Infobox Writing system
name = Rongorongo
type = Undeciphered
time = Time of creation unknown, most tablets lost or destroyed in the 1860s
languages = Assumed to be Rapanui
sample = Rongorongo Qr3-7 color.jpg
iso15924 = Roro

Rongorongo (pronEng|ˈrɒŋɡoʊˈrɒŋɡoʊ in English, IPAlink|ˈɾoŋoˈɾoŋo in Rapa Nui) is a system of glyphs discovered in the 19th century on Easter Island that appears to be writing or proto-writing. It has not been deciphered despite numerous attempts. Although some calendrical and what might prove to be genealogical information has been identified, not even these glyphs can actually be read. If rongorongo does prove to be writing, it could be one of only three or four known independent inventions of writing in human history.

Two dozen wooden objects bearing rongorongo inscriptions, some heavily weathered, burned, or otherwise damaged, were collected in the late 19th century and are now scattered in museums and private collections. None remain on Easter Island. The objects are mostly tablets shaped from irregular pieces of wood, sometimes driftwood, but include a chieftain's staff, a bird-man statuette, and two "reimiro" ornaments. There are also a few petroglyphs which may include short rongorongo inscriptions. Oral history suggests that only a small elite was ever literate and that the tablets were sacred.

Authentic rongorongo texts are written in alternating directions, a system called reverse boustrophedon. In a third of the tablets, the lines of text are inscribed in shallow fluting carved into the wood. The glyphs themselves are outlines of human, animal, plant, artifact and geometric forms. Many of the human and animal figures, such as , have characteristic protuberances on each side of the head, possibly representing ears or eyes.

Individual texts are conventionally known by a single uppercase letter and a name, such as Tablet C, the "Mamari" Tablet. The somewhat variable names may be descriptive or indicate where the object is kept, as in the Oar, the Snuffbox, the Small Santiago Tablet, and the Santiago Staff.

Etymology and variant names

"Rongorongo" is the modern name for the inscriptions. In the Rapanui language it means "to recite, to declaim, to chant out".Englert (1993) defines "rogorogo" as "recitar, declamar, leer cantando" (to recite, declaim, read chanting), and "tagata rogorogo" (rongorongo man) as "hombre que sabía leer los textos de los "kohau rogorogo," o sea, de las tabletas con signos para la recitación" (a man who could read the texts of the "kohau rongorongo," that is, of the tablets bearing signs for recitation). It is the reduplication of "rongo" "recado, orden o mandato, mensaje, noticia" (a message, order, notice); "tagata rogo" is a "mensajero" (a messenger).
"Kohau" are defined as "líneas tiradas a hilo "(hau)" sobre tabletas o palos para la inscripción de signos" (lines drawn with a string "(hau)" on tablets or sticks for inscribing signs).
The Rapanui word "rongo" IPA|/ɾoŋo/ has cognates in most other Austronesian languages, from Malay "dengar" IPA|/dəŋar/ to Fijian "rogoca" IPA|/roŋoða/ and Hawaiian "lono" IPA|/lono/, where these words have such meanings as "to listen", "to hear", "etc."]

The original name—or perhaps description—of the script is said to have been "kohau motu mo rongorongo", "lines incised for chanting out", shortened to "kohau rongorongo" or "lines for chanting out". [Englert 1993] There are also said to have been more specific names for the texts based on their topic. For example, the "kohau ta‘u" ("lines of years") were annals, the "kohau îka" ("lines of fishes") were lists of persons killed in war "(îka" "fish" was homophonous with or used figuratively for "war casualty"), and the "kohau ranga" "lines of fugitives" were lists of war refugees.

Some authors have understood the "ta‘u" in "kohau ta‘u" to refer to a separate form of writing distinct from "rongorongo." Barthel recorded that, "The Islanders had another writing (the so-called 'ta‘u script') which recorded their annals and other secular matters, but this has disappeared." [Barthel 1958:66] However, Fischer writes that "the "ta‘u" was originally a type of "rongorongo" inscription. In the 1880s, a group of elders invented a derivative 'script' [also] called "ta‘u" with which to decorate carvings in order to increase their trading value. It is a primitive imitation of "rongorongo." [Fischer 1997:667] An alleged third script, the "mama" or "va‘eva‘e" described in some mid-twentieth-century publications, was "an early twentieth-century geometric [decorative] invention". [Fischer 1997:ix]

Form and construction

The forms of the glyphs are standardized contours of living organisms and geometric designs about one centimeter high. The wooden tablets are irregular in shape and, in many instances, fluted (tablets B, E, G, H, O, Q, and T), with the glyphs carved in shallow channels running the length of the tablets, as can be seen in the image of tablet G at right. It is thought that irregular and often blemished pieces of wood were used in their entirety rather than squared off due to the scarcity of wood on the island. [Fischer 1997:382]

Writing media

Except for a few possible glyphs cut in stone (see petroglyphs), all surviving texts are inscribed in wood. According to tradition, the tablets were made of toromiro wood. However, Orliac (2005) examined seven objects (tablets B, C, G, H, K, Q, and "reimiro" L) with stereo optical and scanning electron microscopes and determined that all were instead made from Pacific rosewood "(Thespesia populnea)"; the same identification had been made for tablet M in 1934. This 15-meter tree, known as "Pacific rosewood" for its color and called "mako‘i" in Rapanui, is used for sacred groves and carvings throughout eastern Polynesia and was evidently brought to Easter Island by the first settlers. [Skjølsvold 1994, as cited in Orliac 2005] However, not all the wood was native: Orliac (2007) established that tablets N, P, and S were made of South African Yellowwood "(Podocarpus latifolius)" and therefore that the wood had arrived with Western contact. Fischer had previously described P as "a damaged and reshapen European or American oar", as were A (which is European ash, "Fraxinus excelsior)" and V; that wood from the wreck of a Western boat was said to have been used for many tablets; and that both P and S had been used as planking for a Rapanui driftwood canoe. [Fischer 1997:483] Several texts, including O, are carved on gnarled driftwood. [Fischer 1997:497] The fact that the islanders were reduced to inscribing driftwood, and were regardless extremely economical in their use of wood, may have had consequences for the structure of the script, such as the abundance of ligatures and potentially a telegraphic style of writing that would complicate textual analysis. [Fischer 1997:382–383; see also decipherment of rongorongo]

Oral tradition holds that, because of the great value of wood, only expert scribes used it, while pupils wrote on banana leaves. German ethnologist Thomas Barthel believed that carving on wood was a secondary development in the evolution of the script based on an earlier stage of incising banana leaves or the sheaths of the banana trunk with a bone stylus, and that the medium of leaves was retained not only for lessons but to plan and compose the texts of the wooden tablets. [Barthel 1971:1168] He found experimentally that the glyphs were quite visible on banana leaves due to the sap that emerged from the cuts and dried on the surface. However, when the leaves themselves dried they became brittle and would not have survived for long. [Fischer 1997:386]

Barthel speculated that the banana leaf might even have served as a prototype for the tablets, with the fluted surface of the tablets an emulation of the veined structure of a leaf:

Direction of writing

Rongorongo glyphs were written in reverse boustrophedon, left to right and bottom to top. That is, the reader begins at the bottom left-hand corner of a tablet, reads a line from left to right, then rotates the tablet 180 degrees to continue on the next line. When reading one line, the lines above and below it would appear upside down, as can be seen in the image at left.

However, the writing continues onto the second side of a tablet at the point where it finishes off the first, so if the first side has an odd number of lines, as is the case with tablets K, N, P, and Q, the second will start at the "upper" left-hand corner, and the direction of writing shifts to top to bottom.

Larger tablets and staves may have been read without turning, if the reader were able to read upside-down. [Fischer 1997:353]

Writing instruments

According to oral tradition, scribes used obsidian flakes or small shark teeth, presumably the hafted tools still in use in Polynesia, to flute and polish the tablets and then to incise the glyphs. [Métraux 1940:404] The glyphs are most commonly composed of deep smooth cuts, though superficial hair-line cuts are also found. In the closeup image at right, a glyph is composed of two parts connected by a hair-line cut; this is a typical convention for this shape. Several researchers, including Barthel, believe that these superficial cuts were made by obsidian, and that the texts were first sketched with obsidian and then deepened and finished with a worn shark tooth. The remaining hair-line cuts were then either errors, design conventions (as at right), or decorative embellishments.Barthel tested this experimentally, and Dederen (1993) reproduced several tablets in this fashion. Fischer (1997:389–390) comments,

On the Large St. Petersburg ( [P] r3) [...] the original tracing with an obsidian flake describes a bird's bill identical to a foregoing one; but when incising, the scribe reduced this bill to a much more bulbous shape [...] since he now was working with the different medium of a shark's tooth. There are many such scribal quirks on the "Large St. Petersburg" [tablet P] .

The rongorongo script is a "contour script" (Barthel 1955:360) [...] with various internal or external lines, circles, dashes or dots added [...] Often such features exist only in the hair-line pre-etching effected by obsidian flakes and not incised with a shark's tooth. This is particularly evident on the "Small Vienna" [tablet N] .

] Vertical strings of chevrons or lozenges, for example, are typically connected with hair-line cuts, as can be seen repeatedly in the closeup of one end of tablet B below. However, Barthel was also told that the last literate Rapanui king, Nga‘ara, sketched out the glyphs in soot with a fish bone and then engraved them with a shark tooth. [Barthel 1959:164]

Tablet N, on the other hand, shows no sign of shark teeth. Haberlandt noticed that the glyphs of this text appear to have been incised with a sharpened bone, as evidenced by the shallowness and width of the grooves. [Haberlandt 1886:102] N also "displays secondary working with obsidian flakes to elaborate details within the finished contour lines. No other "rongo-rongo" inscription reveals such graphic extravagance". [Fischer 1997:501]

Other tablets appear to have been cut with a steel blade, often rather crudely. Although steel knives were available after the arrival of the Spanish, this does cast suspicion on the authenticity of these tablets.For example, Métraux (1938) said of tablet V, "its authenticity is doubtful. The signs appear to have been incised with a steel implement, and do not show the regularity and beauty of outline which characterise the original tablets". Imitation tablets were made for the tourist trade as early as the 1880s.]


The glyphs are stylized human, animal, vegetable and geometric shapes, and often form compounds. Nearly all those with heads are oriented head up and are either seen face on or in profile to the right, in the direction of writing. It is not known what significance turning a glyph head down or to the left may have had. Heads often have characteristic projections on the sides which may be eyes (as on the sea turtle glyph below, and more clearly on sea-turtle petroglyphs) but which often resemble ears (as on the anthropomorphic petroglyph in the next section). Birds are common; many resemble the frigatebird (see image directly below) which was associated with the supreme god Makemake. [Guy 2006] However, a glyph resembling a chicken or rooster is not found, despite chickens being the mainstay of the economy and some of the tablets supposedly commemorating "how many men [a chief] had killed, how many chickens he had stolen" (Routledge 1919:251).] Other glyphs look like fish or arthropods. A few, but only a few, are similar to petroglyphs found throughout the island.

:"Some of the more iconic rongorongo glyphs. The seated man is thought to be a compound.":"(Readings from Barthel (1958). The captions in the right-most column are merely descriptive.)"


Oral tradition holds that either Hotu Matu‘a or Tu‘u ko Iho, the legendary founder(s) of Rapa Nui, brought 67 tablets from their homeland. [Fischer 1997:367] The same founder is also credited with bringing indigenous plants such as the toromiro. There is no homeland likely to have had a tradition of writing in Polynesia or even in South America. Thus rongorongo appears to have been an internal development. Given that few if any of the Rapanui people remaining on the island in the 1870s could read the glyphs, it is likely that only a small minority were ever literate. Indeed, early visitors were told that literacy was a privilege of the ruling families and priests who were all kidnapped in the Peruvian slaving raids or died soon afterwards in the resulting epidemics. [Cooke 1899:712, Englert 1970:149–153]

Dating the tablets

Little direct dating has been done. Tablet Q (Small Saint Petersburg) is the sole item that has been carbon dated but the results only constrain the date to sometime after 1680."The conventional radiocarbon age obtained [...] is 80 ±40 BP and the 2-sigma calibration age (95% probability) is Cal AD 1680 to Cal AD 1740 (Cal BP 270 to 200) and Cal AD 1800 to 1930 (Cal BP 150 to 20) and AD 1950 to 1960 (Cal BP 0 to 0); in fact, this rongorongo was collected in 1871 [so the later date cannot be correct] ." (Orliac 2005)]

Direct dating is not the only evidence. Texts A, P, and V can be dated to the 18th or 19th century by virtue of being inscribed on European oars. Orliac (2005) calculated that the wood for tablet C "(Mamari)" was cut from the trunk of a tree some convert|15|m|ft|-1|sp=us tall,"Mamari" is 19.6 cm (7½") wide and includes sapwood along its edges; a trunk of that diameter corresponds to Pacific rosewood's maximum height of 15 m.] and Easter Island has long been deforested of trees that size. Analysis of charcoal indicates that the forest disappeared in the first half of the 17th century. Roggeveen, who discovered Easter Island in 1722, described the island as "destitute of large trees" and in 1770 González de Ahedo wrote, "Not a single tree is to be found capable of furnishing a plank so much as six inches " [15 cm] " in width." Forster, with Cook's expedition of 1774, reported that "there was not a tree upon the island which exceeded the height of 10 feet [3 m] ". [Flenley & Bahn 1992:172]

All of these methods date the wood, not the inscription. However, Pacific rosewood is not durable, and is unlikely to survive long in Easter Island's climate. [Orliac 2005] On the other hand, glyph 067 ( "circa" 1650 and thus suggests that the script is at least that old. [Orliac 2005]

1770 Spanish expedition

Several scholars have suggested that rongorongo may have been a recent invention, inspired by the 1770 Spanish visit to the island and the signing of a treaty of annexation under González de Haedo. [For example, Flenley & Bahn 1992:203–204] As circumstantial evidence, they note that no explorer reported the script prior to Eugène Eyraud in 1864, and that the marks with which the chiefs signed the Spanish treaty do not resemble rongorongo.

The hypothesis of these researchers is not that rongorongo was itself a copy of the Latin alphabet, or of any other form of writing, but that the "concept" of writing had been conveyed in a process anthropologists term trans-cultural diffusion, which then inspired the islanders to invent their own system of writing. If this is the case, then rongorongo emerged, flourished, fell into oblivion, and was all but forgotten within a span of less than a hundred years. However, known cases of the diffusion of writing, such as Sequoyah's invention of the Cherokee syllabary after seeing the power of English-language newspapers, or Uyaquk's invention of the Yugtun script inspired by readings from Christian scripture, involved greater contact than the signing of a single treaty. The fact that the script was not observed by early explorers, who spent little time on the island, may simply reflect that it was taboo at the time; such taboos and the "tangata rongorongo" may have lost power by the time the Rapanui society collapsed following European slaving raids and epidemics, so that the tablets had become more widely distributed by Eyraud's day. [Bahn 1996]


Easter Island has the richest assortment of petroglyphs in Polynesia. [Lee 1992] Nearly every suitable surface has been carved, including the stone walls of some houses and a few of the famous "mo‘ai" statues and their fallen topknots. Around one thousand sites with over four thousand glyphs have been catalogued, some in bas- or sunken-relief, and some painted red and white. Designs include a concentration of chimeric bird-man figures at Orongo, a ceremonial center of the "tangata manu" or the "bird-man" cult; faces of the creation deity Makemake; marine animals like turtles, tuna, swordfish, sharks, whales, dolphins, crabs, and octopus (some with human faces); roosters; canoes, and over five hundred "komari" (vulvas). Petroglyphs are often accompanied by carved divots ("cupules") in the rock. Changing traditions are preserved in bas-relief birdmen, which were carved over simpler outline forms and in turn carved over with "komari." Although the petroglyphs cannot be directly dated, some are partially obscured by pre-colonial stone buildings, suggesting they are relatively old.

Several of the anthropomorphic and animal-form petroglyphs have parallels in rongorongo, for instance the double-headed frigatebird (glyph 680) on the "mo‘ai" topknot above, which also appears on a dozen tablets.See [ image] . Other examples of petroglyphs which resemble rongorongo glyphs can be seen [ here] and [ here] .] McLaughlin (2004) illustrates the most prominent correspondences with the petroglyph corpus of Lee (1992). However, these are mostly isolated glyphs; few text-like sequences or ligatures have been found among the petroglyphs. This has led to the suggestion that rongorongo must be a recent creation, perhaps inspired by petroglyph designs or retaining individual petroglyphs as logograms (Macri 1995), but not old enough to have been incorporated into the petroglyphic tradition. The most complex candidate for petroglyphic rongorongo is what appears to be a short sequence of glyphs, one of which is a ligature, carved on the wall of a cave (see image at right).

Historical record


Eugène Eyraud, a lay friar of the Congrégation de Picpus, landed on Easter Island on January 2, 1864, on the 24th day of his departure from Valparaiso. He was to remain on Easter Island for nine months, evangelizing its inhabitants. He wrote an account of his stay in which he reports his discovery of the tablets: [Eyraud 1886]

There is no other mention of the tablets in his report, and the discovery went unnoticed. Eyraud left Easter Island on October 11, in extremely poor health. Made a fully fledged priest in 1865, he returned to Easter Island in 1866 where he died of tuberculosis in August 1868, aged 48.


In 1868 the Bishop of Tahiti, Florentin-Étienne "Tepano" Jaussen, received a gift from the recent Catholic converts of Easter Island. It was a long cord of human hair, a fishing line perhaps, wound around a small wooden board covered in hieroglyphic writing. Stunned at the discovery, he wrote to Father Hippolyte Roussel on Easter Island to collect all the tablets and to find natives capable of translating them. But Roussel could only recover a few, and the islanders could not agree on how to read them. [Fischer 1997:21–24]

Yet Eyraud had seen hundreds of tablets only two years earlier. What happened to the missing tablets is a matter of conjecture. Eyraud had noted how little interest their owners had in them. Stéphen Chauvet reports that,

Orliac has observed that the deep black indention, about 10 cm long, on lines 5 and 6 of the recto of tablet H is a groove made by the rubbing of a fire stick, showing that tablet H had been used for fire-making. [Orliac 2003/2004:48–53] Tablets S and P had been cut into lashed planking for a canoe, which fits the story of a man named Niari who made a canoe out of abandoned tablets. [Routledge 1919:207]

As European-introduced diseases and raids by Peruvian slavers, including a final devastating raid in 1862 and a subsequent smallpox epidemic, had reduced the Rapa Nui population to under two hundred by the 1870s, it is possible that literacy had been wiped out by the time Eyraud discovered the tablets in 1866.Métraux (1940:3) reports that, "The present population of 456 natives is entirely derived from the 111 natives left after the abandonment of the island by the French missionaries in 1872." However, Routlegde (1919:208) gives a figure of 171 left after an evacuation led by Father Roussel in 1871, mostly old men, and Cooke (1899:712) states that the evacuation of some 300 islanders was in 1878, that "When H. M. S. "Sappho" touched at the island in 1882 it was reported that but 150 of the inhabitants were left", and goes on to give a summary of a complete census he received from Salmon in 1886 which listed 155 natives and 11 foreigners. ]

Thus in 1868 Jaussen could recover only a few tablets, with three more acquired by Captain Gana of the Chilean corvette "O'Higgins" in 1870. In the 1950s Barthel found the decayed remains of half a dozen tablets in caves, in the context of burials. However, no glyphs could be salvaged. [Barthel 1959:162–163] Fischer (1997:526) translates Barthel, concerning four of these tablets: "To judge by the form, size, and type of keeping one can say with a high degree of certainty that this involved tablets that were presented at two interments."]

Of the 26 commonly accepted texts that survive, only half are in good condition and authentic beyond doubt. [Fischer 1997:Appendices]

Anthropological accounts

British archaeologist and anthropologist Katherine Routledge undertook a 1914–1915 scientific expedition to Rapa Nui with her husband to catalog the art, customs, and writing of the island. She was able to interview two elderly informants, Kapiera and a leper named Tomenika, who allegedly had some knowledge of rongorongo. The sessions were not very fruitful, as the two often contradicted each other. From them Routledge concluded that rongorongo was an idiosyncratic mnemonic device that did not directly represent language, in other words, proto-writing, and that the meanings of the glyphs were reformulated by each scribe, so that the "kohau rongorongo" could not be read by someone not trained in that specific text. The texts themselves she believed to be litanies for priest-scribes, kept apart in special houses and strictly "tapu," that recorded the island's history and mythology. [Routledge 1919:253–254] However, Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007) believe that the limited and repetitive nature of the texts precludes them recording anything as diverse as history or mythology.] By the time of later ethnographic accounts, such as Métraux (1940), much of what Routledge recorded in her notes had been forgotten, and the oral history showed a strong influence from popular published accounts.


The 26 rongorongo texts with letter codes are inscribed on wooden objects, each with between 2 and 2320 simple glyphs and components of compound glyphs, for over 15,000 in all. The objects are mostly oblong wooden tablets, with the exceptions of I, a possibly sacred chieftain's staff known as the "Santiago Staff"; J and L, inscribed on "reimiro" pectoral ornaments worn by the elite; X, inscribed on various parts of a "tangata manu" ("birdman") statuette; and Y, a European snuff box assembled from sections cut from a rongorongo tablet. The tablets, like the pectorals, statuettes, and staves, were works of art and valued possessions, and were apparently given individual proper names in the same manner as jade ornaments in New Zealand. [Buck 1938:245] Two of the tablets, C and S, have a documented pre-missionary provenance, though others may be as old or older. There are in addition a few isolated glyphs or short sequences which might prove to be rongorongo. [Fischer 1997]

Classic texts

Barthel referred to each of 24 texts he accepted as genuine with a letter of the alphabet; two texts have been added to the corpus since then. The two faces of the tablets are distinguished by suffixing r (recto) or v (verso) when the reading sequence can be ascertained, to which the line being discussed is appended. Thus Pr2 is item P (the Great Saint Petersburg Tablet), recto, second line. When the reading sequence cannot be ascertained, a and b are used for the faces. Thus Ab1 is item A "(Tahua)," side b, first line. The six sides of the Snuff Box are lettered as sides a to f. Nearly all publications follow the Barthel convention, though a popular book by Fischer uses an idiosyncratic numbering system.

Crude glyphs have been found on a few stone objects and some additional wooden items, but most of these are thought to be fakes created for the early tourism market. Several of the 26 wooden texts are suspect due to uncertain provenance (X, Y, and Z), poor quality craftsmanship (F, K, V, W, Y, and Z), or to having been carved with a steel blade (K, V, and Y), and thus, although they may prove to be genuine, should not be trusted in initial attempts at decipherment. Z resembles many early forgeries in not being boustrophedon, but it may be a palimpsest on an authentic but now illegible text. [Fischer 1997:534]

Additional texts

In addition to the petroglyphs mentioned above, there are a few other very short uncatalogued texts that may be rongorongo. Fischer reports that "many statuettes reveal "rongorongo" or "rongorongo"-like glyphs on their crown." He gives the example of a compound glyph, , which may stand for "îka" "war casualty". There are other designs, including some tattoos recorded by early visitors, which are possibly single rongorongo glyphs, but since they are isolated and pictographic, it is difficult to know whether or not they are actually writing.


The only published reference to the glyphs which is even close to comprehensive remains Barthel (1958). Barthel assigned a three-digit numeric code to each glyph or group of similar-looking glyphs that he believed to be allographs (variants). In the case of allography, the simple numeric code was assigned to what Barthel believed to be the basic form "(Grundtypus)," while variants were specified by alphabetic affixes. He assigned 600 numeric codes. The hundreds place is a numeral from 0 to 7, and categorizes the head, or overall form if there is no head: 0 and 1 for geometric shapes and inanimate objects; 2 for figures with "ears"; 3 and 4 for figures with open mouths (they are differentiated by their legs/tails); 5 for figures with miscellaneous heads; 6 for figures with beaks; and 7 for fish, arthropods, etc. The tens and units numerals were used similarly, so that for example glyphs 206, 306, 406, 506, and 606 all have a downward pointing wing or arm on the left and a raised four-fingered hand on the right:

::Coding: The first digit distinguishes head and basic body shape, and the six in the unit's place indicates a specific raised hand.

There is some arbitrariness to which glyphs are grouped together, and there are inconsistencies in the assignments of numerical codes and the use of affixes which make the system rather complex.cite web|url=
title=RONGORONGO: Transliteration Codes||accessdate=2008-06-09
] However, despite its shortcomings, Barthel's is the only effective system ever proposed to categorize rongorongo glyphs. [Pozdniakov 1996:294]

Barthel (1971) claimed to have parsed the inventory of glyphs to 120, of which the other 480 are allographs or ligatures.55 glyphs would be required for a pure syllabary, assuming that long vowels were ignored or treated as vowel sequences. (Macri 1995; see also Rapanui language)] The evidence was never published, but similar figures have been obtained by other scholars, such as Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007).

Published corpus

CEIPP archives)] For almost a century only a few of the texts were published. In 1875 the director of the Chilean National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Rudolf Philippi, published the Santiago Staff, and Carroll (1892) published part of the Oar. Most texts remained beyond the reach of would-be decipherers until 1958, when Thomas Barthel published line drawings of almost all the known corpus in his "Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift" ("Bases for the Decipherment of the Easter Island script") which remains the fundamental reference to rongorongo. He transcribed texts A through X, over 99% of the corpus; the CEIPP estimates that it is 97% accurate. Barthel's line drawings were not produced free-hand but copied from rubbings, which helped ensure their faithfulness to the originals. [Guy 2000]

Fischer (1997) published new line drawings. These include lines scored with obsidian but not finished with a shark tooth which had not been recorded by Barthel because the rubbings he used did not show them, for example on tablet N. (However, in line Gv4 shown in the section on writing instruments above, the light lines were recorded by both Fischer and Barthel.) There are other omissions, such as a sequence of glyphs at the transition from line Ca6 to Ca7 which are missing from Barthel, presumably because the carving went over the side of the tablet and was missed by Barthel's rubbing. (This is right in the middle of Barthel's calendar.) However, other discrepancies between the two records are straightforward contradictions. For instance, the initial glyph of I12 (line 12 of the Santiago Staff) in Fischer [Fischer 1997:451] does not correspond with that of Barthel [Barthel 1958: Appendix] or Philippi, [Philippi 1875] which agree with each other, and Barthel's rubbing (below) is incompatible with Fischer's drawing. Barthel's annotation, "Original doch 53.76!" ("original indeed 53.76!"), suggests that he specifically verified Philippi's reading:

:In addition, the next glyph (glyph 20, a "spindle with three knobs") is missing its right-side "sprout" (glyph 10) in Philippi's drawing. This may be the result of an error in the inking, since there is a blank space in its place. The corpus is thus tainted with quite some uncertainty. It has never been properly checked for want of high-quality photographs. [Guy 1998a]


As with most undeciphered scripts, there are many fanciful interpretations and claimed translations of rongorongo. However, apart from a portion of one tablet which has been shown to have to do with a lunar calendar, none of the texts are understood. There are three serious obstacles to decipherment, assuming rongorongo is truly writing: the small number of remaining texts, the lack of context such as illustrations in which to interpret them, and the poor attestation of the Old Rapanui language since modern Rapanui is heavily mixed with Tahitian and is therefore unlikely to closely reflect the language of the tablets. [Englert 1970:80]

The prevailing opinion is that rongorongo is not true writing but proto-writing, or even a more limited mnemonic device for genealogy, choreography, navigation, astronomy, or agriculture. For example, the "Atlas of Languages" states, "It was probably used as a memory aid or for decorative purposes, not for recording the Rapanui language of the islanders". [Comrie "et al." 1996:100] If this is the case, then there is little hope of ever deciphering it.Other examples of protowriting, such as the Dongba script of China, have proved impossible to read without help. However, the original conclusion that rongorongo did not encode language may have been based on spurious statistics. See decipherment of rongorongo for details.] For those who believe it to be writing, there is debate as to whether rongorongo is essentially logographic or syllabic, though it appears to be compatible with neither a pure logography nor a pure syllabary. [Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov, 2007]




: cite journal |author=aut|Bahn, Paul |year=1996 |title=Cracking the Easter Island code |url= |journal=New Scientist |volume=150 |issue=2034 |pages=36–39 : cite book |author=aut|Barthel, Thomas S. |authorlink=Thomas Barthel |year=1958 |title=Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift (Bases for the Decipherment of the Easter Island Script) |location=Hamburg |publisher=Cram, de Gruyter De icon: cite journal |author=———— |year=1958 |month=June |title=The 'Talking Boards' of Easter Island |journal=Scientific American |volume=198 |pages=61–68 : cite journal |author=———— |year=1959 |title=Neues zur Osterinselschrift (News on the Easter Island Script) |journal=Zeitschrift für Ethnologie |volume=84 |pages=161–172 De icon: cite book |author=———— |year=1971 |title=Pre-contact Writing in Oceania | series = [ Current Trends in Linguistics] |volume=8 |pages=1165–1186 |location=Den Haag, Paris |publisher=Mouton : cite book |author=aut|Buck, Peter H. |year=1938 |title=Vikings of the Pacific |location=Chicago |publisher=University of Chicago Press : cite journal |author=aut|Carroll, Alan |year=1892 |title=The Easter Island inscriptions, and the translation and interpretation of them |journal=Journal of the Polynesian Society |volume=1 |pages=103–106, 233–252 : cite book |author=aut|Chauvet, Stéphen-Charles |authorlink=Stéphen Chauvet |year=2004 |origyear=1935 |title=L'île de Pâques et ses mystères (Easter Island and its Mysteries) |others=on-line translation by Ann Altman |url= |location=Paris |publisher=Éditions Tel Fr icon: cite book |author=aut|Comrie, Bernard |coauthors=aut|Stephen Matthews; aut|Maria Polinsky |year=1996 |title=The Atlas of Languages |location=London |publisher=Quarto : cite book |author=aut|Cooke, George H |year=1899 |chapter="Te Pito te Henua," known as "Rapa Nui," commonly called Easter Island |title=Report of the United States National Museum for 1897 |pages=689–723 |location=Washington |publisher=Government Printing Office : cite book |author=aut|Dederen, François |coauthors=aut|Steven Roger Fischer |year=1993 |chapter=Traditional Production of the Rapanui Tablets |editor=Fischer |title=Easter Island Studies: Contributions to the History of Rapanui in Memory of William T. Mulloy | series = Oxbow Monograph |volume=32 |location=Oxford |publisher= [ Oxbow Books] : cite book |author=aut|Englert, Sebastian |authorlink=Sebastian Englert |year=1970 |title=Island at the Center of the World |others=edited and translated by William Mulloy |location=New York |publisher=Charles Scribner's Sons : cite book |author=———— |year=1993 |title=La tierra de Hotu Matu‘a — Historia y Etnología de la Isla de Pascua, Gramática y Diccionario del antiguo idioma de la isla (The Land of Hotu Matu‘a: History and Ethnology of Easter Island, Grammar and Dictionary of the Old Language of the Island) | edition = 6th edition |location=Santiago de Chile |publisher= [ Editorial Universitaria] Es icon: cite book |author=———— |year=2002 |origyear=1980 |title=Legends of Easter Island |others=translation by Ben LeFort and Pilar Pacheco of "Leyendas de Isla de Pascua (textos bilingües)" [Santiago de Chile: Ediciones de la Universidad de Chile] |publisher=Father Sebastian Englert Anthropological Museum |location=Easter Island : cite book |author=aut|Eyraud, Eugène |authorlink=Eugène Eyraud |year=1886 |title=Annales de la Propagation de la Foi (Annals of the Propagation of the Faith) |pages=36: 52–71, 124–138. Lyon Fr icon: cite book |author=aut|Fischer, Steven Roger |year=1997 |title=RongoRongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Texts |location=Oxford and New York |publisher=Oxford University Press : cite book |author=aut|Flenley, John R. |coauthors=aut|Paul G. Bahn |year=1992 |title=Easter Island, Earth Island |location=London |publisher=Thames & Hudson : cite journal |author=aut|Guy, Jacques B.M. |year=1998a |title=Un prétendu déchiffrement des tablettes de l'île de Pâques (A purported decipherment of the Easter Island tablets) |journal=Journal de la Société des océanistes |volume=106 |pages=57–63 Fr icon: cite web |url= |title=Rongorongo: The Easter Island Tablets |accessdate=2008-04-11 |author=———— |date=1998b : cite web |url= |accessdate=2008-04-20 |title=The Rongorongo of Easter Island: The Hand-Drawn Reproductions |author=———— |year=2000 : cite journal |author=aut|Haberlandt, Michael |authorlink=:de:Michael Haberlandt |year=1886 |title=Ueber Schrifttafeln von der Osterinsel (On the written tablets of Easter Island) |journal= [ Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien] |volume=16 |pages=97–102 De icon: cite book |author=aut|Lee, Georgia |year=1992 |title=The Rock Art of Easter Island: Symbols of Power, Prayers to the Gods |location=Los Angeles |publisher= [ UCLA Institute of Archaeology Publications] : cite book |author=aut|Macri, Martha J. |origyear=1995 |year=1996 |chapter=RongoRongo of Easter Island |editor=Daniels and Bright |title=The World's Writing Systems |location=New York, Oxford |publisher=Oxford University Press |pages=183–188 : cite journal |author=aut|Métraux, Alfred |authorlink=Alfred Métraux |year=1938 |title=Two Easter Island Tablets in the Bernice P. Bishop Museum |journal=Man |volume=38 |issue=1 |pages=1–4 |location=London |publisher=Royal Anthropological Institute |doi=10.2307/2789179 : cite journal |author=———— |year=1940 |title=Ethnology of Easter Island |journal=Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin |volume=160 |location=Honolulu |publisher=Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press : cite journal |author=aut|McLaughlin, Shawn |year=2004 |title=Rongorongo and the Rock Art of Easter Island |journal= [ Rapa Nui Journal] |volume=18 |pages=87–94 : cite book |author=aut|Orliac, Catherine |year=2003/2004 |title=Manifestation de l'expression symbolique en Océanie : l'exemple des bois d'œuvre de l'Ile de Pâques (Manifestation of symbolic expression in Oceania: The example of the woodworking of Easter Island) | series = Cultes, rites et religions |volume=V |pages=(6): 48–53 Fr icon: cite journal |author=———— |year=2005 |title=The Rongorongo Tablets from Easter Island: Botanical Identification and 14C Dating |url= |journal= [ Archaeology in Oceania] |volume=40 |issue=3 |pages=115–119 : cite journal |author=———— |year=2007 |title=Botanical Identification of the Wood of the Large "Kohau Rongorongo" Tablet of St Petersburg |journal= [ Rapa Nui Journal] |volume=21 |issue=1 |pages=7–10 : cite journal |author=aut|Philippi, Rudolfo A. |year=1875 |title=Iconografia de la escritura jeroglífica de los indigenas de la isla de Pascua (Iconography of the hieroglyphic writing of the natives of Easter Island) |journal= [ Anales de la Universidad de Chile] |volume=47 |pages=670–683 Es icon: cite journal |author=aut|Pozdniakov, Konstantin |year=1996 |title=Les Bases du Déchiffrement de l'Écriture de l'Ile de Pâques (The Bases of Deciphering the Writing of Easter Island) |url= |journal=Journal de la Société des océanistes |volume=103 |issue=2 |pages=289–303 Fr icon: cite journal |author=aut|Pozdniakov, Konstantin |coauthors=aut|Igor Pozdniakov |year=2007 |title=Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary Results of a Statistical Analysis |url= |journal= [ Forum for Anthropology and Culture] |volume=3 |pages=3–36 : cite book |author=aut|Routledge, Katherine |authorlink=Katherine Routledge |year=1919 |title=The Mystery of Easter Island: The story of an expedition |url= |location=London and Aylesbury |publisher=Hazell, Watson and Viney : cite book |author=aut|Skjølsvold, Arne |year=1994 |chapter=Archaeological Investigations at Anakena, Easter Island |editor=Arne Skjølsvold |title=Archaeological Investigations at Anakena, Easter Island | series = The Kon Tiki Museum Occasional Papers |volume=3 |location=Oslo |publisher= [ Kon-Tiki Museum] |pages=5–120

External links

* [ The Rongorongo of Easter Island] – the most complete and balanced description of rongorongo on the internet.
* Michael Everson's [ draft Unicode proposal for Rongorongo]
* " [ The Rock Art of Rapa Nui] " by Georgia Lee
* [ Additional coverage on Spanish Wikipedia]

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  • Rongorongo text V — Text V of the rongorongo corpus, the Honolulu oar, also known as Honolulu tablet 3 or Honolulu 3622, may be one of two dozen surviving rongorongo texts.Other namesV is the standard designation, from Barthel (1958). Fischer (1997) refers to it as… …   Wikipedia

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