- Stone Age Poland
The Stone Age era on the lands of today's Poland lasted five hundred thousand years and involved three different human species. The
Stone Agecultures ranged from early human groups with primitive tools to advanced agricultural societies using sophisticated stone tools, building fortified settlements and developing copper metallurgy.
Human settlements on Polish lands occurred later than in the more climatically hospitable regions of southern and western
Europeand were dependent on the recurring episodes of glaciation. The earliest remnants of the Homo genuscampsites, together with their inhabitants' primitive stone tools (choppers and microlithic), bones of the animals they hunted and the fish they caught, were found below the San Riverglaciation period sediments in Trzebnicaand are about 500 thousand years old. Younger " Homo erectus" sites were found at Rusko near Strzegom, located, like Trzebnica, in the Lower Silesiaregion. This archeologically represents the microlithic complexes of the Lower Paleolithicperiod. "Homo erectus", earlier known as "Pithecanthropus erectus", was a separate speciesof early humans."U źródeł Polski", p. 10-25, Jan M. Burdukiewicz] Kaczanowski, Kozłowski, p. 55-58]
Now often also considered a distinct species, "Homo neanderthalensis" (otherwise known as "Homo sapiens neanderthalensis") lived in the southern half of Poland during the
Middle Paleolithic, that is between 300,000 and 40,000 BC. Various relics were found and different Neanderthal cultures are distinguished, even though no actual human bones from this period have been identified. Acheuleanhandaxes from Silesia dated 200-180,000 years ago are among the older tools. Examination of the Micoquien-Prądnik culture (East Micoquien complex [Kaczanowski, Kozłowski p. 43, 61, 381] ) sites in the Prądnik RiverValley north of Krakówand in Zwoleńnear Radomfrom about 85,000 to 70,000 BC (early phase of the Vistula River glaciation period) shows that some Neanderthals were skilled collective hunters, able to kill numerous large mammals characteristic of the cold Pleistoceneclimate and process the meat, skin and bones using specialized tools.
Homo sapiens" proper ("Homo sapiens sapiens", the Cro-Magnontype) appears beginning with the Upper Paleolithic, which lasted from 40,000 to 9,000 BC. Upper Paleolithic in Poland was not continuous in terms of human inhabitation, because during the coldest part of this Ice Ageperiod, 20,000 to 15,000 BC, the humans were absent. During the earlier part the Neanderthal probably still existed and coexisted with the modern man. The latter, warmer part, after the climatic discontinuity and the reappearance of humans, is therefore considered the Late Paleolithic[Final Paleolithic terminology also used and the period sometimes given as lasting until 8000 BC, as in "Archaeological Motorway" by Ryszard Naglik, " Archeologia Żywa" (Living Archeology), special English issue 2005] .
Upper Paleolithic people were specialized in group big game hunting, sometimes pursuing and driving into traps entire herds. Their nutritional needs were met, over the many thousand years when the vegetation was limited to
tundraand steppeand the land was covered by ice and snow for long periods, largely by meat consumption. More sophisticated tool making methods resulted in the production of long (even over two feet), narrow and sharp flintstone splits. In a cave near Nowy Targ(East- Gravettianculture) a 30,000 years old, world's oldest boomerangwas found - a crescent-shaped 70 cm long object with fine finish, made of mammoth tusk. From the same period come the bone " Mladečblades" of the Aurignacianculture found in Wierzchowie, KrakówCounty. Rydnois a complex of archeological sites along the Kamiennna River valley between Skarżysko-Kamiennaand Wąchock. Several hundred Paleolithic campsites have been located there, which makes it the world's largest accumulation of such finds. They extend over a number of periods, beginning with the Mousterian(Neanderthal) culture, followed by the Hamburg cultureof reindeerhunters; the Final Paleolithic is represented there by the Komornica culturenamed after a village in LegionowoCounty. The best known Late Paleolithic campsites in the area, which include some dugout huts, belonged to the people preoccupied with hematiteore mining, from which ochrepigment used for body painting was being made. The red dye was widely traded, which is why rocks and minerals originating from distant regions of today's Poland, Slovakiaand Hungaryare found at Rydno. Pieces of "chocolate" flintbrought into this area for processing were stored in quantities that were always the multiples of three. Because of this and other evidence it is believed that the Paleolithic people developed a counting system based on this number. A 12,600 BC Hamburg culture site with tents, camp-fire and stone meat baking devices was discovered in Olbrachcice, WschowaCounty ["Rydno", Polish Wikipedia] ["Rydno" by Katarzyna Gritzmann, Fundacja Kultury Wici web site] .
A rich source of Late Paleolithic sites and artifacts (the
Magdalenian cultureof 14,500 BC) is again the Prądnik River Valley. The Maszycka Cave there contained the remains of a basic at that time social group of several families, 20-30 people, in addition to numerous tools and other artifacts of their culture. Remnants of a 15,000 to 17,000 years old Magdalenian culture dwelling (a dugout cabin site with traces of supporting posts, a hearth and imported materials) were discovered recently in Ćmielów, Ostrowiec ŚwiętokrzyskiCounty [Nauka w Polsce web site April 11 2008, Adam Lisiecki; also Archeowieści web site, Wojciech Pastuszka] .Traces of younger (Final Paleolithic) campsites identified with the Swiderian, Federmesser and Ahrenburgian cultures were located at Stare Marzy near Świecie, among other places"Archaeological Rescue Excavations" by Wojciech Chudziak, "Archeologia Żywa" (Living Archeology), special English issue 2005] .
Mesolithic hunters and gatherers
Mesolithiclasted from 9000 BC (rapid climate warming) to 5500 BC (arrival of first farmers from the Danube Riverarea). It was the last period when the food production economy was entirely opportunistic, based on assimilation of plant and animal material found in nature, that is gathering and hunting. Because of warmer temperatures, complex forest ecosystems and wetlands developed and this natural diversity necessitated new hunting and fishing strategies. Hunters and fishermen working individually or in small groups had to pursue single large and small animals using traps, javelins, bows and arrows, boats and fishing equipment, and utilizing dogs. Women engaged in gathering of such products as roots, herbs, nuts, bird eggs, mollusks, fruit or honey, which possibly was even more important than hunting. Mesolithic human settlements became quite numerous and by the end of this period the economy of harvesting nature became very highly developed. Tools and devices were made of materials such as stone (flint strip mines have been found at the northern edge of Świętokrzyskie Mountains), bone, wood, horn, or plant material for rope and baskets, and included such fine utensils as fishing hooks and sewing needles. Animal figurines were made of amber. At least during the later Mesolithic, the dead were placed in graves and outfitted with familiar objects of their surroundings. One such well preserved grave of an apparent tool-maker, together with his tools and other items was found in Janisławice near Skierniewiceand dated 5500 BC."U źródeł Polski", p. 26-31, Jan M. Burdukiewicz]
Introduction of agriculture - Danubian cultures of farming communities
Neolithicera begins around 5500 BC with the arrival from the middle Danubearea of people (their land tilling predecessors had been coming into the Balkansand then the Danube region from Anatoliabeginning a thousand years earlier) who kept livestock, cultivated crops and made pottery. They formed the first settled rural communities, thus forging the most fundamental civilizational advance.
The original newcomers are referred to as the
Linear Pottery culture- their uniform culture survived in Poland in its original form until about 4600 BC. Despite the big impact they made, the first waves came in small numbers - hundreds, or at most a few thousand people, judging by the sizes of the known settlements. They populated mainly fertile soils of southern highlands and river valleys further north, all the way to the Baltic Sea. They lived alongside the more numerous native people who were still pursuing the Mesolithic lifestyle, but during the Linear Pottery culture times there wasn't much interaction, as the two groups inhabited different environments. Their villages consisted of several or more long (even over 30 meters) rectangular homes supported by wooden posts, the oldest of which come from the Lower Silesia region. One such location from about 5000 BC was also unearthed at Olszanica, which is now at the west end of Krakówjust within the city limits.
Surprisingly large Danubian complexes were in recent years excavated in the Targowisko and Szarów (
WieliczkaCounty) area of fertile loessial hills. The settlements, which included post construction houses even over 50 meters long as well as industrial facilities, extended continuously over a stretch of land more than three kilometers long. Some of the identified structures functioned together, as was the case when the buildings were connected by a courtyard and protected by a common fence"Archaeological Motorway" by Ryszard Naglik, "Archeologia Żywa" (Living Archeology), special English issue 2005] .
Plants were cultivated mostly in small nearby gardens, but wheat and barley were also grown on small fields obtained by burning the forest (the forest burning activity brought about significant ecological and environmental changes in
Lesser Poland, Silesiaand Kujawy"U źródeł Polski", p. 10-25, Jan M. Burdukiewicz] ). Further out were the pastures, the entire area utilized by a single settlement having a radius of about 5 km. Cattle, sheep and goats were even more numerous in the northern flatlands, where the land was less fertile. The Danubian people communities kept in touch and exchanged goods over large areas, all the way to their regions of origin beyond the Carpathian Mountains.
After 5000 BC new waves of immigrants arrived from the south again, which accelerated the process of differentiation of the agrarian society into several distinct cultures during the first half of 5th millennium BC and afterwards. In the
Oder Riverbasin mostly there was the culture named after the punctured variety of Linear Band pottery - Stroked Pottery culture, while in the Vistula Riverbasin the Lengyel and Polgár cultures appeared. The two regions developed in some separation, but within them the different cultural traditions of the younger Danubian circle often overlapped. The houses were now of an elongated trapezoidal shape, up to 40 meters long, grouped in larger complexes, often protected by beam and earth walls, moats and other fortifications, as such defensive measures apparently became necessary against people from the still Mesolithic native population or other Danubian settlements. The complicated, time and resources consuming defensive structures were being built beginning in mid 5th millennium BC. Their design followed that of the similar construction that was taking place in the Danube Riverareas, starting in the early part of this millennium. Large cemeteries and graves supplied with fancier objects such as jewelry, including the first so-called "princely" graves (the princesses had imported coppernecklaces, earrings and diadems in addition to locally made decorations), testify to the emergence of a relatively more affluent society. Cattle raising and trading (large varieties resulted from cross-breeding with the aurochs) and land tillage provided basic sustenance. Salt was obtained and traded and became a much sought after commodity, at first probably to help preserve stored food. The salt springs around Wieliczkawere utilized already by the Lengyel culture people, who left ceramic vessels used in salt production there. The Danubian people produced many richly decorated objects, including clay containers with animal head ornaments and figurines of women.
A settlement and cemetery of the Lengyel-Polgár cultural zone, dated around or after 4600 BC, was discovered in Ślęza,
WrocławCounty. It consisted of a central long trapezoidal house accompanied by several post-built supporting structures ["The Archaeology of the Route of A-4 Motorway in Silesia" by Bogusław Gediga, "Archeologia Żywa" (Living Archeology), special English issue 2005] . Among the large explored settlements of the Lengyel culture from the 4400-4000 BC period, there is one in Brześć Kujawski, and another one in Osłonki, solidly fortified about 4200 BC after an assault incident involving arson and murder, both located in the Kujawyregion.At the Osłonki settlement nearly 30 trapezoidal houses and over 80 graves were located, some of them with many copper ornaments. The agricultural and construction activities of the communities centered on the two large settlements (hunting and fishing were also practiced) caused very likely an accumulation of environmental damage, which eventually forced them to abandon the area ["Archaeological Research at Oslonki, Poland" by Peter Bogucki, Princeton Universityweb site] .4th millennium BC constructions reinforced with ditches and palisades and ceramics molded into figural representations of the Lengyel-Polgár culture were located in Podłęże, Wieliczka County.
The Malice farming culture of southern Poland (all of 5th millennium and until 3800 BC, named after a site in Malice near
SandomierzKaczanowski, Kozłowski, p. 112] ) was the first Neolithic culture to originate north of the Carpathian Mountains and spread south. A rare discovery of 5th millennium Malice culture buildings and decorated pottery was made in Targowisko, Wieliczka County."U źródeł Polski", p. 32-39, Ryszard Grygiel]
Neolithic cultures developed by native populations
After 4500 BC the
Ertebølleculture of northwestern origin entered a ceramic phase with its own forms of pottery. They lived by the Baltic Seashores and were specialized in utilizing the resources of the sea, thus still representing the Mesolithic ways of life. At their settlement in Dąbki near KoszalinStroke-ornamented pottery was found, obtained probably through trade with the Danubian people.
The native Mesolithic populations were slow in gradually assimilating the agricultural way of life, beginning with just the use of ceramics. It took a thousand years into the Neolithic period before they adopted animal husbandry (which became especially important to them) and plant cultivation to any appreciable degree. When they eventually developed interest in the more fertile areas utilized by the late Danubian cultures, they became the threat that compelled the Danubian farmers to fortify their settlements.
The first truly native Neolithic culture was the
Funnelbeaker culturenamed after the shape of their typical clay vessels, which developed starting around 4400 BC and lasted some two thousand years. Like other post-Mesolithic cultures the Funnelbeaker culture was Megalithic - they built tombs of large stones, some of them huge and resembling pyramids. Few survived till now because of the demand for stone as building material, but a well-preserved one from the first half of 4th millennium BC was found in Wietrzychowice near Włocławek. From this place and period comes the skull, on which the trepanationprocedure was performed for medical or magic reasons. Timewise the beginnings of the post-Mesolithic cultures in Poland coincide with the beginnings of the Eneolithic period in the Balkans. Copperobjects, mostly ornamental or luxurious items, were traded and then developed locally, first by the Danubian and then by the indigenous people. Copper metallurgy facilities were identified in Złota near Sandomierz. Clay decorative objects include realistic representations of animals and containers with images engraved on them - a pot from Bronocice, PińczówCounty (3400 BC) has a unique narrative scene and the world's oldest semblance of a four-wheeled cart drawn on its surface. Stone tools became most highly developed and acquired their then characteristic smooth surfaces. Well preserved settlements with rectangular buildings were unearthed in Gródek Nadbużny near Hrubieszów(where remnants of a vertical loom for weaving were found), in Niedźwiedź near Kraków, and in northern Poland in Barłożno, Starogard GdańskiCounty, where the structures are similar to the ones in Niedźwiedź. In Barłożno three post supported houses were discovered, the largest of which had the main part 16 meters long and 6.5 meters wide. As dated from the ceramics found, they represent the developed, "Wiórecka" phase of the Funnelbeaker culture"Archaeological Rescue Excavations" by Mirosław Fudzińskiand Henryk Paner, "Archeologia Żywa" (Living Archeology), special English issue 2005] .
Originating from central European lowlands, the Funnelbeaker people moved south into the regions previously developed by the Danubian cultures, all the way to
Bohemiaand Moravia. Being more numerous, better fit for the environment, organized and economically more productive the Funnelbeaker culture people replaced the Danubian cultures in their late phase, and themselves lasted a long timeKaczanowski, Kozłowski, p. 123] . Globular Amphora culturewas the next major Neolithic culture. It originated in the Polish lowlands during the first half of 4th millennium BC, lasted to about 2400 BC and is named after the bulging shape of its representative pottery. They specialized in breeding domestic animals and lived in a semi-settled state, seeking optimal pastures and moving as needed. This semi-nomadic lifestyle was probably necessitated by the poor condition of the soils, by that time depleted and rendered infertile because of the preceding centuries of forest burning and extensive exploitation. Globular Amphora were the first culture in Poland known for utilizing the domesticated horse and swine became important as the source of food. Ritual animal, especially cattle burial sites, often with two or more individuals buried together and supplied with objects as strange as drums have been discovered, but their role is not well understood.
Baden culturein southern Poland was the latest of the Danubian ancestry cultures and continued between 3200 and 2600 BC. They made vessels with characteristic protruding radial ornaments. A large fortified Baden culture settlement of around 3000 BC was found in Bronocice near Pińczów.
Finally there were still in existence the forest zone cultures, representing the ceramic phase of hunting and gathering communities. Some of them lasted into the early
The major industry of this period was flintstone mining. One of the largest Neolithic (middle to late periods) flint mines in Europe with over 700 vertical shafts and preserved underground passages was located in Krzemionki Opatowskie near
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The axes produced from the material obtained here were exported to distant parts of the continent ["Large Salvage Excavations in Poland" by Jerzy Gąssowski, "Archeologia Żywa" (Living Archeology), special English issue 2005] ."U źródeł Polski", p. 40-47, Ryszard Grygiel]
Late Neolithic arrivals from eastern and western regions of Europe
Corded Ware culture, in existence in central Europe between 3000 and 2000 BC, originated most likely from Proto-Indo-European nomadic people of the Black Seasteppes. It was a pastoral culture at least in its early stages, for the most part lacking permanent settlements and known primarily from the burial grounds (a large one with many richly furnished graves was discovered in Złota near Sandomierz). They moved together with their herds of cattle, sheep and goats along the river valleys of southern Poland, but also engaged in flint mining and manufacturing of tools and weapons for their own use and trade.
Rzucewo culture(named after the village near Puck where the discoveries took place) developed from northern populations of the Corded Ware culture as an offshoot specialized in exploitation of the sea resources and lasted in parallel with their mother culture for a comparable period of time. Their settlements consisting of characteristic sea erosion reinforced houses were located along the Bay of Gdańsk and east of there. They engaged in fishery and hunting, especially of seals, then numerous along the Baltic coast. The Rzucewo culture people produced in special shops the widely used and traded amberdecorative items.
From the opposite end of Europe (the
Iberian Peninsula) came the few people who formed during the 2500-1900 BC period the Bell-Beaker culture, named after the shape of their typical, carefully finished and precisely ornamented pottery - southwestern Poland was at the eastern edge of their range. Because of their mobility, they helped spread new inventions, including developing metallurgy, over large areas of Europe."U źródeł Polski", p. 48-53, Ryszard Grygiel] ["U źródeł Polski", Synchronization of archeological cultures, p. 212-215 by Adam Żurek and chronology tables p. 218-221 by Wojciech Mrozowiczand Adam Żurek used throughout the article]
Prehistory of Poland (until 966)
Bronze and Iron Age Poland
Poland in Antiquity
Poland in the Early Middle Ages
References and notes
* Various authors, ed.
Marek Derwichi Adam Żurek, "U źródeł Polski (do roku 1038)" (Foundations of Poland (until year 1038)), Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, Wrocław 2002, ISBN 83-7023-954-4
Piotr Kaczanowski, Janusz Krzysztof Kozłowski- "Najdawniejsze dzieje ziem polskich (do VII w.)" (Oldest history of Polish lands (till 7th century)), Fogra, Kraków 1998, ISBN 83-85719-34-2:Inline:
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