Plasmodium species infecting humans and other primates

Plasmodium species infecting humans and other primates

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regnum = Protista
phylum = Apicomplexa
classis = Aconoidasida
ordo = Haemosporida
familia = Plasmodiidae
genus = "Plasmodium"
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "Plasmodium bouillize" "Plasmodium brasilianum" "Plasmodium bucki" "Plasmodium cercopitheci" "Plasmodium coatneyi" "Plasmodium coulangesi" "Plasmodium cynomolgi" "Plasmodium eylesi" "Plasmodium falciparum"
"Plasmodium fieldi" "Plasmodium foleyi" "Plasmodium fragile" "Plasmodium girardi" "Plasmodium georgesi" "Plasmodium gonderi" "Plasmodium hylobati" "Plasmodium inui" "Plasmodium jefferyi" "Plasmodium joyeuxi" "Plasmodium knowlesi" "Plasmodium lemuris" "Plasmodium malariae"
"Plasmodium ovale"
"Plasmodium percygarnhami" "Plasmodium petersi" "Plasmodium reichenowi" "Plasmodium rodhaini" "Plasmodium sandoshami" "Plasmodium semnopitheci" "Plasmodium schweitzi"
"Plasmodium silvaticum" "Plasmodium simiovale" "Plasmodium simium" "Plasmodium uilenbergi" "Plasmodium vivax" "Plasmodium youngei"

Species of "Plasmodium" infecting humans

*"Plasmodium falciparum" (the cause of malignant tertian malaria)
*"Plasmodium vivax" (the most frequent cause of benign tertian malaria)
*"Plasmodium ovale" (the other, less frequent, cause of benign tertian malaria)
*"Plasmodium malariae" (the cause of benign quartan malaria)
*"Plasmodium knowlesi"
*"Plasmodium brasilianum"
*"Plasmodium cynomolgi"
*"Plasmodium cynomolgi bastianellii"
*"Plasmodium inui"
*"Plasmodium rhodiani"
*"Plasmodium schweitzi"
*"Plasmodium semiovale"
*"Plasmodium simium" The first four listed here are the most common species that infect humans. With the use of the polymerase chain reaction additional species have been and are still being identified that infect humans. One possible experimental infection has been reported with "Plasmodium eylesi". Fever and low grade parasitemia were apparent at 15 days. The volunteer (Dr Bennett) had previously been infected by "Plasmodium cynomolgi" and the infection was not transferable to a gibbon ("P. eylesi" 's natural host) so this cannot be regarded as definitive evidence of its ability to infect humans. A second case has been reported that may have been a case of "P. eylesi" but the author was not certain of the infecting species. Tsukamoto M. (1977) An imported human malarial case characterized by severe multiple infections of the red blood cells. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 19(2)95-104] A possible infection with "Plasmodium tenue" has been reported. Russel P.F. (1928) "Plasmodium tenue" (Stephens): A review of the literature and a case report. Am. J. Trop. Med. s1-8(5) 449-479] This report described a case of malaria in a three year old black girl from Georgia, USA who had never been outside the US. She suffered from both "P. falciparum" and "P. vivax" malaria and while forms similar to those described for "P. tenue" were found in her blood even the author was skeptical about the validity of the diagnosis.

Confusingly "Plasmodium tenue" was proposed in the same year (1914) for a species found in birds. The human species is now considered to be likely to have been a misdiagnosis and the bird species is described on the "Plasmodium tenue" page. Notes: The only known host of "P. falciparum" are humans; neither is any other host currently known for "P. malariae." There has been a single report of "P. falciparum" in a brown howler monkey and in black howler monkeys ("Alouatta caraya") Duarte A.M., Malafronte R.D., Cerutti C. Jr., Curado I., de Paiva B.R., Maeda A.Y., Yamasaki T., Summa M.E., Neves D.D., de Oliveira S.G., Gomes A.D. (2008) Natural "Plasmodium" infections in Brazilian wild monkeys: Reservoirs for human infections? Acta Trop. ] but until this is confirmed its validity should be considered dubious. This paper also reported several cases of "P. malariae" in both species of monkey. Again this needs confirmation. "P. vivax" will infect chimpanzees. Infection tends to be low grade but may be persistent and remain as source of parasites for humans for some time. "P. vivax" is also known to infect orangutans Reid M.J. (2006) Transmission of human and macaque "Plasmodium" spp. to ex-Captive orangutans in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 12(12):1902-1908] and the brown howler monkey ("Alouatta guariba clamitans")Duarte A.M., Malafronte R.D., Cerutti C. Jr., Curado I., de Paiva B.R., Maeda A.Y., Yamasaki T., Summa M.E., Neves D.D., de Oliveira S.G., Gomes A.D. (2008) Natural "Plasmodium" infections in Brazilian wild monkeys: Reservoirs for human infections? Acta Trop. ] Like "P. vivax", "P. ovale" has been shown to be transmittable to chimpanzees. "P. ovale" has a unusual distribution pattern being found in Africa, the Philippines and New Guinea. In spite of its admittedly poor transmission to chimpanzees given its discontigous spread, it is suspected that "P. ovale" may in fact be a zooenosis with an as yet unidentified host. If this is actually the case, the host seems likely to be a primate. The remaining species capable of infecting humans all have other primate hosts. "Plasmodium shortii" and "Plasmodium osmaniae" are now considered to be junior synonyms of "Plasmodium inui"

Species previously described as infecting humans but no longer recognised as valid

Taxonomy in parasitology until the advent of DNA based methods has always been a problem and revisions in this area are continuing. A number of synonoms have been given for the species infecting humans that are no longer recognised as valid. Coatney G.R., Roudabush R.L. (1936) A catalog and host-index of the genus "Plasmodium". J. Parasitol. 22(4): 338-353] Since perusal of the older literature may be confusing some currently defunct species names are listed here.

"P. camerense" "P. causiasium" "P. golgi" "P. immaculatum" "P. laverani var. tertium" "P. laverani var. quartum" "P. malariae var. immaculatum" "P. malariae var. incolor" "P. malariae var. irregularis" "P. malariae var. parva" "P. malariae var. quartanae" "P. malariae var. quotidianae" "P. perniciosum" "P. pleurodyniae"
"P. praecox" "P. quartana"
"P. quotidianum" "P. sedecimanae" "P. tenue" "P. undecimanae" "P. vegesio-tertaniae" "P. vivax-minuta"

Infections in primates

Listing The species that infect primates other than humans include: "P. bouillize", "P. brasilianum", "P. bucki", "P. cercopitheci","P. coatneyi", "P. coulangesi", "P. cynomolgi", "P. eylesi", "P. fieldi", "P. foleyi", "P. fragile", "P. girardi", "P. georgesi", "P. gonderi", "P. hylobati", "P. inui", "P. jefferyi", "P. joyeuxi", "P. knowlesi", "P. lemuris", "P. percygarnhami", "P. petersi", "P. reichenowi", "P. rodhaini", "P. sandoshami", "P. semnopitheci", "P. silvaticum", "P. simiovale", "P. simium", "P. uilenbergi", "P. vivax" and "P. youngei". Host records - Most if not all "Plasmodium" species infect more than one host: the host records shown here should be regarded as incomplete.
*"P. bouillize" - "Cercopithecis campbelli"
*"P. brasilianum" - "Alouatta fusca", "Alouatta palliata", "Alouatta seniculus straminea", "Alouatta villosa", several night monkey ("Aotus") species, "Ateles fusciceps", "Ateles geoffroyi", "Ateles geoffroyi grisescens", "Ateles paniscus", "Ateles paniscus paniscus", "Ateles paniscus chamek", "Brachyteles arachnoides", "Callicebus moloch ornatus", "Callicebus torquatus", "Cebus albifrons", "Cebus apella", "Cebus capucinus", "Cebus capucinus capucinus", "Cebus capucinus imitator", "Chiropotes chiropotes", "Lagothrix cana", "Lagothrix infumata", "Lagothrix lagotricha", "Saimiri boliviense" and "Saimiri sciureus".

*"P. bucki" - "Lemur macaco macaco"
*"P. cercopitheci" - "Cercopithecis nictitans"
*"P. coatneyi" - several macaque species: "Macaca fascicularis" and "Macaca irus".
*"P. coulangesi" - "Lemur macaco macaco"
*"P. cynomolgi" - "Macaca arctoides", "Macaca cyclopis", "Macaca fascicularis", "Macaca mulatta", "Macaca nemestrina", "Macaca radiata", "Macaca sinica", "orangutans" ("Pongo"), "Presbytis cristatus" and "Presbytis entellus"
*"P. eylesi" - several gibbon ("Hylobates") species including "Hylobates lar"
*"P. fieldi" - "Macaca fascicularis" and "Macaca nemestrina"
*"P. foleyi" - "Lemur fulvus rufus"
*"P. fragile" - several macaque species - "Macaca fascicularis", "Macaca mulatta", "Macaca radiata", and "Macaca sinica"
*"P. georgesi" - "Cercocebus albigena"
*"P. girardi" - "Lemur fulvus rufus", "Lemur macaco macaco"
*"P. gonderi" - Mangabeys: "Cercocebus albigena", "Cercocebus aterrimus", "Cercocebus atys", "Cercocebus galeritus agilus" and drills ("Mandrillus leucophaeus")
*"P. hylobati" - several gibbon ("Hylobates") species including "Hylobates lar" and "Hylobates moloch"
*"P. inui" - the Celebes black ape ("Cynopithecus niger"), "Macaca fascicularis", "Macaca mulatta", "Macaca nemestrina", "Macaca radiata" and several "Presbytis" species
*"P. jefferyi" - several gibbon ("Hylobates") species
*"P. joyeuxi" - "Cercopithecis callitricus"
*"P. knowlesi" - "Macaca fascicularis", "Macaca nemestrina", and "Presbytis malalophus"
*"P. knowlesi edesoni" - the Javanese long-tailed macaque ("Macaca irus")
*"P. lemuris" - the lemur "Lemur collaris", "Lemur macaco macaco"

*"P. malariae" - the brown howler monkey ("Alouatta guariba clamitans") and the black howler monkey ("Alouatta caraya")
*"P. percygarnhami" - "Lemur macaco macaco"
*"P. petersi" - "Cercocebus albigena"
*"P. pitheci" - orangutans ("Pongo pygmaeus")
*"P. reichenowi" - chimpanzee ("Pan") species and gorilla ("Gorilla") species
*"P. rodhaini" - chimpanzee ("Pan") species and gorilla ("Gorilla") species
*"P. sandoshami" - the Malayan flying lemur ("Cynocephalus variegatus")
*"P. semnopitheci" - "Semnopithecus entellus"
*"P. schwetzi" - chimpanzee ("Pan") species and gorilla ("Gorilla") species
*"P. semiovale" - "Macaca sinica"
*"P. shortii" - "Macaca radiata", and "Macaca sinica"
*"P. silvaticum" - orangutans ("Pongo pygmaeus")
*"P. simium" - the woolly spider monkey ("Brachyteles arachnoides") and several howler monkeys ("Alouatta") species including "Alouatta fusca"
*"P. uilenbergi" - "Lemur fulvus fulvus"
*"P. vivax" - orangutans ("Pongo species"), chimpanzees ("Pan") monkeys ("Saimiri boliviensis"Collins W.E., Sullivan J.S., Nace D., Williams T., Williams A., Barnwell J.W. (2008) Observations on the sporozoite transmission of "Plasmodium vivax" to monkeys. Parasitol. 94(1):287-288.] , "Aotus lemurinus griseimambra" Collins W.E., Richardson B.B., Morris C.L., Sullivan J.S., Galland G.G. (1998) Salvador II strain of "Plasmodium vivax" in "Aotus" monkeys and mosquitoes for transmission-blocking vaccine trials. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59(1):29-34.] , the brown howler monkey ("Alouatta guariba clamitans") and tamarins ("Saguinus mystax" and "Saguinus fuscicollis")
*"P. youngei" - the white handed gibbon ("Hylobates lar")

Primate mosquito vectors

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) arabensis" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) argyritarsi" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) artemievi" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) atroparvus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) aztecus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) baimaii" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) balabacensis" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) beklemishevi" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) benarrochi" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Kertezia) bifurcatus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) braziliensis" - "P. vivax"

*" Anopheles (Kertezia) claviger" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) coustani" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) culicifacies" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) deaneorum" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) dirus" - "P. cynomolgi", "P. inui", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) epiroticus" - "P. vivax"
*"Anopheles (Cellia) farauti" - "P. coatneyi", "P. vivax"Collins W.E., Sullivan J.S., Nace D., Williams T., Sullivan J.J., Galland G.G.,Grady K.K., Bounngaseng A. (2002) Experimental infection of "Anopheles farauti" with different species of "Plasmodium". J. Parasitol. 88(2):295-298.]

*"Anopheles (Cellia) flavirostris" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) freeborni" - "P. vivax" Collins W.E., Morris C.L., Richardson B.B., Sullivan J.S., Galland G.G. (1994) Further studies on the sporozoite transmission of the Salvador I strain of "Plasmodium vivax". J. Parasitol. 80(4):512-517 ]
*"Anopheles (Cellia) funestus" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) fluviatilis" - "P. vivax"
*" Anopheles (Cellia) gambiae" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) hyrcanus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) introlatus" - "P. cynomolgi", "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles kleini" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) kochi" - "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) latens" - "P. knowlesi" Tan C.H., Vythilingam I., Matusop A., Chan S.T., Singh B. (2008) Bionomics of "Anopheles latens" in Kapit, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo in relation to the transmission of zoonotic simian malaria parasite "Plasmodium knowlesi". Malar. J. 7:52]

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri" - "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) letifer" - "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) leucosphyrus" - "P. eylesi", "P. vivax"
*"Anopheles (Cellia) maculatus" - "P. eylesi", "P. vivax", "P. youngei"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara" - "P. vivax"

*" Anopheles (Anopheles) maculipennis" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) martinius" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) mediopunctatus" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) melas" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) merus" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) messeae" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) minimus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) moucheti" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) nili" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) paludis" - "P. falciparum"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) pulcherrimus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) pullus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) punctipennis" - "P. vivax"
*"Anopheles (Cellia) quadrimaculatus" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles riparis macarthuri" - "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) roperi" - "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) sacharovi" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) sergentii" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) sinensis" - "P. eylesi", "P. vivax"
*"Anopheles (Cellia) stephensi" - "P. cynomogli", "P. inui", "P. vivax"
*"Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus" - "P. eylesi", "P. vivax", "P. youngei"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) superpictus" - "P. vivax"
*"Anopheles (Cellia) tessellatus" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) triannulatus" - "P. falciparum", "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) trinkae" - "P. vivax"

*"Anopheles (Anopheles) umbrosus" - "P. eylesi"

*"Anopheles (Cellia) vagus" - "P. eylesi"

Primate subspecies

*"P. cynomolgi" - "P. cynomolgi bastianelli" and "P. cynomolgi ceylonensis".
*"P. inui" - "P. inui inui" and "P. inui shortii"
*"P. knowlesi" - "P. knowlesi edesoni" and "P. knowlesi knowlesi".
*"P. vivax" - "P. vivax hibernans", "P. vivax chesson" and "P. vivax multinucleatum".

Interrelatedness - The evolution of these species is still being worked out and the relationships given here should be regarded as tentative. This grouping, while originally made on morphological grounds, now has considerable support at the DNA level.
*"P. brasilianum", "P. inui" and "P. rodhaini" are similar to "P. malariae"
*"P. cynomolgi", "P. fragile", "P. knowlesi", "P. simium" and "P. schwetzi" are similar to "P. vivax"
*"P. fieldi" and "P. simiovale" are similar to "P. ovale"
*"P. falciparum" is closely related to "P. reichenowi".


*"P. kochi" has been described as a parasite of monkeys. This species is currently classified as "Hepatocystis kochi". This may be subject to revision.
*"P. brasilianum" and "P. rodhaini" seem likely to be the same species as "P. malariae."
*"P. lemuris" may actually belong to the "Haemoproteus" genus. Clarification of this point awaits DNA examination.
*"P. shortii" is currently (2007) regarded as a junior synonym of "P. inui".


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