- Martin Luther King, Jr. assassination
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in
Memphis, Tennesseeon April 4, 1968, at the age of 39.
In March 1968, Reverend King went to Memphis,
Tennesseein support of striking African Americansanitation workers. The workers had staged a walkouton February 11, 1968, to protest unequal wages and working conditions. At the time, the city of Memphis paid black workers significantly lower wages than whites. In addition, unlike their white counterparts, blacks received no pay if they stayed home during bad weather; consequently, most blacks were compelled to work even in driving rain and snow storms.cite web |title=1,300 Members Participate in Memphis Garbage Strike |publisher= AFSCME|date=1968-02-01 |url=http://www.afscme.org/about/1529.cfm |accessdate=2006-12-23] cite web |title=Memphis Strikers Stand Firm |publisher= AFSCME|date=1968-03-01 |url=http://www.afscme.org/about/1532.cfm |accessdate=2006-12-23] cite news |last=Rugaber |first=Walter |title=A Negro is Killed in Memphis |publisher= The New York Times|date= March 29 1968|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F40B1FFC3E541B7B93CBAB1788D85F4C8685F9 |accessdate=2006-12-23]
April 3, King returned to Memphis to address a gathering at the Mason Temple(World Headquarters of the Church of God in Christ). His airline flight to Memphis was delayed by a bomb threat against his plane. [ [http://www.newsweek.com/id/69542/page/2 The Worst Week of 1968] ] With a thunderstorm raging outside, King delivered the last speech of his life, now known as the " I've Been to the Mountaintop" address. As he neared the close, he made reference to the bomb threat:
quote|And then I got to Memphis. And some began to say the threats... or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?
Well, I don't know what will happen now. We've got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn't matter with me now. Because I've been to the mountaintop. [applause] And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over. And I've "seen" the promised land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land! [applause] And so I'm happy, tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord! [ [http://www.stanford.edu/group/King/publications/speeches/I've_been_to_the_mountaintop.pdf "I've Been to the Mountaintop"] ]
King was booked in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, owned by black businessman Walter Bailey (and named for his wife). King's close friend and colleague, Reverend Ralph David Abernathy, who was present at the assassination, told the
House Select Committee on Assassinationsthat King and his entourage stayed in room 306 at the Lorraine Motel so often that it was known as the "King-Abernathy Suite."cite web |title=United States Department of Justice Investigation of Recent Allegations Regarding the Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr - VII. KING V. JOWERS CONSPIRACY ALLEGATIONS |publisher= United States Department of Justice|date=June 2000 |url=http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/mlk/part6.htm |accessdate=2007-07-21 |format=HTML]
According to biographer
Taylor Branch, King's last words were to musician Ben Branch (no relation to Taylor Branch), who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was going to attend: "Ben, make sure you play ' Take My Hand, Precious Lord' in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty." [cite book |last=Branch|first=Taylor |authorlink=Taylor Branch |title=At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68 (America in the King Years) |series= |year=2006 |publisher=Simon & Schuster |isbn=0684857138 |pages=p.766]
At 6:01 p.m. on
April 4, 1968, while he was standing on the motel's second floor balcony, King was struck by a single bullet fired from a rifle. The bullet travelled through his right cheek, smashing his jaw and then going down his spinal cord before lodging in his shoulder.cite web |title=Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. |publisher=Christian History Institute |date=March, 2007 |url=http://chi.gospelcom.net/lives_events/more/mlk.shtml |accessdate=2007-07-21 |format=HTML]
King was rushed to St. Joseph's Hospital, where doctors opened his chest and performed manual heart massage. He was pronounced dead at 7:05 p.m. According to biographer
Taylor Branch, King's autopsy revealed that though he was only 39 years old, he had the heart of a 60 year old man. [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/mlk/filmmore/pt.html American Experience | Citizen King | Transcript | PBS ] ]
Robert F. Kennedy speech
The speech on the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. was given by
New YorkSenator Robert F. Kennedy(who was assassinated himself two months later) on June 4, 1968. Kennedy was campaigning for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination and had spoken at the University of Notre Dameand Ball State Universityearlier that day. [Klein, Joe. "Politics Lost: How American Democracy was Trivialized by People Who Think You're Stupid." New York, Doubleday, 2006. ISBN 978-0385-51027-1, p. 2.] Before boarding a plane to fly to Indianapolis for one last campaign speech in a predominantly black neighborhood of the city he learned that Martin Luther King had been shot, leading Kennedy press secretary Frank Mankiewicz to suggest that he ask the audience to pray for the King family and ask them to follow King's policy of non-violence. [Klein, 3.] They did not learn that King was dead until they landed in Indianapolis.
Both Mankiewicz and speechwriter Adam Walinsky drafted notes immediately before the rally for Kennedy's use, but Kennedy refused Walinsky's notes, instead using some that he had likely written on the ride over; Mankiewicz arrived after Kennedy had already begun to speak. [Klein, 3, 4.] Right before arriving at the rally the Chief of Police in Indianapolis told Kennedy that he could not provide protection and that giving the remarks would be too dangerous, [http://www.joescarborough.com/view.asp?ID=31 Scarborough Country] ] but Kennedy decided to go ahead regardless. Standing on a podium mounted on flatbed truck, Kennedy spoke for just four minutes and fifty-seven seconds. [Klein, 1, 4.]
Robert F. Kennedywas the first to inform the audience of the death of Martin Luther King, causing some in the audience to scream and wail. Several of Kennedy's aides were even worried that the delivery of this information would result in a riot.Klein, Joe. " [http://www.time.com/time/columnist/klein/article/0,9565,1181593,00.html Pssst! Who's behind the decline of politics? Consultants.] , "Time", April 9, 2006. Retrieved November 17, 2007.] Once the audience quieted down Kennedy acknowledged that many in the audience would be filled with anger, especially since the assassin was believed to be a white, and that he had felt the same when his brother John F. Kennedyhad been assassinated. These remarks surprised Kennedy aides, who had never heard him speak of John Kennedy's death. [Klein, 6.] Kennedy continued, saying that the country had to make an effort to "go beyond these rather difficult times," and then quoted a poem by the Greek playwright Aeschylus. To conclude Kennedy said that the country needed and wanted unity between blacks and whites, asked the audience members to pray for the King family and the country, and once more quoted the ancient Greeks.
The assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots in more than 60 cities.cite news |last= |first= |coauthors= |title=1968: Martin Luther King shot dead |work=On this Day |publisher=
BBC|year=2006 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/april/4/newsid_2453000/2453987.stm |accessdate=2006-09-17] Five days later, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a national day of mourning for the lost civil rights leader. A crowd of 300,000 attended his funeral that same day. Vice President Hubert Humphreyattended on behalf of Lyndon B. Johnson, who was at a meeting on the Vietnam War at Camp David. (There were fears that Johnson might be hit with protests and abuses over the war if he attended). At his widow's request, King eulogized himself: His last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church, a recording of his famous 'Drum Major' sermon, given on February 4, 1968, was played at the funeral. In that sermon he makes a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry," "clothe the naked," "be right on the [Vietnam] war question," and "love and serve humanity." Per King's request, his good friend Mahalia Jacksonsang his favorite hymn, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord" at his funeral.
After the assassination, the city of Memphis quickly settled the strike, on favorable terms to the sanitation workers.cite web |title=AFSCME Wins in Memphis |publisher=
AFSCME|date=1968-04-01 |url=http://www.afscme.org/about/1533.cfm |accessdate=2006-12-23] cite web |title=1968 Memphis Sanitation Workers' Strike Chronology |publisher= AFSCME|year=1968 |url=http://www.afscme.org/about/1548.cfm |accessdate=2006-12-23]
The Washington, D.C. riots of
April 4–8, 1968erupted with the April 4, 1968assassination of Civil Rights Movement leader Martin Luther King, Jr.Civil unrest affected at least 110 U.S. cities; Washington, along with Chicagoand Baltimore, was among the most impacted.
The ready availability of jobs in the growing federal government attracted many to Washington in the 1960s, and middle class
African-Americanneighborhoods prospered. Despite the end of legally mandated racial segregation, the historic neighborhoods of Shaw, the H StreetNortheast corridor, and Columbia Heights, centered at the intersection of 14th and U Streets Northwest, remained the centers of African-American commercial life in the city.
As word of King's murder by
James Earl Rayin Memphisspread on the evening of Thursday, April 4, crowds began to gather at 14th and U. Stokely Carmichael, the Trinidad and Tobago-born activist and Howard Universitygraduate, had parted with King in 1966, and had been removed as head of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committeein 1967, but led members of the SNCC to stores in the neighborhood demanding that they close out of respect. Although polite at first, the crowd fell out of control and began breaking windows. By 11pm, widespread looting had begun, as well as in over 30 other cities.
Walter Washingtonordered the damage cleaned up immediately the next morning. However, anger was still evident when Carmichael addressed a rally at Howard warning of violence on Friday morning and after the close of the rally crowds walking down 7th Street NW came into violent confrontations with police, as well as in the H Street NE corridor. By midday, numerous buildings were on fire, with firefighters attacked with bottles and rocks and unable to respond to them.
Crowds of as many as 20,000 overwhelmed the District's 3,100-member police force, and President
Lyndon B. Johnsondispatched some 13,600 federal troops, including 1,750 federalized D.C. National Guard troops to assist them. Marines mounted machine guns on the steps of the Capitol and Army troops from the 3rd Infantry guarded the White House. At one point, on April 5th, rioting reached within two blocks of the White House before rioters retreated. The occupation of Washington was the largest of any American city since the Civil War. Mayor Washington imposed a curfew and banned the sale of alcohol and guns in the city. By the time the city was considered pacified on Sunday, April 8, twelve had been killed (mostly in burning homes), 1,097 injured, and over 6,100 arrested. Additionally, some 1,200 buildings had been burned, including over 900 stores. Damages reached $27 million. This can be estimated to be equivalent to over $156 million todayFact|date=May 2008.
The riots utterly devastated Washington's inner city economy. With the destruction or closing of businesses, thousands of jobs were lost, and
insurancerates soared. Made uneasy by the violence, city residents of all races accelerated their departure for suburban areas, depressing property values. Crimein the burned out neighborhoods rose sharply, further discouraging investment.
On some blocks, only rubble remained for decades. Columbia Heights and the U Street corridor did not begin to recover economically until the opening of the U St/Cardozo and Columbia Heights Metro stations in 1991 and 1999, respectively, while the H Street NE corridor remained depressed for several years longer.
Walter Washington, who reportedly refused FBI director J. Edgar Hoover's suggestion to shoot the rioters, went on to become the city's first elected mayor and its first black mayor.
The Baltimore Riot of 1968 began the day after the murder of Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.After King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4 1968, rioting broke out in 125 cities across the United States. When rioting did break out on Saturday, April 6, the Governor of Maryland, Spiro T. Agnew, called out thousands of National Guard troops and 500 Maryland State Police to quell the disturbance. When it was determined that the state forces could not control the riot, Agnew requested Federal troops from President Lyndon B. Johnson. There is some debate about whether or not this riot should be called a "riot," a "civil disturbance," or a "rebellion." These events were indeed precipitated by the assassination of MLK, but were also evidence of larger frustrations amongst the city's African-American population.
By Sunday evening, 5000
paratroopers, combat engineers, and artillerymen from the XVIII Airborne Corpsin Fort Bragg, North Carolina, specially trained in riot controltactics, including sniperschool, were on the streets of Baltimore with fixed bayonets, and equipped with chemical (CS) disperser backpacks. Two days later, they were joined by a Light Infantry Brigade from Fort Benning, Georgia. With all the police and troops on the streets, things began to calm down. The Federal Bureau of Investigationreported that H. Rap Brownwas in Baltimore driving a Ford Mustangwith Broward County, Florida tags, and was assembling large groups of angry protesters and agitating them to escalate the rioting. In several instances, these disturbances were rapidly quelled through the use of bayonets and chemical dispersers by the XVIII Airborne units. That unit arrested more than 3,000 detainees, who were turned over to the Baltimore Police. A general curfew was set at 6PM in the City limits and martial law was enforced. As rioting continued, African Americanplainclothes police officers and community leaders were sent to the worst areas to prevent further violence.
By the time the riot was over, 6 people would be dead, 700 injured, 4,500 arrested and over a thousand fires set. More than a thousand businesses had been looted or burned, many of which never reopened. Total property damage was estimated at $13.5 million (1968$).
One of the major outcomes of the riot was the attention
Spiro Agnewreceived when he criticized local black leaders for not doing enough to help stop the disturbance. While this angered blacks and white liberals, it caught the attention of Richard Nixonwho was looking for someone on his ticket who could counter George Wallace’s American Independent Partycampaign. Agnew became Nixon’s Vice Presidential running mate in 1968.
The Louisville riots of 1968 refers to riots in
Louisville, Kentuckyin May 1968. As in many other cities around the country, there were unrest and riots partially in response to the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. On May 27 1968, a group of 400 people, mostly blacks, gathered at Twenty-Eight and Greenwood Streets, in the Parkland neighborhood. The intersection, and Parkland in general, had recently become an important location for Louisville's black community, as the local NAACPbranch had moved its office there.
The crowd was protesting the possible reinstatement of a white officer who had been suspended for beating a black man some weeks earlier. Several community leaders arrived and told the crowd that no decision had been reached, and alluded to disturbances in the future if the officer was reinstated. By 8:30, the crowd began to disperse.
However, rumors (which turned out to be untrue) were spread that
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committeespeaker Stokely Carmichael's plane to Louisville was being intentionally delayed by whites. After bottles were thrown by the crowd, the crowd became unruly and police were called. However the small and unprepared police response simply upset the crowd more, which continued to grow. The police, including a captain who was hit in the face by a bottle, retreated, leaving behind a patrol car, which was turned over and burned.
By midnight, rioters had looted stores as far east as Fourth Street, overturned cars and started fires.
Within an hour, Mayor
Kenneth A. Schmiedrequested 700 Kentucky National Guardtroops and established a city-wide curfew. Violence and vandalism continued to rage the next day, but had subdued somewhat by May 29. Business owners began to return, although troops remained until June 4. Police made 472 arrests related to the riots. Two black teenagers had died, and $200,000 in damage had been done. [cite journal|title=Oh…It’s Really Happening:” The Louisville Race Riot of 1968|author=Williams, Kenneth H.|journal=Kentucky History Journal|volume=3|year=1988|pages=57-58]
The disturbances had a longer-lasting effect. Most white business owners quickly pulled out or were forced (?) out of Parkland and surrounding areas. Most white residents also left the West End, which had been almost entirely white north of Broadway, from subdivision until the 1960s. The riot would have effects that shaped the image which whites would hold of Louisville's West End, that it was predominantly black and crime-ridden. [cite book |author= |year= |title=Louisville Survey:West Report |pages=37-38]
Capture and trial of Ray
Two months after King's death, escaped convict
James Earl Raywas captured at London Heathrow Airportwhile trying to leave the United Kingdomfor Angola, Rhodesia, or South Africa[http://books.google.com/books?id=Gb2AwFMso9UC&pg=PA296&lpg=PA296&dq=%22james+earl+ray%22+angola+rhodesia&source=web&ots=PXCtNMafRF&sig=iBF3veEDQIZMCWWWbiJBP7MBA68&hl=en] on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King's murder, confessing to the assassination on March 10, 1969(although he recanted this confession three days later).
On the advice of his attorney
Percy Foreman, Ray took a guilty plea to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. Ray was sentenced to a 99-year prison term.
Ray fired Foreman as his attorney (from then on derisively calling him "Percy Fourflusher") claiming that a man he met in
Montreal, Canada with the alias "Raoul" was involved, as was his brother Johnny, but not himself, further asserting that although he did not "personally shoot King," he may have been "partially responsible without knowing it," hinting at a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting (unsuccessfully) to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had.
Ray and seven other convicts escaped from
Brushy Mountain State Penitentiaryin Petros, Tennesseeon June 10, 1977. They were recaptured on June 13, of the same year, and returned to prison. [ [http://knoxville.fbi.gov/hist.htm FIELD OFFICE ESTABLISHED] Knoxville Field Office, FBI] One more year was added to his previous sentence to total 100 years. Shortly after, Ray testified that he did not shoot King to the House Select Committee on Assassinations.
1997, Martin Luther King's son Dexter Kingmet with Ray, and publicly supported Ray's efforts to obtain a retrial.cite news |title=James Earl Ray, convicted King assassin, dies |work=US news |publisher= CNN|date= April 23, 1998|url=http://edition.cnn.com/US/9804/23/ray.obit/#2 |accessdate=2006-09-17] Loyd Jowers, a restaurant owner in Memphis, was brought to civil court and sued as being part of a conspiracy to murder Martin Luther King; Jowers was found liable, and the King family was awarded $100 in restitution to show that they were not pursuing the case for financial gain.
Dr. William Pepper remained James Earl Ray's attorney until Ray's death and then carried on, on behalf of the King family. The King family does not believe Ray had anything to do with the murder of Martin Luther King. [ [http://www.thekingcenter.org/news/trial.html#Statement KING FAMILY STATEMENT ON THE JUSTICE DEPARTMENT "LIMITED INVESTIGATION" OF THE MLK ASSASSINATION] The King Center]
Ray died in prison on
April 23, 1998, at the age of 70 from complications related to kidney disease, caused by hepatitis C(probably contracted as a result of a blood transfusiongiven after a stabbingwhile at Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary). It was also confirmed in the autopsy that he died of liver failure.
Allegations of conspiracy
Some have speculated that Ray had been used as a "
patsy" in a similar fashion to alleged John F. Kennedyassassin Lee Harvey Oswald. Some of the claims used to support this assertion are:
*Ray's confession was given under pressure, and he had been threatened with death penalty.cite web |title=James Earl Ray Profile |publisher=africanaonline.com |year=2006 |url=http://www.africanaonline.com/mlk_james_earl_ray.htm |accessdate=2006-12-23] cite web |title=The Martin Luther King Assassination |publisher=the Real History Archives |year=2006 |url=http://www.webcom.com/~lpease/collections/assassinations/mlk.htm |accessdate=2006-12-23]
Many suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point out the two separate ballistic tests conducted on the Remington Gamemaster had neither conclusively proved Ray had been the killer nor that it had even been the murder weapon.cite news |title=James Earl Ray Dead At 70 |publisher=
CBS|date= April 23 1998|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/1998/04/23/national/main7900.shtml |accessdate=2006-12-23] cite news |title=Questions left hanging by James Earl Ray's death |publisher= BBC|date= April 23 1998|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/82893.stm |accessdate=2006-12-23] Moreover, witnesses surrounding King at the moment of his death say the shot came from another location, from behind thick shrubbery near the rooming house, and not from the rooming house shrubbery.cite web |title=Martin Luther King - Sniper in the Shrubbery? |publisher=africanaonline.com |year=2006 |url=http://www.africanaonline.com/mlk_shrubbery.htm |accessdate=2006-12-23 ]
Coretta Scott King, King's widow, along with the rest of King's family, won a wrongful death civil trialagainst Loyd Jowersand "other unknown co-conspirators". Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found Jowers liable and that "governmental agencies were parties" to the assassination plot. [cite web |title=Trial Transcript Volume XIV |work=verdict |publisher=The King Center |year=2006 |url=http://www.thekingcenter.org/tkc/trial/Volume14.html |accessdate=2007-03-24] William F. Pepperrepresented the King family in the trial.cite web |title=Text of the King family's suit against Loyd Jowers and Martin Luther King Jr.'s "unknown" conspirators |publisher= Court TV|year=1999 |url=http://www.courttv.com/archive/trials/mlk-civil/complaint_ctv.html |accessdate=2006-09-17] cite web |last=Pepper |first=Bill |title=William F. Pepper on the MLK Conspiracy Trial |publisher=Rat Haus Reality Press |date= April 7, 2002|url=http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/WFPonMLK.pdf |accessdate=2006-09-17 |format=PDF] cite web |title=Trial Information |work=Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial |publisher=The King Center |year=2006 |url=http://www.thekingcenter.org/tkc/trial.html |accessdate=2006-09-17]
David Garrowdisagrees with William F. Pepper's claims that the government killed King. He is supported by King assassination author Gerald Posner(who also mantains there wasn't any conspiracy behind John F. Kennedy killing).cite web |last=Ayton |first=Mel |title=Book review A Racial Crime: The Assassination of MLK |publisher= History News Network|date= February 28, 2005|url=http://www.historynewsnetwork.org/articles/10325.html |accessdate=2006-09-18]
In 2000, the Department of Justice completed the investigation about Jowers' claims but did not find evidence to support the allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommends no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.cite web |title=USDOJ Investigation of Recent Allegations Regarding the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. |work=Overview |publisher=USDOJ |date=June 2000 |url=http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/mlk/part2.htm#over |accessdate=2006-09-18 ]
April 6, 2002, the "New York Times" reported a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B02E4DC163DF936A35757C0A9649C8B63] , claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson assassinated Martin Luther King, Jr., not James Earl Ray. He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way."cite news |last=Canedy |first=Dana |title=My father killed King, says pastor, 34 years on |publisher= The Sydney Morning Herald|date= April 6 2002|url=http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/04/06/1017206269495.html |accessdate=2006-09-18]
Jesse Jackson, who was with King at the time of his death, noted:
* [http://www.politicalassassinations.com The Coalition on Political Assassinations] , A research and lobby group that also organize a conference on the assassination of Dr King.
* [http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/mlk/part1.htm Department of Justice investigation on assassination]
* [http://register.shelby.tn.us/mlk/ Shelby County Register of Deeds documents on the Assassination Investigation]
*Donald E. Wilkes, Jr., [http://www.law.uga.edu/academics/profiles/dwilkes_more/other_2death.html Death of MLK Still a Mystery] (1987).
*Donald E. Wilkes, Jr., [http://www.law.uga.edu/academics/profiles/dwilkes_more/other_3facts.html What are Facts of MLK Murder?] (1987).
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.