List of rulers of Prussia

List of rulers of Prussia
Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia

A list of rulers of the former German state of Prussia, originally territories on the Baltic Sea, which the Teutonic Knights had conquered from the Baltic Prussians, Poland and Lithuania, and which later became a duchy under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Poland, an independent duchy, an independent kingdom, a kingdom within the German Empire, and then a constituent state of Germany.

The history of Prussia was, from 1618 onwards, closely tied to that of the Margraviate of Brandenburg; the ruler of Prussia was also Elector of Brandenburg from 1618 to 1806. For a list of earlier rulers of Brandenburg, see List of rulers of Brandenburg.


Dukes of Prussia, 1525-1701

Hohenzollern Dukes of Prussia
Image Name Began Ended Comments
Albrecht von Hohenzollern.jpg Albert I 10 April 1525 20 March 1568 Grandson of Albert III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg of the House of Hohenzollern. Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. Having become a Lutheran, received from the King of Poland the secular title of "Duke of Prussia".
Albrecht Friedrich von Preu en.jpg Albert II Frederick 20 March 1568 18 August 1618 Son of Albert I. Albert Frederick was considered mentally unfit since 1577 - and with King Sigismund II Augustus having enfeoffed the Brandenburgian Hohenzollern to inherit Ducal Prussia in 1569 - thus power was first exercised by George Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, then by Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg (1605–1608), and thereafter by John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg.

Following the death of Albert Frederick in 1618, the rule of the Duchy of Prussia passed to his son-in-law and distant cousin the Elector John Sigismund, who belonged to the senior branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty that ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Though Margraviate and Duchy remained legally distinct, the combined lands are sometimes known as Brandenburg-Prussia.

Johann Sigismund 02 IV 13 2 0026 01 0318 a Seite 1 Bild 0001.jpg John Sigismund 18 August 1618 23 December 1619 Elector of Brandenburg from 1608. Married Anna, Duchess of Prussia, daughter of Albert Frederick.
Georg Wilhelm.jpg George William 23 December 1619 1 December 1640 Son of John Sigismund and Anna.
Frans Luycx 011.jpg Frederick William 1 December 1640 9 May 1688 Son of George William. In 1657, Frederick William obtained from the King of Poland recognition of his complete sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia, which thereby became an independent state, though Poland retained the right of reversion should the Hohenzollern dynasty die out. The relative rights of the Duke of Prussia and the King of Poland were established in a series of treaties that were renewed on each change of ruler, down to 1698 (accession of Augustus II of Poland).
Friedrich I of Prussia.jpg Frederick 9 May 1688 18 January 1701 Son of Frederick William. In 1701 he was crowned "King in Prussia", marking the complete independence of Prussia from all Polish ties, but limiting his sovereignty to the former territory of Ducal Prussia.

Kings of Prussia 1701-1918

Prior to 1772, the following kings were officially known as King in Prussia, rather than of Prussia.

Hohenzollern Kings in and of Prussia
Image Name Began Ended Comments
Friedrich I of Prussia.jpg Frederick I 18 January 1701 25 February 1713 Separated Prussia from Poland completely and assumed sovereign status as "King in Prussia" in 1701.
Frederick William I the Soldier-King.jpg Frederick William I 25 February 1713 31 May 1740 Son of Frederick I. Known as "the soldier king" (German: Der Soldatenkönig). Reformed the army and limited the state expenditure not related to the armed forces.
Frederic II de prusse.jpg Frederick II 31 May 1740 17 August 1786 Consequent on his annexation of Royal Prussia in the 1772 partition of Poland, Frederick the Great changed his title to "King of Prussia" rather than "King in Prussia".
Frédéric Guillaume II de Prusse.jpg Frederick William II 17 August 1786 16 November 1797 Nephew of Frederick II. Augmented Prussian territory by further annexations of Polish lands.
FWIII.jpg Frederick William III 16 November 1797 7 June 1840 Son of Frederick William II. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, he lost the title of Elector of Brandenburg, but was able to incorporate his territories in Brandenburg into the Kingdom of Prussia. Despite losses in the Napoleonic wars, at the Congress of Vienna Prussia's territory in Germany was greatly increased, making it the dominant power of northern Germany.
FriedrichWilhelmIV.jpg Frederick William IV 7 June 1840 2 January 1861 Son of Frederick William III. During the revolutions of 1848-9, he was given the chance to become Emperor of the Germans, but turned down the offer.
Wilhelm1.jpg Wilhelm I 2 January 1861 9 March 1888 Brother of preceding. Prussia annexed further territories as a result of the Second War of Schleswig in 1864 and the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and became the dominant power in the North German Confederation. Following victory in the Franco-Prussian War, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in 1871, while retaining the title and powers of King of Prussia.
FriedIII.jpg Frederick III 9 March 1888 15 June 1888 Son of preceding, Also German Emperor. Died after only 99 days from throat cancer. Hence the year 1888 is also known as Year of Three Emperors.
Wilhelm II of Germany.jpg Wilhelm II 15 June 1888 9 November 1918 Son of preceding. The defeat of Germany in the First World War (1914) led William's abdication and exile and the fall of the House of Hohenzollern from power.


Although the German Empire no longer existed as a monarchy, its constituent states continued to exist as republics within the Weimar Republic. Thus Prussia was known as the Free State of Prussia.

Prime Ministers of the Free State of Prussia, 1918-1945

In 1932, the German Chancellor, Franz von Papen, overthrew the Prussian government in the Preußenschlag. Subsequently, Prussia was governed by a Reichskommissar:

After the seizure of power by the Nazis, a new Prime Minister was elected. However, this was largely a ceremonial role as the German states lost their power and became mere administrative units.

After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, Prussia's provinces (sometimes in combination with non-Prussian territory) were reorganized into Länder. The state of Prussia was officially disbanded in 1947. The original Prussia was divided between Poland and the Soviet Union.

Pretenders to the Prussian throne

Hohenzollern Pretenders to the Prussian throne
Image Name Reign Comments
Wilhelm II of Germany.jpg Wilhelm II 1918-1941 lived in exile in the Netherlands until his death
KPWilhelm.jpg Crown Prince William 1941-1951
Louis ferdinand c1930.jpg Prince Louis Ferdinand 1951-1994
Georg Friedrich Prinz von Preussen.jpg Prince George Frederick since 1994

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • List of rulers of Brandenburg — Coat of arms of the Margraviate of Brandenburg. See also: List of consorts of Brandenburg This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.… …   Wikipedia

  • List of rulers of Hesse — This is a list of rulers of Hesse (German: Hessen) during the history of Hesse on west central Germany. These rulers belonged to a dynasty collectively known as the House of Hesse and the House of Brabant,[1] originally the Reginar. Hesse was… …   Wikipedia

  • List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein — See Also: List of consorts of Schleswig Holstein The following is a list of rulers, usually dukes, who ruled both Schleswig and Holstein, starting from the first Holstein count who received Schleswig, until both provinces were annexed by the… …   Wikipedia

  • List of rulers of Saxony — See also: List of Saxon consorts Coat of arms of Saxony used since the accession of the House of Ascania to dukedom in 1180, comprising the Ascanian crest with an added bendwise crancelin indicating the Saxon ducal rank. This article lists Dukes …   Wikipedia

  • List of rulers of Oldenburg — See Also: List of consorts of Oldenburg Shield of the Counts of Oldenburg …   Wikipedia

  • List of Prussian consorts — The Queen of Prussia was the queen consort of the ruler of the Kingdom of Prussia, from its establishment in 1701 to its abolition in 1918. As all rulers of Prussia had to be male, there was never a Queen regnant of Prussia. Until 1806, the Queen …   Wikipedia

  • List of consorts of Brandenburg — See also: List of rulers of Brandenburg Contents 1 Margravine of the Nordmark, 965–1157 2 Margravine of Brandenburg, 1157–1356 3 Electress of Brandenburg, 1356–1806 …   Wikipedia

  • List of consorts of Oldenburg — See also: List of rulers of Oldenburg. For the royal consorts of the other states ruled by House of Oldenburg and its scion, see List of Danish consorts, List of Schleswig Holstein consorts, List of Holstein Sonderburg consorts, and List of… …   Wikipedia

  • List of royal consorts of Prussia — The Queen of Prussia was the consort of the ruler of the Kingdom of Prussia, from its establishment in 1701 to its abolition in 1918. As all rulers of Prussia had to be male, there was never a Queen regnant of Prussia. Until 1806, the Queen of… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Saxon consorts — See also: List of rulers of Saxony This is a list of the Duchesses, Electresses and Queens of Saxony; the consorts of the Duke of Saxony and its successor states; including Electoral, Royal, Ascanian, Albertine, and the Ernestine Saxony. Contents …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”