Scorpion toxin

Scorpion toxin

Symbol = Toxin_3
Name = Scorpion long-chain toxin

width =
caption =
Pfam= PF00537
InterPro= IPR002061
Prosite =
SCOP = 2sn3
OPM family= 61
OPM protein= 1djt
PDB=PDB3|1lqi :21-74 PDB3|1lqh :21-74 PDB3|1lqq :2-55PDB3|1omyA:21-74 PDB3|1t7bA:21-74 PDB3|1djtA:21-74PDB3|1sn1A:21-74 PDB3|1t7eA:21-74 PDB3|1t7aA:21-74PDB3|1chzA:2-55 PDB3|1sn4A:16-69 PDB3|1snb :2-55PDB3|1kv0B:2-55 PDB3|1aho :21-74 PDB3|1segA:21-74PDB3|1ptx :21-74 PDB3|1fh3A:2-56 PDB3|1bmr :2-56PDB3|1nrb :2-52 PDB3|1nra :2-52 PDB3|1t1tA:3-53PDB3|2a7tA:2-55 PDB3|1cn2 :17-71 PDB3|1vna :20-74PDB3|1vnb :20-74 PDB3|1jzaA:20-74 PDB3|1jzbA:20-74PDB3|2sn3 :20-74 PDB3|2b3cA:20-73 PDB3|1b3cA:20-73PDB3|1pe4A:1-54 PDB3|1npiA:21-71 PDB3|1b7dA:21-71PDB3|1bcg :20-74 PDB3|1t0zA:20-69 PDB3|1wwnA:20-69PDB3|1i6gA:1-49 PDB3|1i6fA:1-49 PDB3|1nh5A:1-49PDB3|1jxcA:28-88

Symbol = Toxin_5
Name = Scorpion short-chain toxin

width =
caption =
Pfam= PF05294
InterPro= IPR007958
SCOP = 1chl
OPM family=
OPM protein= 1sis
PDB=PDB3|1chl :2-35 PDB3|1sis :2-33

Scorpion toxins are proteins, which may be mammal or insect specific, bind to sodium channels, inhibiting the inactivation of activated channels and blocking neuronal transmission. The complete covalent structure of the toxins has been deduced: it comprises around 66 amino acid residues and is cross- linked by 4 disulfide bridgescite journal |author=Granier C, Kopeyan C, Rochat H, Mansuelle P, Sampieri F, Brando T, Bahraoui EM |title=Primary structure of scorpion anti-insect toxins isolated from the venom of Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=261 |issue=2 |pages=423–426 |year=1990 |pmid=2311768 |doi=10.1016/0014-5793(90)80607-K] cite journal |author=Rochat H, Gregoire J |title=Covalent structure of toxins I and II from the scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus |journal=Toxicon |volume=21 |issue=1 |pages=153–162 |year=1983 |pmid=6845379 |doi=10.1016/0041-0101(83)90058-2] . An anti-epilepsy peptide isolated from scorpion venomcite journal |author=Zhou XH, Yang D, Zhang JH, Liu CM, Lei KJ |title=Purification and N-terminal partial sequence of anti-epilepsy peptide from venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=257 |issue=2 |pages=509–517 |year=1989 |pmid=2930463] shows similarity to both scorpion neurotoxins and anti-insect toxins.

This family includes related short- and long-chain scorpion toxins. It also contains a group of proteinase inhibitors from "Arabidopsis thaliana" and Brassica spp. The "Brassica napus" (Oil seed rape) and "Sinapis alba" (White mustard) inhibitorscite journal |author=Ronchi S, Ceciliani F, Ascenzi P, Bortolotti F, Menegatti E, Palmieri S |title=Purification, inhibitory properties, amino acid sequence and identification of the reactive site of a new serine proteinase inhibitor from oil-rape (Brassica napus) seed |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=342 |issue=2 |pages=221–224 |year=1994 |pmid=8143882 |doi=10.1016/0014-5793(94)80505-9] cite journal |author=Bolognesi M, Ronchi S, Tedeschi G, Ascenzi P, Bortolotti F, Menegatti E, Palmieri S, Thomas RM |title=Purification, inhibitory properties and amino acid sequence of a new serine proteinase inhibitor from white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seed |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=301 |issue=1 |pages=10–14 |year=1992 |pmid=1451776 |doi=10.1016/0014-5793(92)80199-Q] , inhibit the catalytic activity of bovine beta-trypsin and bovine alpha-chymotrypsin, which belong to MEROPS peptidase family S1 (InterPro|IPR001254)cite journal |author=Rawlings ND, Barrett AJ, Tolle DP |title=Evolutionary families of peptidase inhibitors |journal=Biochem. J. |volume=378 |issue= |pages=- |year=2004 |pmid=14705960 |doi=10.1042/BJ20031825] .

This family contains both neurotoxins and plant defensins.The mustard trypsin inhibitor, MTI-2, is plant defensin. It is apotent inhibitor of trypsin with no activity towards chymotrypsin.MTI-2 is toxic for Lepidopteran insects, but has low activityagainst aphids. Brazzein is plant defensin-like protein. Itis pH-stable, heat-stable and intensely sweet protein [Sweetness determinant sites of brazzein, a small, heat-stable, sweet-tasting protein. Assadi-Porter FM, Aceti DJ, Markley JL; Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;376:259-265. PMID|10775411]


*Neurotoxin InterPro|IPR001219


External links

* [ Scorpion short toxins] in PROSITE

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