Lipocalin 2

PDB rendering based on 1dfv.
Symbols LCN2; 24p3; MSFI; NGAL
External IDs OMIM600181 MGI96757 HomoloGene4064 GeneCards: LCN2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE LCN2 212531 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3934 16819
Ensembl ENSG00000148346 ENSMUSG00000026822
UniProt P80188 Q3UE34
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_005564.3 NM_008491.1
RefSeq (protein) NP_005555.2 NP_032517.1
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
130.91 – 130.92 Mb
Chr 2:
32.24 – 32.24 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as oncogene 24p3 or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LCN2 gene.[1][2][3]


The binding of lipocalin-2 to bacterial siderophores is important in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon encountering invading bacteria the toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the synthesis and secretion of lipocalin-2. Secreted lipocalin-2 then limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores.[4][5] Lipocalin-2 also functions as a growth factor.[5]

NGAL is strongly upregulated during inflammation and is upregulated by interleukin 1 (but not TNF alpha) in humans. There are indications that some forms of acne could be caused due to the gene not being transcribed, and that Isotretinoin corrects this.[6]

NFAT3 (NFATc4)[3] by blocking the expression of LCN2 inhibits breast carcinoma cell motility [7].


  1. ^ Kjeldsen L, Johnsen AH, Sengeløv H, Borregaard N (May 1993). "Isolation and primary structure of NGAL, a novel protein associated with human neutrophil gelatinase". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (14): 10425–32. PMID 7683678. 
  2. ^ Chan P, Simon-Chazottes D, Mattei MG, Guenet JL, Salier JP (September 1994). "Comparative mapping of lipocalin genes in human and mouse: the four genes for complement C8 gamma chain, prostaglandin-D-synthase, oncogene-24p3, and progestagen-associated endometrial protein map to HSA9 and MMU2". Genomics 23 (1): 145–50. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1470. PMID 7829063. 
  3. ^ Cowland JB, Borregaard N (October 1997). "Molecular characterization and pattern of tissue expression of the gene for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from humans". Genomics 45 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4896. PMID 9339356. 
  4. ^ Flo TH, Smith KD, Sato S, Rodriguez DJ, Holmes MA, Strong RK, Akira S, Aderem A (December 2004). "Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron". Nature 432 (7019): 917–21. doi:10.1038/nature03104. PMID 15531878. 
  5. ^ a b Schmidt-Ott KM, Mori K, Li JY, Kalandadze A, Cohen DJ, Devarajan P, Barasch J (February 2007). "Dual action of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 18 (2): 407–13. doi:10.1681/ASN.2006080882. PMID 17229907. 
  6. ^ Nelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM (April 2008). "Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin mediates 13-cis retinoic acid–induced apoptosis of human sebaceous gland cells". J. Clin. Invest. 118 (4): 1468–78. doi:10.1172/JCI33869. PMC 2262030. PMID 18317594. 
  7. ^ Fougère, M; Gaudineau, B, Barbier, J, Guaddachi, F, Feugeas, JP, Auboeuf, D, Jauliac, S (2010 Apr 15). "NFAT3 transcription factor inhibits breast cancer cell motility by targeting the Lipocalin 2 gene.". Oncogene 29 (15): 2292–301. PMID 20101218. 

Further reading

  • Triebel S, Bläser J, Reinke H, Tschesche H (1993). "A 25 kDa alpha 2-microglobulin-related protein is a component of the 125 kDa form of human gelatinase". FEBS Lett. 314 (3): 386–8. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)81511-J. PMID 1281792. 
  • Bläser J, Triebel S, Tschesche H (1995). "A sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the determination of neutrophil lipocalin in body fluids". Clin. Chim. Acta 235 (2): 137–45. doi:10.1016/0009-8981(95)06020-7. PMID 7554268. 
  • Bartsch S, Tschesche H (1995). "Cloning and expression of human neutrophil lipocalin cDNA derived from bone marrow and ovarian cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 357 (3): 255–9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)01303-I. PMID 7835423. 
  • Xu SY, Carlson M, Engström A et al. (1995). "Purification and characterization of a human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) from the secondary granules of human neutrophils". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 54 (5): 365–76. doi:10.3109/00365519409088436. PMID 7997842. 
  • Bundgaard JR, Sengeløv H, Borregaard N, Kjeldsen L (1994). "Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding NGAL: a lipocalin expressed in human neutrophils". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 202 (3): 1468–75. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2096. PMID 8060329. 
  • Xu SY, Petersson CG, Carlson M, Venge P (1994). "The development of an assay for human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL)--to be used as a specific marker of neutrophil activity in vivo and vitro". J. Immunol. Methods 171 (2): 245–52. doi:10.1016/0022-1759(94)90044-2. PMID 8195592. 
  • Axelsson L, Bergenfeldt M, Ohlsson K (1996). "Studies of the release and turnover of a human neutrophil lipocalin". Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 55 (7): 577–88. doi:10.3109/00365519509110257. PMID 8633182. 
  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome Res. 6 (9): 791–806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548. 
  • Stoesz SP, Friedl A, Haag JD et al. (1998). "Heterogeneous expression of the lipocalin NGAL in primary breast cancers". Int. J. Cancer 79 (6): 565–72. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981218)79:6<565::AID-IJC3>3.0.CO;2-F. PMID 9842963. 
  • Coles M, Diercks T, Muehlenweg B et al. (1999). "The solution structure and dynamics of human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin". J. Mol. Biol. 289 (1): 139–57. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.2755. PMID 10339412. 
  • Friedl A, Stoesz SP, Buckley P, Gould MN (1999). "Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in normal and neoplastic human tissues. Cell type-specific pattern of expression". Histochem. J. 31 (7): 433–41. doi:10.1023/A:1003708808934. PMID 10475571. 
  • Rudd PM, Mattu TS, Masure S et al. (1999). "Glycosylation of natural human neutrophil gelatinase B and neutrophil gelatinase B-associated lipocalin". Biochemistry 38 (42): 13937–50. doi:10.1021/bi991162e. PMID 10529240. 
  • Goetz DH, Willie ST, Armen RS et al. (2000). "Ligand preference inferred from the structure of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin". Biochemistry 39 (8): 1935–41. doi:10.1021/bi992215v. PMID 10684642. 
  • Dias Neto E, Correa RG, Verjovski-Almeida S et al. (2000). "Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (7): 3491–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.7.3491. PMC 16267. PMID 10737800. 
  • Zerega B, Cermelli S, Michelis B et al. (2000). "Expression of NRL/NGAL (neu-related lipocalin/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) during mammalian embryonic development and in inflammation". Eur. J. Cell Biol. 79 (3): 165–72. doi:10.1078/S0171-9335(04)70019-9. PMID 10777108. 
  • Devireddy LR, Teodoro JG, Richard FA, Green MR (2001). "Induction of apoptosis by a secreted lipocalin that is transcriptionally regulated by IL-3 deprivation". Science 293 (5531): 829–34. doi:10.1126/science.1061075. PMID 11486081. 

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  • Lipocalin — Pfam box Symbol = Lipocalin Name = width =250 caption = Retinol binding protein in a calculated membrane bound state of the protein PDB3|1kt6 Pfam= PF00061 InterPro= IPR000566 SMART= PROSITE = PDOC00187 SCOP = 1hms TCDB = OPM family=52 OPM… …   Wikipedia

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