Abrasive machining

Abrasive machining

Abrasive Machining is a manufacturing process where material is removed from a workpiece using a multitude of small abrasive particles. Common examples include grinding, honing, and polishing. Abrasive processes are usually expensive, but capable of tighter tolerances and better surface finish than other manufacturing processes.

Mechanics of Abrasive Machining

Abrasive machining works by forcing the abrasive particles, or grains, into the surface of the workpiece so that each particle cuts away a small bit of material. Abrasive machining is similar to conventional machining, such as milling or turning, because each of the abrasive particles acts like a miniature cutting tool. However, unlike conventional machining the grains are much smaller than a cutting tool, and the geometry and orientation of individual grains are not well defined. As a result, abrasive machining is less power efficient and generates more heat.

Abrasive Machining Processes

Abrasive machining processes can be divided into two categories based on how the grains are applied to the workpiece. In bonded abrasive processes, the particles are held together within a matrix, and their combined shape determines the geometry of the finished workpiece. For example, in grinding the particles are bonded together in a wheel. As the grinding wheel is fed into the part, its shape is transferred onto the workpiece. In loose abrasive processes, there is no structure connecting the grains. They may be applied without lubrication as dry powder, or they may be mixed with a lubricant to form a slurry. Since the grains can move independently, they must be forced into the workpiece with another object like a polishing cloth or a lapping plate. Common abrasive processes are listed below.

Bonded Abrasive Processes

*Honing, superfinishing
*Tape finishing, abrasive belt machining
*Buffing, brushing
*Abrasive sawing, Diamond wire cutting, Wire saw

Loose Abrasive Processes

* Polishing
* Lapping
*Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM)
*Water-jet cutting
*Abrasive blasting
*Mass finishing, tumbling
**Open barrel tumbling
**Vibratory bowl tumbling
**Centrifugal disc tumbling
**Centrifugal barrel tumbling


The most important property of an abrasive is its hardness. For abrasive grains to effectively cut, they must be significantly harder than the workpiece material. They can be grouped based on their hardness into two categories: conventional abrasives and superabrasives. Conventional abrasive materials have been used by man since the advent of machining. They are made of materials that exist naturally on Earth, and they are abundant and cheap. Conventional abrasives can suitably machine most materials. Superabrasives are much harder than conventional abrasives. Since they are much more expensive, they are the used when conventional abrasives will not suffice. Common abrasives are listed below.


*Aluminum oxide (Corundum)
*Silicon carbide


*Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN), Borazon


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Abrasive machining — Abrasive machining. См. Абразивная обработка. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • Abrasive blasting — Sandblasting a stone wall Diesel powered compressor used as an air supply for sandblasting …   Wikipedia

  • Abrasive — An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away. While finishing a material often means polishing it to gain a smooth, reflective surface …   Wikipedia

  • abrasive — abrasively, adv. abrasiveness, n. /euh bray siv, ziv/, n. 1. any material or substance used for grinding, polishing, etc., as emery, pumice, or sandpaper. adj. 2. tending to abrade; causing abrasion; abrading. 3. tending to annoy or cause ill… …   Universalium

  • Abrasive flow machining — (AFM) was developed by Extrude Hone Corporation in 1966, AFM is a very precise and economical method of smoothing and polishing internal surfaces and producing controlled radii. The process is particularly useful for difficult to reach internal… …   Wikipedia

  • Abrasive flow machining — Abrasive flow machining. См. Абразивная механическая обработка потоком. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • Abrasive jet machining — Abrasive jet machining. См. Механическая обработка струйным долотом. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • Machining — Machine shop redirects here. For the record label, see Machine Shop Recordings. New Guinea in 1943. Mobile Machine Shop truck of the US Army with machinists working on automotive parts. Conventional machining is a form of subtractive… …   Wikipedia

  • Abrasive jet machining — For the process that uses water as a carrier, see Water jet cutter. Abrasive jet machining (AJM), also known as abrasive micro blasting, pencil blasting and micro abrasive blasting,[1] is an abrasive blasting machining process that uses abrasives …   Wikipedia

  • abrasive-jet machining — abrazyvinis čiurkšlinis apdirbimas statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. abrasive jet machining vok. Strahlläppen, n rus. абразивная струйная обработка, f pranc. traitement par jet abrasif, m …   Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”