- Gui de Cavalhon
Gui de Cavalhon, Cavaillo, or Gavaillo (fl. 1200–1229 [According to Egan, 43 n1, documents mention him frequently between 1205 and 1224.] ) was a
Provençalnobleman: a diplomat, warrior, and man of letters. He was probably also the Guionet who composed " tensos" and " partimens" with Cadenet, Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Mainart Ros, Pomairol, and a certain Guillem.
Knight and nobleman
Gui was born at
Cavaillonin the Valclusa, though there is no evidence of him residing there. He is first encountered at the court of Alfonso II of Provencein 1200–1207. In 1204 he was present at the marriage of Alfonso's elder brother, Peter II of Aragon, and Maria of Montpellier. Beginning in 1209 he was in the service of Raymond VI of Toulousefighting the Albigensian Crusade. In 1215 he accompanied Raymond to the Fourth Lateran Council. In 1216–1217 he was fighting in Provence, where he was a counsellor of Raymond Berengar IV. [Egan, 43 n1.] In 1220 he was besieged in Castelnoudari("Castel-Nou") by Amaury de Montfort. He later entered the Templar Order and became a counsellor of Raymond VII. For Raymond he led an embassy to Pope Honorius IIIand in 1225 he was rewarded with the title of viscountof Cavaillon. Gui was last mentioned in 1229.
Gui's career would have been little out of the ordinary for a 13th-century nobleman if not for his literary pursuits, for he was an accomplished
troubadourin the Occitan language, leaving behind five or six lyric poems (or fragments), including a " sirventes" and several "tensos". His fame as a troubadour was enough that a "vida" of his life, long by the genre's standards, survives. He is described in glowing terms as generous, courtly, charming, loved of the ladies and the people, a capable knight and warrior.Egan, 42.] Besides his surviving work, his biographer records his composition of "coblas" ( couplets) about love and "conversation" ("de solatz", perhaps signifying humour or pleasure).
His earliest "tenso" was with an otherwise unknown "Falco", which can be dated to 1200–7 on the basis of a charge of Falco's that Gui lived off the gifts of his patron, Count Alfonso: "Senh'En Guy, del comte, / don enquer vos sove, / N'Anfos vostre senhor, / don ac man palafre / ses fre vostra seror" ("Lord Sir Guy, you receive gifts from the count, Sir Alfonso your lord, your sister gifts of
palfreys without end"). The last part of this line is probably an obscene joke, alleging, with or without basis, that Gui's sister had a sexual relationship with Alfonso.
In 1215, on their way to IV Lateran, Gui and his Raymond VI composed a short "partimen" about the invasion of Raymond's land and the possible recovery of lost ground. In 1220 while besieged in Castelnouardi he addressed a poem to
Bertran Folcon d'Avignonwhich survives in its entirety appended to his "vida". Gui also creatively composed a "tenso" with his own mantle.
Gui vies for the identity of the "Esperdut" (a "senhal" or
nom de plume) who composed three poems: a "canso", a "partimen" with Pons de Monlaur, and a "sirventes". Gui has also peen posited as the co-author of a "tenso" with Garsenda of Forcalquier, the wife of Alfonso II. His "vida" repeats the rumour (probably unfounded) that he was the countess' lover. In her "tenso", after she declares her love for him, Gui responds courteously but carefully:
Gui's lone surviving "sirventes" was written against
Guilhem dels Baus, who, in 1215, had been confirmed by Frederick II in the titles King of Arles and Vienne. The "sirventes" was probably written between Summer 1216 and Guilhem's death, in an Avignonese prison, in June 1218.
Since the early 19th century, the identity of Gui with the "Cabrit" of the poem "Cabrit, al meu vejaire", witten with
Ricau de Tarascon, has been generally accepted. [http://www.rialto.unina.it/RicTarasc/premessa-422.2(Guida).htm Guida (2007).] ] It found support among T. B. Eméric-David, Paul Meyer, Ludwig Selbach, Stanislaw Stronski, C. Fabre, Adolf Kolsen, Carl Appel, D. J. Jones, Martín de Riquer, Dietmar Rieger, Andrea Brusoni, and P. T. Ricketts. The identification has rested on the attribution in three chansonniers, called "D", "I", and "K". The rubricin these works gives the author as "Ricautz de Tarascon e.n Guis de Cavaillon": "Ricau de Tarascon and Lord Gui de Cavalhon". In all other cases where there is an onomastic difference between a "tenso" and the ascription of the chansonnier, the latter is known to be correct (or to have good reason for the attribution). Further, in manuscript "C", where the attribution is simply "Tenso d'en Cabrit e d'eu Ricau", it immediately precedes a selection of Gui's pieces that, in the same way, are assigned to "Guionet" and "Esperdut", other nicknames Gui used.
Only Martín Aurell has strongly objected to the identification. He argues that Cabrit must have been a member of the urban noblesse of
Arlesand owner of a small parcel of land near Tarascon, documented in a notarial act of August 1203 at the house of Bertran Porcelet and probably dead by 1225. A "Guillelmus Aldebertus Cabritus" (Guillem Aldebert Cabrit) was a consulof Arles in 1197 and man known only as "Cabritus" was a consul in 1209. Guillem Aldebert Cabrit also witnessed the testament of Rostanh Porcelet in 1186 and an 1198 donation to the Knights Templarin Arles by the Porcelet family. That these figures named "Cabritus" all acted in the same geographical theatre (Arles) and in connexion with the family (Porcelet) over a period of thirty years suggests that it was a single individual of some prominence at Arles. That this figure held land at Tarascon strongly suggests that he may have been Ricau's interlocutor.
Legacy and influence
Gui is a major figure in the "Canso de la crosada". He is mentioned among the bravest and most loyal of the Count of Toulouse' followers. The author of the second part of the "Canso" puts an eloquent speech in Gui's mouth, in which he praises the "Paratge" (nobility) and denounces "lo coms de Monfort que destrui los baros e la gleiza de Roma" ("the count of Montfort who destroyed the barons and the
Church of Rome"). The speech was delivered upon the return of Raymonds VI and VII to Toulouseon 12 September 1217. It was desigend as an instructive word of wisdom from the aged Gui to the young Raymond VII.
Gui's largest influence on other poets, however, was his cultivation of
alexandrines, popular already in " chansons de geste", such as " Gui de Nanteuil". Subsequent authors in Occitan and Catalan called this type of poetry "la tonada de Gui", "el so de Gui Nantull" ( Ramon Muntaner), the "son d'En Gui" ( Peire Bremon Ricas Novas), or the "son de meser Gui" ( Uc de Saint Circ). It has been suggested that these references (or at least some of them) may refer not, as traditionally believed, to "Gui de Nanteuil" (Muntaner's usage being the obvious exception), but to Gui de Cavalhon.
*Bogin, Meg. "The Women Troubadours". Scarborough: Paddington, 1976. ISBN 0 8467 0113 8.
*Egan, Margarita, ed. "The Vidas of the Troubadours". New York: Garland, 1984. ISBN 0 8240 9437 9.
*Guida, Saverio. (1987). "La tenzone fra Ricau de Tarascon e ‘Cabrit’." "Cultura Neolatina", 47, pp. 197–221. Re-published in "Miscellanea di studi in onore di Aurelio Roncaglia a cinquant’anni dalla sua laurea" (Modena, 1989), pp. 637–661. Made available online
13 March 2003as [http://www.rialto.unina.it/RicTarasc/premessa-422.2(Guida)(13.iii.2003).htm "Premessa all’edizione in linea della tenzone fra Ricau de Tarascon e Gui de Cavaillon (422.2 = 105.1)."]
Riquer, Martín de. "Los trovadores: historia literaria y textos". 3 vol. Barcelona: Planeta, 1975.
*Guida, Saverio. (2007). [http://www.rialto.unina.it/RicTarasc/premessa-422.2(Guida).htm Premessa all’edizione in linea della tenzone fra Ricau de Tarascon e Gui de Cavaillon (422.2 = 105.1).] it
*Guida, Saverio, ed. (1989). [http://www.rialto.unina.it/RicTarasc/422.2(Guida).htm "Cabrit, al mieu vejaire"] it
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