- Independence, Missouri
official_name = Independence, Missouri
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Independence, Missouri
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = Counties
subdivision_name2 = Jackson
unit_pref = Imperial
area_total_km2 = 203.2
area_land_km2 = 202.9
area_water_km2 = 0.3
area_total_sq_mi = 78.5
area_land_sq_mi = 78.3
area_water_sq_mi = 0.1
population_total = 110,704
population_density_km2 = 558.4
population_density_sq_mi = 1446.3
timezone = Central (CST)
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = CDT
utc_offset_DST = -5
elevation_m = 315
elevation_ft = 1033
latd = 39 |latm = 4 |lats = 47 |latNS = N
longd = 94 |longm = 24 |longs = 24 |longEW = W
Independence is a city in Jackson County in the
U.S. stateof Missouri, and the fourth largest city in the state. It is part of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. As of 2007, the city had a total population of 110,704. [ [http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-04-29.xls Missouri by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1-R. Population Estimates (geographies ranked by estimate) ] ] Independence is one of two county seats of Jackson County,GR|6 and is known as the "Queen City of the Trails" [http://www.usacitiesonline.com/mocountyindependence.htm. Retrieved on 20 July 2008.] on account of having been the point of departure of the Santa Fe, California and Oregon Trails. The city also played a pivital role in the early history of the Latter Day Saint movement, and is home to the denominational headquarters of several Latter Day Saint groups, most notably the Community of Christ, whose Temple is located there.
Independence was originally inhabited by Missouri and Osage Indians, followed by the Spanish and a brief French tenure. It became part of the United States with the
Louisiana Purchaseof 1803. Lewis and Clarkrecorded in their journals that they stopped in 1804 to pick plums, raspberries, and wild apples at a site that would later form part of the city.
Independence was founded on
March 29, 1827and quickly became an important frontiertown. Independence was the farthest point westward on the Missouri Riverwhere steamboatsor other cargo vessels could travel, due to the convergence of the Kansas Riverwith the Missouri River approximately six miles west of town, near the current Kansas- Missouriborder. Independence immediately became a jumping-off point for the emerging fur trade, accommodating merchants and adventurers beginning the long trek westward on the Santa Fe Trail.
In 1831, members of the Latter Day Saint movement began moving to the Jackson County, Missouri area. Shortly thereafter,
Joseph Smith, Jr., their prophet, declared a spot just west of Courthouse Square to be the place for his prophesied temple of the New Jerusalem, in expectation of the Second Coming of Christ. Tension grew with local Missourians until finally the Latter-Day Saints were driven from the area. Several branches of this movement would gradually return to the city, with many making their headquarters there. These included the Community of Christ(formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), the Restoration Branchesand the Church of Christ (Temple Lot).
Independence saw great prosperity from the late 1830s through the mid-1840s, while the business of outfitting pioneers boomed. Between 1848 and 1868, it was a hub of the
Central Routeto California. On March 8, 1849, the Missouri General Assemblygranted a home-rule charterto the town and on July 18, 1849, William McCoywas elected as its first mayor. In the mid-1800s an Act of the United States Congressdefined Independence as the start of the Oregon Trail.
Independence saw two important battles during the Civil War: the first on
August 11, 1862when Confederate soldiers took control of the town, and the second in October 1864, which also resulted in a Southern victory. The war took its toll on Independence and the town was never able to regain its previous prosperity, although a flurry of building activity took place soon after the war. The rise of nearby Kansas City also contributed to the town's relegation to a place of secondary prominence in Jackson County, though Independence has retained its position as county seat until the present day.
Harry S. Trumangrew up in Independence, and in 1922 was elected judge of the County Court of Jackson County, Missouri (an administrative, not judicial, post). Although he was defeated for reelection in 1924, he won back the office in 1926 and was reelected in 1930. Truman performed his duties diligently, and won personal acclaim for several popular public works projects, including an extensive series of fine roads for the growing use of automobiles, the building of a new County Court building in Independence, and a series of twelve Madonna of the Trailmonuments to pioneer women dedicated across the country in 1928 and 1929. He would later return to the city after two terms as President. His wife, First Lady Bess Truman, was born and raised in Independence, and both are buried there. The Truman home and the Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museumare both located in Independence, as is one of Truman's boyhood residences.
Independence continues to be of great importance to the Latter Day Saint movement and is the headquarters of the Community of Christ. This denomination, the second-largest in the Latter Day Saint movement, has built a striking temple in Independence, and also maintains a large auditorium and other buildings nearby.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(the "Mormons") operates a sizable visitors' center adjacent to the Community of Christ Temple, which is located directly across the street from the original Temple Lotdesignated by Joseph Smith in 1830. The Lot itself is occupied by a small white-frame church building that serves as the headquarters and local meeting house for the Church of Christ (Temple Lot).
Independence is located at coor dms|39|4|47|N|94|24|24|W|city (39.079805, -94.406551)GR|1. It lies on the south bank of the Missouri River, near the western edge of the state.
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 78.4 square miles (203.2 km²), of which, 78.3 square miles (202.9 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.3 km²) of it (0.17%) is water.
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As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 113,288 people, 47,390 households, and 30,566 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 1,446.3 people per square mile (558.4/km²). There were 50,213 housing units at an average density of 641.1/sq mi (247.5/km²). Independence has a population of 111,806 in 1980 and 112,301 in 1990. [Encyclopedia of American History] The racial makeup of the city was 91.87% White, 2.59% African American, 0.70% Asian, 0.64% Native American, 0.46% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, and 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.69% of the population.
There were 47,390 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.9% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.5% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, and 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,012, and the median income for a family was $45,876. Males had a median income of $34,138 versus $25,948 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city was $19,384. About 6.4% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over.
Four school districts have areas within the city: Independence, Blue Springs,
Fort OsageSchools, and Raytown. Three public high schools are located within the city limits: Truman High School, William Chrisman High School, and Van Horn High School, all in the Independence School District.
Prior to Fall 2008, parts of western Independence in the Van Horn feeder pattern resided in the
Kansas City, Missouri School District, [ [http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-32978200_ITM Forum explores potential transfer of seven KC schools to Independence district. | Kansas City Star (Kansas City, MO) (September, 2007) ] ] but all of these students are now part of the Independence school district.
Colleges and universities
Midwest Genealogy Center, the largest stand-alone public genealogyresearch library in America.
* [http://www.koreanwarcenter.org/ The Center for the Study of the Korean War] , the largest
Korean Wararchive in the U.S., at Graceland University.
* [http://ci.independence.mo.us/nftm/TrailsResearch.aspx Merrill J. Mattes Research Library] , largest public research library in the U.S. focused on the Overland Trails, and the settlement of the American West. Located at the National Frontier Trails Museum.
*Truman Library Research Center, at the
Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum.
* [http://www.jchs.org/archives/archives.html Jackson County Historical Society Archives & Research Library] .
Mid-Continent Public Libraryoperates two general library branches in Independence.
Kansas City Public Libraryoperates the Trails West Branch in Independence.
"Santa-Cali-Gon Days" is an annual
Labor Dayfestival held in Independence intermittently since 1940and continuously since 1973, celebrating the city's heritage as the starting point of three major frontier trails: the Santa Fe, California and Oregon. The Santa-Cali-Gon celebration has changed throughout the years: During the 1940's, men grew their beards from one Sant-Cali-Gon to the next in beard growing contests, while the 1950's saw exhibitions of horses and covered wagons, together with numerous other items that might have been purchased in Independence before heading West. In more recent decades the festival, while retaining some of its old customs, has shifted to a carnival atmosphere, with numerous rides, booths and other venues offering a variety of food, beverages, crafts, entertainment (including Country and Gospel Musicsingers), and similar attractions.
Historic town square
Located in the historic center of town, the Independence town square features numerous family-owned shops surrounding the old main courthouse, which was modeled after
Philadelphia's Independence Hall. This courthouse houses Harry S. Truman's former courtroom, and his home is a short walk away. Both are available for tours. Also located on the square are the remains of the old county jail, now turned into a museum, which housed Frank James, among others. A farmers' market is held on the northeast side of the square on Saturdays, mid-May through Mid-September. The Santa-Cali-Con festival is also held on the square and nearby streets. [ [http://www.ci.independence.mo.us/Tourism/default.aspx City of Independence, Missouri ] ]
* [http://www.ci.independence.mo.us/nftm/ National Frontier Trails Museum] : Museum and interpretive center dedicated to the history of the Overland Trails and the settlement of the American West.
Harry S. Truman Presidential Library and Museum: Official library of the 33rd U.S. President.
* [http://www.hairwork.com/leila/ Leila's Hair Museum] : Museum of Victorian-era art of hair jewelry and wreaths.
* [http://www.hazelle.org/ Puppetry Arts Institute] : Includes puppets from around the world, a puppet resource center and stage.
Civil War sites
First Battle of Independence
*Union Headquarters Guard Building
*Company Headquarters (McCoy Bank)
*1859 Jail & Marshall's Home
Battle of Little Blue Riverand Second Battle of Independence
*Lawson Moore Home
*Jackman's Artillery Charge
*Shelby's Second Charge
*Jennison's Battle Line
*Cabell's Defense Line
*Price's Camp at Rock Creek
= Sister city =
Jim Butcher, New York Times Best Selling author
Teresa Carpenter, Pulitzer prizewinning journalist
Fatal1ty(Johnathan Wendel), professional e-sports player
Paul Henning, Created " The Beverly Hillbillies", " Green Acres", " Petticoat Junction"
Arliss Howard, actor on the TV show Medium
*Bob Lewis, former member and co-founder of
Albert Pujols, St. Louis Cardinals first baseman
Ginger Rogers, Legendary Academy Award-winning actress of musicals, dramas, and comedies. Silver screen dancing partner of Fred Astaire
Charles E. Spahr, CEO, Standard Oil of Ohio
David Stover, NASCARdriver
Rick Sutcliffe, Major League Baseball veteran and sports announcer
Bess Truman, 33rd First Lady of the United States
Harry S. Truman, 33rd President of the United States
Margaret Truman Daniel, daughter of Harry and Bess Truman
* [http://www.ci.independence.mo.us/ City's official website]
* [http://www.independencechamber.org/ Independence Chamber of Commerce]
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