http://www.minifigs.net/webpage/fameset_e.htm Pictures of minifigures by theme and set]
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