"Esperantido" is the term used within the
Esperantoand constructed languagecommunities to describe a language project based on or inspired by Esperanto. "Esperantido" originally referred to the language of that name, which later came to be known as Ido. The word "Esperantido" is derived from "Esperanto" plus the suffix "-ido" (a descendant). Thus "Esperantido" literally means "an offspring of Esperanto".
A number of Esperantidos have been created to address a number of perceived flaws or weaknesses of Esperanto, or of other Esperantidos, attempting to improve their lexicon, grammar, pronunciation, and orthography. (See common criticisms.) Others were created as language games or to add variety to Esperanto literature. The only Esperantido in common use is Ido.
These are attempted improvements that were intended to replace Esperanto. Limited suggestions for improvement within the framework of Esperanto, such as orthographic reforms and
riism, are not considered Esperantidos. [Some of the more common letter substitutions are: [http://www.spellingsociety.org/journals/j5/lords.php]
*The English and French values of "ts, w," and "y" for "c, ŭ," and "j," and either English "zh" and "j" or French "j" and "dj" for "ĵ" and "ĝ"
*"X" for "ĥ," reflecting its use in Spanish and the
IPA; other proposals follow common usage and eliminate the rare letter "ĥ" entirely, and use "x" for "ks" and "kz"
*"Qu" for "kv"
*Single letters for the fricatives and digraphs for the affricates. Generally in such proposals "j" and "dj" stand in for "ĵ" and "ĝ" (IPA2|ʒ and IPAlink|dʒ). For "ŝ" and "ĉ" (IPAlink|ʃ and IPAlink|tʃ), there are two principal approaches, either "c" or "x" for "ŝ" and therefore either "tc" or "tx" for "ĉ." The "c, tc" approach is reminiscent of French "ch, tch" for the same values, while the "x, tx" approach is found in Basque and to a lesser extent in Catalan and Portuguese (with "tx" in native Brazilian names).]
"Mundolingo" (1888) was the first Esperantido, created in 1888. Changes from Esperanto include combining the adjective and adverb under the suffix "-e," loss of the accusative and adjectival agreement, changes to the verb conjugations, eliminating the diacritics, and bringing the wordstock closer to Latin, for example with superlative "-osim-" to replace the Esperanto particle "plej" "most".
Zamenhof himself proposed several changes in the language in 1894, which were rejected by the Esperanto community. It has been suggested that Zamenhof made the changes radical to assure their rejection and thus to reinforce the established version.Fact|date=March 2007
Ido(1907), the foremost of the Esperantidos, sought to bring Esperanto into closer alignment with Western European expectations of an ideal language, based on familiarity with French, English, and Italian. Reforms included changing the spelling by removing non-Roman letters such as "ĉ" and re-introducing the "k/q" dichotomy; removing a couple of the more obscure phonemic contrasts (one of which, IPA| [x] , has been effectively removed from standard Esperanto); ending the infinitives in "-r" and the plurals in "-i" like Italian; eliminating adjectival agreement, and removing the need for the accusative case by setting up a fixed default word order; reducing the amount of inherent gender in the vocabulary, providing a masculine suffix and an epicenethird-person singular pronoun; replacing the pronouns and correlatives with forms more similar to the Romance languages; adding new roots where Esperanto uses the antonymic prefix "mal-"; replacing much of Esperanto's other regular derivation with separate roots, which are thought to be easier for Westerners to remember; and replacing much of the Germanic and Slavic vocabulary with Romance forms, such as "navo" for English-derived "ŝipo". An example of an Ido "Pater noster" is given below.
Ido spawned its own idos, the first being
Adjuvilo(1908), which was created by an Esperantist to sow dissent in the Ido community.
René de Saussure(brother of linguist Ferdinand de Saussure) published numerous esperantido proposals, starting with a response to Ido later called "Antido 1" ("Anti-Ido 1") in 1907, which increasingly diverged from Esperanto before finishing with a more conservative Esperanto IIin 1937. Esperanto II replaced "j" with "y," "kv" with "q, kz" with "x," and diacritic letters with "j (ĵ & ĝ), w (ŭ)," and digraphs "sh (ŝ), ch (ĉ)"; replaced the passive in "-iĝ-" with "-ev-," the indefinite ending "-aŭ" with adverbial "-e," the accusative "-on" on nouns with "-u," and the plural on nouns with "-n" (so "membrun" for "membrojn" "members"); dropped adjectival agreement; broke up the table of concords, changed other small grammatical words such as "ey" for "kaj" "and", and treated pronouns more like nouns, so that the plural of "li" "he" is "lin" rather than "ili" "they", and the accusative of "ĝi" "it" is "ju."
Esperanto sen fleksio
"Esperanto sen fleksio" (Esperanto without inflexion), proposed under this name by Richard Harrison in 1996 [Kennaway, Richard; [http://www2.cmp.uea.ac.uk/~jrk/conlang.html Some Internet resources relating to constructed languages] ; 7 January 2005; retrieved on 29 July 2008] [ [http://www.allverbs.com/language.php?id=63213 Esperanto sen Fleksio] ; Allverbs; retrieved on 29 July 2008] [ [http://languages.miensk.com/Lang_other/Artificial/Artificial1.htm МОВЫ СВЕТУ] ; Languages of the world; retrieved on 29 July 2008] but based on long-term complaints from Asian Esperantists, is a morphologically reduced variety of Esperanto. The main changes are: [ [http://www.rickharrison.com/language/esf.html] ] [ [http://jerome.desquilbet.org/pages/256/] ]
*Loss of the
plural(the suffix "-j),"
*Loss of the
accusative case(the suffix "-n),"
verb tense: past, present, and future are all subsumed under the infinitive ending "-i,"
*Loss of the article "la,"
*The letter "ŭ" is replaced with "w."
While most Esperantidos aim to simplify Esperanto, "
Poliespo" (" polysyntheticEsperanto", "ca" 1993) makes it considerably more complex. Besides the polysynthetic morphology, it incorporates much of the phonology and vocabulary of the Cherokee language. It has fourteen vowels, six of them nasalized, and three tones.
"Sen:esepera" (1996) is an unfinished attempt to make Esperanto's phonology (sounds) more accessible to those who are monolingual in a language with a restricted sound set. The consonantal phonemes are limited to fourteen found in 75% of a small sample of natural languages, /p t k b d g f s h m n l r j/. (Thus the "esepera" in its name, from Esperanto "espera.") /k/ is written "c," and /j/ is "i," so /kajm/ is spelled "caim." (This is the most complex syllable possible, consonant + vowel + "i" + "m" or "n.") Consonant clusters are broken up with the vowel "e," so "lingvo" becomes "linegefa" and "scienco" /stsientso/ becomes "secienca" /sekienka/.
Nouns end in "a," adjectives in "n" or "m," verbs in "i," adverbs in "e," the three personal pronouns in "u" (1st person "imu," 2nd "tu," 3rd "hu)," numerals in "in," prepositions and conjunctions in "o" ("and" is a bare "o)." There is no tense, number, case, or gender. The phonological simplification made many morphologically complex words difficult to recognize, so the colon <:> is used to join morphemes, and the morphology is simplified. The correletives are largely replaced with compound words. [ [http://www.langmaker.com/ml0105.htm] ]
Esperantidos for amusement
There are also extensions of Esperanto which are created for amusement.
One of the more interesting Esperantidos, grammatically, is "Universal" (1923–1928) [ [http://www.math.bas.bg/~iad/univers.html Universal ] ] It adds a
schwato break up consonant clusters, marks the accusative case with a nasal vowel, has inclusive and exclusive pronouns, uses partial reduplicationfor the plural ("tablo" "table", "tatablo" "tables"), and inversion for antonyms ("mega" "big", "gema" "little"; "donu" "give", "nodu" "receive"; "tela" "far", "leta" "near"). Inversion can be seen in,::"Al gefinu o fargu kaj la egnifu o grafu."
::He finished reading ["lit." 'to read'] and she started to write.
The antonyms are "al" "he" and "la" "she" (compare "li" "s/he"), the "ge-" (completive) and "eg-" (inchoative) aspects, "fin-" "to finish" and "nif-" "to begin", and "graf-" "to write" and "farg-" "to read".
The "Universal" reduplicated plural and inverted antonyms are reminiscent of the musical language
"Esperant’" ("ca" 1998) [ [http://www.geocities.com/mihxil/esperant/esperant.html] ] is a style of speech that twists but does not quite violate the grammar of Esperanto.
The changes are morphological:
* The nominal suffix "-o" is removed, as in poetry. "Knabo" becomes "knab’."
* The plural ending "-oj" is replaced with the collective suffix "-ar-." "Knaboj" becomes "knabar’."
* Adjectives lose their "-a" suffixes and combine with their head nouns. "Bela knabino" becomes "belknabin’."
* In direct objects, the accusative suffix "-n" is replaced with the preposition "je." "Knabon" becomes "je knab’."
* Verbs become nouns, and their erstwhile tense and mood suffixes move elsewhere:
**This may be an adverb or
prepositional phrase: "donu hodiaŭ" becomes "hodiu don’," and "estas en la ĉielo" becomes "est’ ĉielas."
**If the verb contains a valency suffix, this may detach from the verb: "fariĝu" becomes "iĝu far’."
**If none of these options are available, "jen" may be used as a placeholder: "amas" becomes "jenas am’." The choice of where the tense suffix ends up is largely a stylistic choice.
* Subjects of the erstwhile verb take the preposition "de" if nouns, or became possessives if pronouns: "knabo amas" becomes "am’ de knab’," and "kiu estas" becomes "kies est’."
* The article "la" becomes "l’" whenever the preceding word ends in a vowel.
Example::Boys love the pretty girl.
:Esperanto: Knaboj amas la belan knabinon.
:"Esperant’:" Jenas am’ de knabar’ je l’ belknabin’.
Literally, "Behold (the) love of boys to the pretty-girl."
An example of an Esperant’ "Pater noster" is given below.
There are various projects to adapt Esperanto to specialized uses. "
Esperanto de DLT" (1983) is one; it was an adaptation of Esperanto as a pivot languagefor machine translation.
Esperantidos used in literature
Esperanto has little in the way of the
slang, dialectical variation, or archaisms found in natural languages. Several authors have felt a need for such variation, either for effect in original literature or to translate such variation in national literature.
Archaism and Arcaicam Esperantom
Proto-Esperantowould theoretically fulfill the need for archaism, but too little survives for it to be used extensively. In 1931 Kalman Kalocsaypublished a translation" [http://www.angelfire.com/mo2/bulteno/1199.html#4 Elektronika Bulteno de EASL] " includes the short story "La Mezepoka Esperanto" from "Lingvo Stilo Formo", 2nd cheap edition, Kalman Kalocsay, Budapest, Literatura Mondo, 1931.] of the Funeral Sermon and Prayer, the first Hungarian text (12th century), in which he created fictitious archaic forms as though Esperanto were a Romance language deriving from Vulgar Latin. Manuel Halvelikwent further in 1969 with a book on " Arcaicam Esperantom," where he laid out the grammar of a fictitious ancestor of modern Esperanto. It echos Proto-Esperanto in a more complex set of inflections, including dative and genitive cases ending in "-d" and "-es" and separate verbal inflections for person and number, as well as "retention" of digraphs such as "ph" and "tz," writing "c" for IPA| [k] , and the use of the letters "q", "y", "w".
Dialects and Popido
Occasionally reform projects have been used by Esperanto authors to play the role of dialects, for example standard Esperanto and Ido to translate a play written in two dialects of Italian. Havelik (1973) created "Popido" ("Popular Idiom") to play the role of a substandard register of Esperanto that, among other things, does away with much of Esperanto's inflectional system. For example, standard Esperanto
:"Redonu al tiu viro sian pafilon.":"Give that man back his gun."
is in Popido,
:"Redonu al tu vir si pistol."
Comparison of Esperanto, Ido, "Esperant"', and "Arcaicam Esperantom"
The Esperanto Pater noster follows, compared to the Ido, "Esperant’" and "Arcaicam Esperantom" versions.
Esperanto " Arcaicam Esperantom" Patro nia, kiu estas en la ĉielo,
sanktigata estu via nomo.
Venu via regno,
fariĝu via volo,
kiel en la ĉielo, tiel ankaŭ sur la tero.
Nian panon ĉiutagan donu al ni hodiaŭ.
Kaj pardonu al ni niajn ŝuldojn,
kiel ankaŭ ni pardonas al niaj ŝuldantoj.
Kaj ne konduku nin en tenton,
sed liberigu nin de la malbono.
Patrom nosam, cuyu estu in Chielom,
Estu sanctigitam Tuam Nomom.
Wenu Tuam Regnom,
Plenumizzu Tuam Wolom,
Cuyel in Chielom, ityel anquez sobrez Terom.
Nosid donu hodiez Panon nosan cheyutagan,
Ed nosid pardonu nosayn Pecoyn,
Cuyel anquez nos ityuyd cuyuy contrez nos pecait pardonaims.
Ed nosin ned conducu in Tenton,
Sed nosin liberigu ex Malbonom.
Ido Esperant’ Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez
quale en la cielo tale anke sur la tero.
Donez a ni cadie l'omnidiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.
Nipatr’, kies est’ ĉielas,
iĝu via nom’ sankt’.
Viu la regnalven’.
Iĝu via la volfar’,
kielas en la ĉiel’, tiel anku surtere.
Hodiu ĉiutagpandon’ nin.
Kaju la pardon’ al niofend’,
kiel ankas nipardon’ al ofendintar’ nia.
Kaju nea nia konduk’ entent’,
sedu nia la liberig’ de l’ malbon’.
* [http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-esperanto.html Patro Nia] ndash (pictured on a wall of the Convent of the Pater Noster)
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