List of Ainu terms

List of Ainu terms

The Ainu language of the Ainu people is distinct from those of the people around them.

The list is ordered alphabetically by romanization.

A

* aca (アチャ) - father; uncle; a middle-aged man (Ainu "aca" may mean either "father" or "uncle" depending on the dialect)
** acapo (アチャポ) - uncle (also "acipo" アチポ in some dialects)
* ak (アㇰ)- younger brother (explicitly possessed form "aki" or "akihi")
** ku-aki (クアキ) - my younger brother
* amam (アムアム、アマム) - rice; cereals (also "amama" アママ in some dialects)
* an-noski (アンノㇱキ) - midnight (also "annoske" in some Ainu dialects)
* anun (アヌン) - stranger, outsider; another person, someone else('s), not oneself, not one's own
* apa (アパ) - doorway
* ape (アペ) - fire
** Ape-Huci-Kamuy (アペフチカムイ) - name of the Ainu fire god (literally, "Fire-Grandmother-Deity")
* apto (アプト) - rain; [dial.] storm, thunderstorm (pronounced as "ahto" in some dialects)
* apu (アプ) - ice drift, sea ice (also "ap" in some dialects)
* arka (アラカ) - painful, sore, hurting (in some dialects pronounced as "araka" or "arga")
* as (アシ) - ["sing."] to stand; to fall (as rain, snow, etc.), to blow (as wind), to be produced, to be made, to be heard (as a sound, a voice, etc.)
* asam (アサム) - bottom; depths; foundation (also "asama" アサマ in some dialects)
* at (アッ) - string, cord; elm fibre
** atni (アッニ) - Manchurian elm, "Ulmus laciniata"
* atte (アッテ) - [v.t.] to hang (it), to hang up, to suspend
* attus (アットゥㇱ) - traditional Ainu coat made from fibers harvested from the bark of the Manchurian elm or the Japanese linden [http://www.kyohaku.go.jp/eng/dictio/data/senshoku/ryui.htm]
* atusa (アトゥサ) - naked, bare
* atuy (アトゥイ) - sea, ocean (also "atuyka" アトゥイカ in some dialects)
* aw (アウ) - tongue (explicitly possessed form "awe" or "awehe")
* ay (アイ) - thorn; arrow (explicitly possessed form "aye" or "ayehe")
* aynu (アイヌ) - person; human, mankind; the traditional name for the Ainu people
** Aynu-Mosir (アイヌモシㇼ) - the land of humans; the earth

C

* cape (チャペ) - cat (cf. Aomori, Akita, and Yamagata Japanese dialects "chape" ちゃぺ or "chappe" ちゃっぺ "cat")
* caranke (チャランケ) - appeal (n)
* casi (チャシ) - fence; enclosure; fortress, castle
* cep (チェプ) - fish (also "ciep" チエプ in some dialects)
* ci (チ) - penis, a male's private parts (explicitly possessed form "ciye" or "ciyehe")
* cikap (チカプ) - bird, [esp.] owl (cf. Chikap Kamuy)
* cip (チプ) - canoe, boat, ship
* cir (チリ) - bird
* cironnup (チロヌッㇷ゚ ) - fox
* cis (チシ) - to cry, to weep, to howl
* cise (チセ) - house/home
* ciw (チウ) - tide; current (of a stream, a river, or the sea); wave(s)
* ciw (チウ) - to stab, to pierce
* cuk (チュㇰ) - autumn
* cup (チュプ) - luminary, sun, moon; month

E

* emusi (エムシ) - sword
* erum (エルム) - mouse, rat (sometimes also "erem" エレム)
* esaman (エサマン) - otter
* etu (エトゥ) - nose; beak; a projecting tip of anything, the end (of a projecting part)

H

* ham (ハム) - leaf
* hanke (ハンケ) - near
* hanku (ハンク) - navel (dialectal variants include "hankapu" ハンカプ, "hankapuy" ハンカプイ, "hanka" ハンカ, "hanko" ハンコ)
* hapo (ハポ) - mother
* harki (ハリキ) - left (左) (dialectal variants include "harke" ハリケ)
** harki-sam (ハリキサム) - left side
* haw (ハウ) - voice (explicitly possessed form "hawe" ハウェ or "hawehe" ハウェへ)
* hemanta (へマンタ) - what? (dialectal variants include "hemata" へマタ)
* hempakpe (ヘンパクペ) - how many (things)?
* hese (ヘセ) - to breathe; to sigh
* hok (ホク) - to buy (dialectal variants include "hoh" ホフ)
* hoku (ホク) - husband (explicitly possessed form "hokuhu"; dialectal variants include "oku(hu)")
* hom (ホム) - a knot (in wood); a joint (of bamboo)
**nihom (ニホム) - a knot in wood, a knot in a tree (explicitly possessed form "nihomi" ニホミ; in some dialects, the two morphemes that compose this compound are maintained as separate words, i.e. "ni hom" instead of "nihom")
**tophom (トプホム) - a joint of bamboo (in some dialects, this form is maintained as two separate words, i.e. "top hom" instead of "tophom")
* hon (ホン) - belly, abdomen, stomach (explicitly possessed form "honi" ホニ or "honihi" ホニヒ)
* huci (フチ) - grandmother; old woman
* humpe (フンペ) - whale
* hure (フレ) - (to be) red

I

* inaw (イナウ) - sacred shaved stick, symbolizing a bird, used for prayer [http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/ainu/html/room01.html]
* iomante (イオマンテ) - the Ainu bear festival [http://www.bears.org/spirit/ainumyth.html]
* ipe (イペ) - [v.i.] to eat, to have a meal; [n.] fish (especially the likes of salmon, trout, or sturgeon)
** somo ku-ipe na (ソモ クイペ ナ) - I won't eat.
* ipetam (イペタㇺ) - legendary Ainu sword [http://www32.ocn.ne.jp/~shoppe/LegeEg.htm] (literally, the "eating blade" or the "blade that eats (people)")
* ironne (イロンネ) - thick (as a flattish object)
* isepo (イセポ) - rabbit, hare (イソポ "isopo" in some dialects)
* itak (イタㇰ) - language
* iwaw (イワゥ) - sulfur (cf. Japanese "iō" (硫黄) "sulfur")

K

* kam (カム) - meat, flesh (explicitly possessed form "kami" or "kamihi")
* kamuy (カムイ) - god, spirit; bear
* Kamuy-Kara-Puto-Ya-Mosir (カムイカラプトヤモシㇼ) - supposedly means "mouth of water"; refers to Karafuto, or the mouth of the Amur River
* Kamuy-Mosir (カムイモシㇼ) - "Land of the Gods"; heaven
* kamuy-nomi (カムイノミ) - to pray to the gods
* kanna (カンナ) - upper, above
* kanto (カント) - sky, heaven
* kap (カプ) - skin, fur, rind, peel, bark, outer covering of anything (explicitly possessed form "kapu" or "kapuhu")
** kapkar (カプカラ) - to skin, to peel, to remove the rind, to strip the bark
* kapap (カパプ) - bat (the flying mammal)
* kapar (カパラ) - thin (as a flattish object)
* kapiw (カピウ) - seagull
* kar (カラ) - to make, to prepare, to produce, to do
* karku (カㇻク) - nephew
* karus (カルシ) - mushroom
* kawkaw (カウカウ) - hail, sleet
* kem (ケム) - blood
** kemnu (ケㇺヌ) - to bleed
** kemorit (ケモリッ) - a blood vessel; a vein or an artery (also "kemrit" ケムリッ)
** kemus (ケムシ) - bloody, covered in blood, having blood all over
* kem (ケㇺ) - shortage of food, famine, hunger, starvation
** kemekot (ケメコッ) - to starve to death, to die of hunger
** kemnoye (ケㇺノイェ) - to starve to death, to die of hunger
** kemus (ケムシ) - famished, starving; there is/was a famine
* kem (ケㇺ) - a needle
** kemeyki (ケメイキ) - to do needlework, to sew
* ker (ケレ) - footwear, shoe, boot (explicitly possessed form ケリ "keri")
* kera (ケラ) - taste, flavor
* kes (ケシ) - end (explicitly possessed form ケセ "kese" or ケセへ "kesehe")
* kes- (ケシ) - every (day, year, etc.)
* ki (キ) - to do
* ki (キ) - louse
* kikir (キキリ) - bug, insect, worm
* kim (キム) - mountain
* kina (キナ) - grass, herb, (edible or otherwise useful) plant; a kind of mat woven from dried bulrush leaves with decorative patterns executed in cotton cloth
* kira (キラ) - to run away, to flee
* kiraw (キラウ) - horn, antler (explicitly possessed form "kirawe" キラウェ or "kirawehe" キラウェへ)
* kiray (キライ) - comb
* kiror (キロロ) - strength, power, ability
* kisar (キサラ) - ear
* kitay (キタイ) - top of anything; summit, peak (of a mountain); roof (of a house)
* konci (コンチ) - hat
* konru (コンル) - ice; [dial.] hail; [dial.] sleet
* kor (コロ) - to hold; to have
* kore (コレ) - to give (probably from the causative form of Ainu "kor" "to hold; to have," i.e. *"kor-de" > "kor-e" "to cause to hold; to cause to have" > "kore" "to give")
* Korpokkur (コロポックル) - name of a traditional Ainu folktale [http://www.fun.ac.jp/~seberry/ainu.html]
* kotan (コタン) - village, settlement; dwelling place
**Kamuy-Kotan (カムイコタン) - [http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%A5%9E%E5%B1%85%E5%8F%A4%E6%BD%AD Kamuikotan] , a scenic area located in the valley of the Ishikari River (literally, "dwelling place of (a/the) god")
* ku (ク) - bow
* ku (ク) - to drink; to smoke (tobacco, etc.)
* kumi (クミ) - mold
** kumius (クミウシ) - moldy, rotten and covered in mold
* kunki (クンキ) - nail (cf. Japanese 釘 "kugi")
* kunne (クンネ) - black; dark
** kunnecup (クンネチュプ) - the Moon (literally, "Black Luminary")
** Kunashir (クナシリ) - Black (Is)land. Present day Kunashir Island.
* kur (クル) - shadow
* kur (クル) - person; man, husband (cf. Korpokkur)
* kut (クッ) - belt, girdle, waistband (explicitly possessed form クチ "kuci" or クチヒ "kucihi")
* Kutune-Shirka (クト゜ネシリカ) - name of a sacred Ainu epic [http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/ainu/kutune.htm]

M

* makiri (マキリ) - knife
* mame (マメ) - bean or pea, pulses, legumes
* mata (マタ) - winter (also known as the "men's season" for the fact that it is a good time of year for men to hunt for furs)
** mata-noski (マタノシキ) - midwinter
* mat (マッ) - wife; woman; [as prefix] female (explicitly possessed form マチ "maci" or マチヒ "macihi")
** matne (マッネ) - female
* matak (マタㇰ) - younger sister (from an elder sister's point of view)
** a-mataki (アマタキ) (Classical), ku-mataki (クマタキ) (Colloquial), ku-kor matak (クコロ マタク) - my younger sister (said by an elder sister)
* matkaci (マッカチ) - girl
* matkarku (マッカㇻク) - niece
* mean (メアン) - (to be) cold (as the weather)
** meekot (メエコッ) - to freeze to death; to starve due to frigid weather
* mem (メム) - spring, pool, a place where clear water wells up
* menoko (メノコ) - woman
* mici (ミチ) - father (in some Ainu dialects, "mici" is formal and means something like "dead father" or "ancestor"; such dialects typically use "aca" in the regular meaning of "father")
* mina (ミナ) - to laugh
* mokor (モコロ) - to sleep
* mori (モリ) - small hill, hillock, slope (cf. Japanese "mori" "forest; [dial.] Shinto shrine, sacred grove, holy place; [dial.] hill")
* mosir (モシㇼ) - land; territory; island
* moyuk (モユク) - tanuki
* mukkuri (ムックリ) - traditional Ainu Jew's harp
* mun (ムン) - grass, weed, (useless) plant
* munin (ムニン) - rotten
* muy (ムイ) - winnow (cf. Japanese "mi" "winnow")

N

* nan (ナン) - face (explicitly possessed form "nanu" ナヌ or "nanuhu" ナヌフ)
** nanuwen (ナヌウェン) - ugly (literally, "its face is bad")
*** nanuwen-cep (ナヌウェンチェプ) - sea raven, shaggy sculpin, "Hemitripterus villosus"
* nanna (ナンナ) - mother ("nanna" was used in Sakhalin dialects; the variant "nonno" ノンノ was used by the Kuril Islands Ainu)
* nay (ナイ) - dale, valley (esp. one which has a stream or a marsh); stream, river
* ni (ニ) - tree; wood
** nitay (ニタイ) - woods, forest
* nis (ニシ) - sky, heaven, air; cloud
** niskur (ニシクル) - cloud
* nispa (ニㇱパ) - a wealthy person, a rich man, the rich; a gentleman, a lord, a master; an honorific title for a man, Mr.
* nonno (ノンノ) - flower
* noski (ノシキ) - middle, center (variants include "noske" ノシケ)
* not (ノッ) - chin; cape, promontory
* noto (ノト) - calm (of the sea, etc.), lull (dialectal variants include "neto" ネト)
* nupe (ヌペ) - tears
* nupek (ヌペク) - light (dialectal variants include "nipek" and "nikep"; explicitly possessed form "nupeki", "nipeki", "nikepihi", etc.)
* nupuri (ヌプリ) - mountain
* nusa (ヌサ) - a word that collectively describes an altar and the many "inaw" (a shaved stick used in an offertory ceremony) that decorate it

O

* ohaw (オハゥ) - "ohaw", Ainu-style stew
* oman (オマン) - ["sing."] to go
* omap (オマプ) - to love (one's child, etc.), to cherish, to hold dear (c.f. Japanese "omou", which means "to think (that), to consider, to feel; to recall, to recollect, to remember; to imagine, to think of, to think about; to worry (about), to care (about), to love")
* onkami (オンカミ) - worship/prayer/beseechment (cf. Japanese "ogami", which has the same meanings)
* ota (オタ) - sand; sandy plain, sandy place, beach

P

* para (パラ) - wide (cf. Sapporo, Paramushir, Toyohara (Toyopara), etc.)
* pasuy (パスイ) - chopsticks (cf. Japanese *"pasi" > "hashi" "chopsticks")
* paykar (パィカㇻ) - spring (season)
* pe (ペ) - water (especially that which is non-potable, not intended for drinking, or laden with much dissolved or suspended matter), moisture, sap, juice (explicitly possessed form "pehe" ペヘ)
* peko (ペコ) - cow, cattle (cf. べこ "beko" "cow, cattle" in various Japanese dialects)
* pene (ペネ) - thoroughly rotten, soft with decay, rotten and sticky or slimy
* pet (ペッ) - river
* pi (ピ) - seed, kernel, pip; pebble (as on a riverbed), small stone (explicitly possessed form "piye" ピイェ or "piyehe" ピイェヘ)
* pinne (ピンネ) - male
* pirka (ピリカ) - good, nice, fine, beautiful
** pirka kur (ピリカクル) - a fine man (in the sense of "a good person, a virtuous person")
** pirka okkay (ピリカオッカィ) - a fine man (in the sense of "a handsome man, a good-looking man")
** pirka menoko (ピリカメノコ) - a beautiful woman, a fine young lady
** pirka pa (ピリカパ)- a good year
* pok (ポク) -
** pokna (ポクナ) - lower, under, below, beneath
* pok (ポク) - vulva, a female's private parts (explicitly possessed form "poki" or "pokihi")
* pon (ポン) - small, little
* pone (ポネ) - bone
* poro (ポロ) - big, large
* poru (ポル) - cave, hole (in rock, etc.)
* poyna (ポイナ) - rock, stone (esp. one that is large)
* pu (プ)- an elevated structure in which to store food and other valuables (the traditional Ainu equivalent of a shed or a warehouse)
* pukusa (プクサ) - a kind of wild plant that is prized by the Ainu for its pungent, garlic-like flavor (known in Japanese as "Ainu negi" "Ainu onion" or "gyōja ninniku" "wandering ascetic garlic")

R

* ram (ラム) - mind, heart (in the figurative sense), soul; understanding, intellect
* ramat (ラマッ) - soul, spirit; meaning (of a word, etc.) (explicitly possessed form "ramaci" ラマチ)
* ray (ライ) - to die
** cupray (チュプライ) - eclipse
** rayke (ライケ) - ["sing. obj."] to kill (one thing), to cause (a singular object) to die
* re (レ) - name (explicitly possessed form レヘ "rehe")
* rera (レラ) - wind
* retar (レタラ) - white
* ri (リ) - high, tall, lofty
* repun (レプン) - in the offing, offshore, out in the sea (cf. Rebun Island)
** repunkamuy (レプンカムイ) - god of the sea; orca; (in Samani dialect) whale
* ruyanpe (ルヤンペ) - rain; [dial.] storm

* sak (サク) - summer (also known as the "women's season" for the fact that it is a good time of year for women to cultivate plants or to gather wild botanical resources)
* sampe (サンペ) - heart, cardiac organ
* san (サン) - to go down, to descend; to flow along (as a river)
** sanke (サンケ) - to send down, to cause to go down
* sapanpe (サパンペ) - men's ceremonial Ainu crown [http://www.ainu-museum.or.jp/english/eng08.html]
* sar (サラ) - tail (explicitly possessed form "sara" サラ or "saraha" サラハ)
* sayo (サヨ) - "sayo", Ainu-style porridge
* seta (セタ) - dog (recent dialectal variants include "sita" シタ; early records of the Ainu language also contain other variant forms of this word for "dog," such as "sta", "heta", and "hida")
* sik (シク) - eye (explicitly possessed form "siki" or "sikihi")
* sikotan (シコタン) - Pleasant Village (present day Shikotan island)
* sinep (シネプ) - one (thing)
* sinrit (シンリッ) - root (of a tree, etc.); (ancestral) roots, bloodline, pedigree
* sippo (シッポ) - salt
* sir (シリ) - weather; appearance; status, condition
* sir (シリ) - land; island
** sir etok (シリ エトク) - the end of the Earth; the Shiretoko Peninsula
* sir (シリ) - mountain
* sisam (シサㇺ) - Japanese (or assimilated Ainus); (more generally) any foreigner, non-Ainus (cf. Nivkh /sezam/, /sizm/ "Japanese"; probably originally from Ainu "si-" "self (reflexive prefix)" + "sam" "near by, close to; side")
** hure-sisam (フレシサㇺ) - Russian; (more generally) European (from Ainu "hure" "red" + "sisam" "Japanese; foreigner")
* sitoki (シトキ) - glass-bead necklace with a medallion
* siw (シウ) - bitter
* siwnin (シウニン) - blue, green, yellow
* so (ソ) - waterfall, cascade
* soy (ソイ) - outside (also used as a postposition, e.g. "cise-soy" "outside of a house," "outside the house")
** soyta
** soyke
* suma (スマ) - stone
* sumari (シュマリ) - fox
* susam (スサム) - shishamo
* susu (スス) - willow

T

* takahka (タカッカ) - crab (Sakhalin Ainu)
* tamasay (タマサイ) - beaded necklace worn by women
* tanne (タンネ) - long
* tap (タプ) - shoulder, arm
* tek (テク) - hand, arm (explicitly possessed form "teke" or "tekihi")
* teyne (テイネ) - (to get) wet, damp
* tomari (トマリ)- Shelter (Tomari city in Aomori)
* tonkori (トンコリ) - traditional Sakhalin Ainu stringed instrument
* to (ト) - day
** tanto (タント) - today
* to (ト) - lake, pond, puddle
* tom (トム) - to shine, to sparkle, to twinkle
** tomte (トムテ) - to cause to shine
** tom tom (トムトム) - sparkling, twinkling, glowing, flashing
** tonnatara (トンナタラ) - brilliant, resplendent, shining
* tompi (トムピ) - light, brilliance, sparkle, glow
* top (トプ) - bamboo
* topa (トパ) - flock, herd (usually appears in the explicitly possessed form "topaha" トパハ "a flock of ~," "a herd of ~")
* toy (トィ) - earth, soil, dirt, mud (also occasionally reduplicated for expressive effect to produce "toytoy")
* tunakay (トゥナカイ) - reindeer (borrowed into Japanese as トナカイ "tonakai"; also cf. Nivkh "tlaŋi" 'reindeer')
* tukar (トゥカラ) - seal (i.e. a sort of marine Pinniped; also "tukkar", "tukoro", or "tokkari" in some dialects)
* tuki (トゥキ) - (drinking) glass, [esp.] a saké cup (cf. Japanese 杯 "sakazuki" "a vessel from which one drinks an alcoholic beverage," from Old Japanese "sake" "alcoholic beverage" + "tuki" "drinking vessel")
* tuntu (トゥントゥ) - pillar, column; post, stake
* tur (トゥル) - dirt, grime, filth
** turtur (トゥルトゥル) - dirt, grime, filth
** tursak (トゥルサク) - pure, clean, unsullied
* tus (トゥシ) - (a man's) concubine, (a woman's) fellow wife
* tusa (トゥサ) - to be cured, to heal up, to recover (from an illness)
** tusare (トゥサレ) - to cure, to heal
* tusir (トゥシリ) - grave, tomb; graveyard, cemetery

U

* umma (ウンマ) - horse (cf. Japanese うま "uma" "horse")
* upas (ウパㇱ) - snow
* utari (ウタリ) - friend/companion/compatriot; used by the Ainu to describe themselves; the politically correct term for the Ainu people.

W

* wakka (ワッカ) - water (especially that which is potable or clean) (cf. Wakkaus Kamuy, the goddess of fresh water)
* wen (ウェン) - bad; cruel; poor
** wenkur (ウェンクㇽ) - a pauper, a poor person
** wenpe (ウェンペ) - a bad one; a bad thing; a bad person, an evil person, a villain
** wenpekur (ウェンペクㇽ) - a bad person, an evil person, a villain

Y

* ya (ヤ) - net
* ya (ヤ) - land (as opposed to sea, river, etc.), shore, (river)bank
* yuk (ユク) - deer
* yam (ヤム) - cold (to the touch)
* yam (ヤム) - chestnut
* yup (ユプ) - older brother (explicitly possessed form "yupi" or "yupihi")
** yupo (ユポ) - older brother (dialectal variants include "yuppo" and "yuhpo"; probably from an earlier */yup-po/ < /yup/ "older brother" + /po/ "small; diminutive suffix")
* yukar (ユーカㇻ) - traditional Ainu sagas

References

Most of the content of this page was taken from the equivalent Japanese-language article, accessed March 27, 2006.

ee also

[http://www.raccoonbend.com/languages/ainuenglish.html Ainu-English Dictionary]


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