- Littleton Waller
Infobox Military Person
name= Littleton Waller Tazewell Waller
born= birth date|1856|9|26
died= death date and age|1926|7|13|1856|9|26
York County, Virginia
Arlington National Cemetery
caption= Littleton W. T. Waller
allegiance= United States of America
United States Marine Corps
rank= Major General
Spanish-American War Boxer Rebellion Philippine-American War
Marine Corps Brevet MedalNavy Specially Meritorious Service Medal
Littleton "Tony" Waller Tazewell Waller (26 September, 1856 – 13 July, 1926) was a career officer in the
United States Marine Corps, who served in the Spanish American War, the Caribbeanand Asia. He was court martialled and acquitted for actions during the Philippine-American Warwhere he led a ill-fated expedition across the island of Samar. He retired from the Marines holding the rank of Major General.
Early life and career
Littleton Waller ("Tony") was born in
York County, Virginiaon 26 September, 1856. He was appointed as a second lieutenant of Marines on 24 June, 1880 at the age of 23 and served initial tours of successive shore duty at the Marine Barracks in Norfolk, Va., and Washington, D.C.
Both of Waller's ancestral families enjoyed wealth and political distinction in England and America. The Wallers were high sheriffs in Kent, where the family owned
Groombridge Place, and judiciaries in Buckinghamshire. John Waller, born in 1635, was sent to Virginia at the age of ten to keep him safe from the English Civil War. He trained as an attorney at the College of William and Maryand founded a family that includes several members of the Virginia House of Burgesses, a justice of the Virginia Supreme Court, and a member of Virginia's delegation to the committee that adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Tazewells of Dorset county were churchmen and scholars of the law. William Tazewell, attorney, born in 1691, emigrated to Virginia in 1715. His descendants include members of the House of Burgesses, the U.S. House of Representatives, the Senates of both Virginia and the United States, and the Virginia Supreme Court. Tony Waller's maternal grandfather Littleton Waller Tazewellwas, in turn, a U.S. Congressman, a U.S. Senator, and Governor of Virginia. He built the beautiful family home, Wishing Oak, on Granby Street in Norfolk in 1802 and died there on May 6, 1860.ref|congressionalbio
The general's mother, Mary Waller Tazewell, was born at Wishing Oak in 1822. In 1848, she married Matthew Page Waller, her third cousin four times removed. Their children include a daughter and two sons older than Tony, and three sons younger. Littleton Waller Tazewell Waller was born on September 26, 1856. His father, who was a doctor, died of typhoid during an epidemic on December 11, 1861. Mary remained a widow until her death on December 20, 1889. She is buried with her husband in Elmwood Cemetery in Norfolk. The family's extensive public service is exclusively civilian. In 1920, when Tony Waller Jr. joined the
Sons of the American Revolution, his application was based on his ancestor's participation in the Committee of Independence. The Waller family website says surprisingly little about the Civil War years, and the associated Tazewell website says even less. That silence is eloquent in itself.
The Wallers and Tazewells seem to have had no military members prior to Tony's commissioning. His decision to become an officer must have surprised his family, but they were supportive of his ambition. In his teens, Tony was a corporal in the Norfolk Light Artillery Blues, a local militia unit. Turned down for a commission in the cavalry (at 5' 4" he was too short), he was accepted into the Marines.
Tony Waller was bright, but indifferent to education. He was an outdoorsman, fond of hunting, fishing and riding, and uncomfortable in classrooms. Historian David McCulloch noted that, in the nineteenth century, every literate person in the English-speaking world was familiar with three books — the
King James Bible, the works of Shakespeare, and John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress". Waller’s writing shows the influence of all three. His report from Peking compares the condition of the Marines to Falstaff's army, in reference to Shakespeare's "Henry IV". He uses the Biblical phrase "the peace of God which passeth all understanding" in his letter to the Marines in France in 1918. In reporting the death in action of one of his officers in China Waller expressed confidence the "all the trumpets will sound for him upon the other side", a phrase taken from Bunyan's description of the death of Faithful. In their ghostwritten memoirs Smedley Butlerand Frederick C. Wise remember him as an eloquent speaker and fascinating storyteller. Yet he apparently never considered the study of law or a career in politics.
Early Marine career
Waller first went to sea as the Executive Officer of the Marine Detachment aboard the USS "Lancaster", the
flagshipof the European Squadronand a veteran of the Civil War, in 1881. The Commanding Officer of the Detachment, and also a veteran of the Civil War, was the legendary Captain Henry Clay Cochrane. The following year, Waller was present at the British Naval bombardment of Alexandria, Egypt during a serious local uprising in the summer of 1882. He participated in the landing of a mixed bluejacket and Marine force during the operation. The Naval landing force of sixty-nine sailors and sixty-three Marines was formed, with Lieutenant Commander Charles Goodrich in command and Captain Cochrane as executive officer. Two companies comprised the force, the sailors under Navy Lieutenant Frank L. Denny and the Marines under Waller. The timely arrival of the ships of the European Squadron and their landing forces gave protection to the American consulate and to American citizens and interests caught up in the fighting and also afforded a refuge for the citizens of other nations who had been displaced from their homes or businesses. Advancing cautiously through the burning and rubble strewn streets, the Americans reached the Grand Square of Mehmet Ali, the heart of the city. The American Consulate was here, and it became the headquarters of the force. Although the French troops had abandoned the city and cautiously returned to their ships, the Marines secured the Grand Square and began to patrol the streets of the European Quarter, as the international business and consular area was called. Cochrane, Waller and their Marines were assigned to Lord Charles Beresford’s British force for the protection of the European Quarter. The anticipated rebel counterattack never came, and a ten-day standoff ended with the arrival of the four thousand-man British relief force. According to the Times of London:
"Lord Charles Beresford states that without the assistance of the American Marines he would have been unable to discharge the numerous duties of suppressing fires, preventing looting, burying the dead, and clearing the streets."
As there was no wireless radio in those days, and the telegraphic cable office in Alexandria was not functioning, the Squadron Commander had approval to land the naval force, but once ashore Goodrich had been on his own. It was he who made the decision to stay with the British rather than leave with the French. Waller, as one of only four officers in the landing force, would have been present when the decisions were made. He learned, as a twenty-four year old lieutenant, the habits of independence in command that he would exercise throughout his career.
The Spanish-American War
Following tours of shore duty at Norfolk and Washington; and at sea in "Iroquois", "Tallapoosa", and "Lancaster"—Captain Waller served in the
battleship"Indiana" (BB-1), lead ship of the new "Indiana Class," during the Spanish-American Warand was in that vessel as Commander of it's Marine detachment during the Battle of Santiago on 3 July, 1898. During this naval engagement, Spanish Admiral Pascual Cervera's fleet was chased down and totally destroyed by the American fleet waiting just outside the harbor. Due to her position at the extreme eastern end of the blockade, the Indiana could not participate in the intitial chase after the enemy cruisers made their sortie without cutting across the bow of the USS Oregon (BB-3), which Captain Taylor, the ship's Commander, wisely decided not to do. The battleshipand the Marines manning her secondary batteries, were, however, able to engage and aid in the destruction of the Spanish destroyer Furorand the Spanish destroyer Pluton, the fifth and sixth ships bringing up the rear of Spanish line, as they left the bay. Still too close to his squadron mates to risk using his big guns, Taylor called on Waller and his Marines to take the destroyers under fire with the six-inch batteries. Captain Waller ran from gun to gun, shouting orders and encouragement, as his Leathernecks pulverized the Spanish ships. "The only trouble experienced at that time was the dificulty in keeping the men not actually engaged under cover", Waller later wrote. "They would creep up to the guns, waiting for the chance to take part in the action." Within minutes both destroyers were ablaze and sinking. Still moving west, Indiana finally got to use the thirteen-inch rifles, as she opened up on Spanish cruiser Almirante Oquendo. Wreathed in flame with many of it's guns out of action, including one which it's own shells had detonated inside of, Oquendo finally ran aground. By now the rest of the Spanish ships had also fallen to American fire. The fighting was over, and it was one of the most lopsided victories in naval history. Every Spanish ship was destroyed and no American vessel had suffered more than token damage. Waller's gun crews reportedly got off 500 rounds from their 6 inch guns during the 61 minute melee.
In their moment of triumph, the Americans now performed a magnificent act of mercy. Captain Taylor, had directed Waller to launch the Indiana's whaleboats and pick up as many of the shipwrecked Spanish sailors as possible. With sailors at the oars and Marines in bow and stern to haul the swimmers aboard, Waller's detail worked all day. Men who were already weary from passing ammunition, now sunburned and with hands swollen and cracked from salt water, saved their enemies from death.
Admiral Sampson described the service of Waller and his men in his after-action report to the Secretary of the Navy:
:" The Iowa and the Indiana, having done good work, and not having the speed of the other ships, were directed by me ... to drop out of the chase and resume blockading stations. These vessels rescued many prisoners. ...
:This rescue of prisoners, including the wounded from the burning Spanish vessels, was the occasion of some of the most daring and gallant conduct of the day. The ships were burning fore and aft, their guns and reserve ammunition were exploding, and it was not known at what moment the fire would reach the main magazines. In addition to this a heavy surf was running just inside of the Spanish ships. But no risk deterred our officers and men until their work of humanity was completed."
Waller himself later remembered it:
:"After the destruction of the three largest ships and two torpedo-boat destroyers, I was sent to pick up the wounded and bring off prisoners from the beaches where they were huddled and in constant danger from the exploding magazines. ... After working for hours with the wounded, we took the prisoners on board ship; there were on board my ship, two hundred and forty-three in all. We issued clothes to the naked men, and the officers gave up their clothes and beds to the Spanish officers. Only a few months ago I received a letter from the widow of one of the officers of Admiral Cervera's staff, telling me of her husband's death, and saying that it was his wish that she should thank me for all that I had done for him; and I have received many tokens and letters besides this in grateful acknowledgement of the mercy shown."
Formal recognition of that action at Santiago would come to Waller sometime later.
Waller's was one of only ninety-three known awards of this medal, and is believed to be the only one awarded to a U.S. Marine. Because it recognizes heroism not in direct combat, the
Specially Meritorious Service Medalcan be considered a predecessor of today's Navy and Marine Corps Medal.
While stationed at the naval station at Cavite early in 1900, Waller, now a Major, was ordered to command a detachment of Marines assigned to take part in the expedition mounted to relieve the siege of Peking, the Imperial Capital of China. This city, with its enclave of foreign Legations, was besieged by a mixed force of "Boxers" and Chinese Imperial troops supporting them. Accordingly, Waller and his men arrived at
Taku, China, on 19 June, 1900, soon moved inland, and linked up with a Russian column of 400 men.
At 02:00 on June 21, this small combined force set out for
Tientsin, a large enemy held city along the route to Peking, arrayed against a Chinese contingent of some 1,500 to 2,000 men. Outnumbered from the start, the column came under heavy enemy fire and was forced to retreat, with the Russians in the lead. In a desperate rearguard action, Waller and his marines—leaving their dead behind and dragging their wounded with them—fought off the numerically superior (but less aggressive) Chinese forces and reached safety.
Waller's detachment immediately returned to duty, attached to a British column led by Commander
Christopher Craddock. At 04:00 on the June 24, an international army—-consisting of Italian, German, Japanese, Russian, British, and American forces—-set out again for Tientsin. His report of June 28th 1900 details the initial fighting and many of the other obstacles overcome by the Marines:
TIENTSIN, CHINA, June 28, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to report that, having been ordered from Manila to report to the second in command of the squadron, I arrived with 101 men and 5 officers off Taku on the 18th instant, meeting a small detachment of 30 men sent forward by the Nashville, the entire force amounting to 131 men.
Having received instructions from the rear admiral commanding to land and cooperate with the powers, to move forward with the first column of relief for the besieged city of Tientsin, I landed on the 19th instant and proceeded to a short distance from Tong Ku, moving to that place on the early morning of June 20. During the day I constructed a train, with the very valuable assistance of Captain Wise, of the Monocacy, and proceeded up the railroad, carrying a construction car with me. We succeeded in repairing the track and opening communication to a point about 18 miles from Tong Ku and about 12 miles from Tientsin. Finding the road impassable, I put a 3- inch gun on the track and bivouacked for the night at that point. The understanding was at 11 o'clock at night that we would hold that position until reenforcements arrived the next afternoon. With that understanding, I turned in. At 2 in the morning the Russian colonel informed me that he would push on with his 400 men and attempt to get into Tientsin and aid in the defense of the city. I objected, but was overruled in council. My reason told me that there was a slim chance of passing the Chinese force with only 530 men and no guns; the 3-inch rifle proving defective, I disabled it and rolled it into the river, and followed the Russians in the 12-mile march on Tientsin. The Russian column was in advance, 400 strong, with my 6-millimeter gun (Colt) in their front under the command of Lieutenant Powell. The advance continued until 7 a.m. without opposition, when we reached a point opposite the imperial arsenal. There we met a small flank fire, which was quickly silenced by our sharpshooters. About two minutes later we met a very heavy front and flank fire from 1,500 to 2,000 men intrenched. We deployed, and my line, feeling the flank fire, turned to the left and rear, confronting the flank movement, our line at that time having its front advanced and right and flank refused. We held the position for some time, when the Russian force began to fall back and form on our right at a distance of about one-half mile. This movement again brought the fire of the enemy on our left flank. The support of the Colt gun having dwindled to two men and the gun having jammed several times, all the crew being shot down but one, Mr. Powell very properly decided to abandon it, which he did after disabling the gun. Receiving notice that the Russians would retreat to a point 4 miles beyond our bivouac, I began my retreat, moving by the right flank and keeping up a light fire four hours with the enemy, who were in force, imperial troops and Boxers. We succeeded in falling back, bringing our wounded by hand. At 2 p.m. we had reached our bases, having marched 30 miles and fought for five hours. I was obliged to leave the dead, but brought off the wounded. Our casualties were 4 killed and 9 wounded.
At about 5 p.m. a force of English and Russians arrived, and I decided to act in cooperation with the British, under Commander Craddock.
On the following day we moved as far as railhead, our bivouac of the day before, where we camped for the night. The force amounted at this time to about 2,000 men, 1,000 being Russian and the rest English, German, American, Italian, and Japanese, in strength in order mentioned, the British being about 600 strong. It was agreed that we should advance in two columns on the next day at 4 a.m., my force occupying the advance of the British column and the right of the firing line. We struck the enemy at about 7 a.m. and drove them steadily until about 12.30 p.m., when we entered Tientsin, relieving the besieged Europeans, our losses being for the day 1 killed and 3 wounded. The Russian column deflected from the scene of our defeat two days previously and followed us into Tientsin. We rested for the remainder of the day, and at 12.30 a.m. the next morning, June 25, moved to the relief of Vice-Admiral Seymour, Captain McCalla, and the men of the powers who had been forced back from their march on Pekin to the relief of the ministers and intrenched at a point about 8 miles from Tientsin. We met very little opposition, and succeeded in relieving at 12 a.m., our casualties being 2 wounded from shell fire, 1 bullet wound. The force relieved had, by a brilliant charge and without knowing what they had opposed to them, succeeded in capturing one of the most important arsenals in China, the place being filled with a plentiful supply of all sorts of munitions of war. Capt. B.H. McCalla was in command of our forces, and was still on his feet, although suffering from three wounds. We moved the sick and wounded from the arsenal on the evening of the 25th, and encamped on the opposite side of the river for the night. At 4 a.m. the following day, June 26, we moved back to Tientsin with the sick and wounded of the besieged, the march being very slow on account of the large number of disabled men. Captain McCalla left me in charge of the combined force of American seamen and marines.
At noon on the 27th, the Russians having attacked the arsenal, the scene of my repulse on the 22d, and which had not been captured, asked for reenforcements. I sent out Second Lieutenant Jolly with 40 men, Mr. Harding, my adjutant, going as a volunteer, and placed the whole under the command of Commander Craddock, R.N. This force was about 1,800 strong, and succeeded in driving the enemy from the parapets out of their fortifications and in full flight. It was developed that the enemy had about 7,000 men at this point. Our men charged over the parapet with a British company, being the first in this part of the fight. Our loss here was 1 wounded and Lieutenant Jolly overcome with heat, but not until after he had brought his men back to their quarters. Lieutenant Harding acted as a volunteer and captured an imperial flag, which he presented to me. To-day we are resting, sending away the wounded, and getting ready for a march on Pekin. My effective strength is now about 89. Having given you the bare facts, I now wish to invite attention to the incidents of the busy week.
Our men have marched 97 miles in the five days, fighting all the way. They have lived on about one meal a day for about six days, but have been cheerful and willing always. They have gained the highest praise from all present, and have earned my love and confidence. They are like Falstaff's army in appearance, but with brave hearts and bright weapons.
Our uniform is utterly unfit for this service. The trousers last about two days, and the blue shirts make a splendid target all the more marked when we are on the firing line with khaki, for these men have asked the Admiral to cable for more men and stores for the march on Pekin.
Captains Myers and Hall and the marines under them are besieged at Pekin. As soon as sufficient forces have arrived with train the forces will move on Pekin. Our force is disgracefully small, considering our interests.
I have to earnestly recommend to your notice for such reward as you may deem proper the following officers: Lieutenant Smedly D. Butler, for the admirable control of his men in all the fights of the week, for saving a wounded man at the risk of his own life, and under a very severe fire; Lieut A.E. Harding, for conspicuous gallantry in action, for saving wounded at the risk of his own life under a heavy fire; Second Lieut. W.L. Jolly, for the same risk and for leading a fine charge over two parapets in the face of a heavy fire; Lieutenant Leonard, for saving life under fire and for admirable control and direction of the fire; Lieutenant Powell, for working and managing the Colt gun under a fierce fire and without support, after the crew had been shot down; Lieutenant Wynne, for his steadfast courage and encouragement of his men. As for the men, I feel that I can not do them justice. They have made history, marked with blood, if you please, still glorious and brilliant. They were the first in the field, and, please God, they will remain until the last man, woman and child is relieved from the toils of these barbarians. I shall send you the names of special instances in these cases, hoping that a suitable reward may be given them as far as the law allows. For myself, sir, I have only to say that I did my best. I have carried the colors you surrendered to me through each fight. * * * I tried to get into Tientsin to help the besieged. I failed. I lost a gun. If there is any fault it is mine. I only remark that it took 2,000 men with 6 guns to do what I failed to do with 530 without guns. I am awaiting reenforcements asked for, and shall move forward as soon as the combined forces are ready.
I append a list of casualties to date, not including sick.
I have also to ask that you urge the Department to thank the British surgeons for their care on the field and in hospital of our wounded; especially do I wish to recommend to the Department's notice the services of Robley H. J. Brown, R.N., H.M.S. Alacrity. So sure was his service and search of the field that we were enabled to get all rifles on the firing line with the sure knowledge that the dead and wounded would be attended to. We had no surgeon or medical supplies. The operations under Commander Craddock, R.N., were admirably planned and executed.
List of casualties to date (inclosed with letter): Killed -- Privates Lannigan, J.K. Miller, Morris, Provensal, and Hunter. Wounded -- Corporals Francis Kates and Hetrick, Sergeant Sullivan (slight), Privates C. S. Smith, Cork, Sullivan, J. J. Bailey, Pennington, Carter, the most serious wound, the thigh being badly fractured.
We need several carts for transportation. The report received from Pekin to-day is very bad, the runner having left there five days before. All the Europeans were in the English legation, ammunition very short, only three of the legations left standing. Artillery fire would probably be directed against the British legation, in which case the suffering would be terrible.
There seems small chance of any movement toward Pekin for three weeks.
LITTLETON W.T. WALLER,Major, U.S.M.C.,Commanding United States Force.
After participating in the final fighting for the city of Peking on July 13-14, Waller and his men took possession of the American sector and brought order out of the havoc caused by the Chinese retreat. Promoted by brevet to lieutenant colonel and advanced two numbers in grade for his performance of duty at Tientsin and Peking, Littleton Waller was commended in 1903 by Brigadier General A. S. Daggett, U.S. Army, Ret., in his book, "America in the China Relief Expedition". He recalled that the marine had "... participated willingly and energetically ..." with the Allies "... in all movements against the enemy ..." and that "... he and his officers and men ... reflected credit upon American valor. ..." For his service, Major Waller received a brevet promotion, along with several of his fellow officers who had also distinguished themselved, to Lieutenant Colonel. He would later become one of only 20 Marines to be awarded the U.S.M.C.
Brevet Medalwhen the decoration was created in 1921.
Philippine-American War and war crimes acquittal
Balangiga massacre, U.S. Army Brigadier General Jacob H. Smithasked for Marine Corps assistance to help subdue the Philippine population on the island of Samar. Major Waller and his Marine Battalion were given this assignment. Prior to proceeding, Major Waller had had this conversation with General Smith:
:I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn, the more you kill and burn the better it will please me. I want all persons killed who are capable of bearing arms in actual hostilities against the United States.", General Smith said.
:Since it was a popular belief among the Americans serving in the Philippines that native males were born with bolos in their hands, Major Waller asked, "I would like to know the limit of age to respect, sir?"
:"Ten years.", Smith said.
:"Persons of ten years and older are those designated as being capable of bearing arms?", asked Waller.
:"Yes.", Smith confirmed his instructions a second time.ref|smith
Waller largely ignored these illegal orders. Waller and his battalion of 315 Marines departed
Caviteon 22 October 1901 and landed at Carbalogen, Samar, on 24 October. In the southern half of Samar, Waller ran patrols, amphibious operations, and led a detachment of marines which defeated Philippine insurgents in a battle at Sohoton cliffson 5 November, 1901. He was having some success in registering the inhabitants and pacifying the Philippine towns.
General Smith ordered Waller to scout a possible telegraph route across the island from Lanang on the east cost to Basey on the west coast — straight across trackless, uninhabited jungle.
Waller's March across Samarbegan from Lanang on 28 December, 1901 with 60 Marines, including Sgt. John H. Quick, 2 Philippine scouts and 33 Philippine porters. In terrible physical conditions, most of the men were soon sick and running out of food. To stave off disaster, Major Waller divided his force on 3 January, 1902. Leaving Marine Captain David D. Porter in charge of a group remaining in the jungle, Waller and 14 others went for help at Basey, arriving there on 6 January. On 7 January, Waller led a relief operation back to Porter, but for 9 days could not find them.
Growing more desperate for food, Captain Porter left the sick and dying behind under the command of Marine Lieutenant A.S. Williams and set out with 7 Marines and 6 porters to Lanang. Having arrived at Lanang on 11 January, Cpt. Porter then sent out a relief column to pick up his own stragglers and rescue Lt. William's command. By 18 January, when Williams was rescued, 10 marines had died, one had gone insane and the porters had mutinied. Williams later testified that their mutinous behavior left the Marines in daily fear of their lives; the porters were hiding food and supplies from the Marines and keeping themselves nourished from the jungle while the Marines starved; then three porters attacked and wounded Williams with a bolo. The other 11 porters were placed under arrest when Williams' command reached Lanang.
After an investigation, Waller ordered the summary execution, without trial, of the eleven Filipino porters for treason, theft, disobedience and general mutiny. Ten were shot in groups of three (one had been gunned down in the water attempting to escape) The bodies were left in the square, as an example, until one evening, under cover of darkness, some townspeople carried them off for a Christian burial.
Waller's Marine Battalion on Samar was relieved by U.S. Army units on 26 February, 1902. He and his Battalion left Samar on 29 February, returning to Cavite on 2 March, 1902.
Waller reported the executions to Smith, as he had reported every other event. "It became necessary to expend eleven prisoners. Ten who were implicated in the attack on Lt. Williams and one who plotted against me." Smith passed Waller's report to General
Adna Chaffee. For some reason, Chaffee decided to investigate these executions, despite General J. Franklin Belland Colonel Jacob H. Smithhaving carried out similar executions on a much larger scale months before with no subsequent investigations.Fact|date=February 2007
Waller was tried for murder in ordering the execution of the eleven Filipino porters. A court martial began on March 17, 1902.ref|smith2 The court-martial board consisted of 7 Army officers and 6 Marine Corps officers, lead by U.S. Army General
William H. Bisbee.
Major Henry P. Kingsbury, USA, the prosecutor, read the charge and specification.
:CHARGE: Murder, in violation of the 58th Article of War. :SPECIFICATION: In that Major Littleton W.T. Waller, United States Marine Corps, being then and there detached for service with the United States Army by authority of the President of the United States, did, in time of war, willfully and feloniously and with malice aforethought, murder and kill eleven men, names unknown, natives of the Philippine Islands, by ordering and causing his subordinate officer under his command, John Horace Arthur Day, 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, and a firing detail of enlisted men under his said command, to take out said eleven men and shoot them to death, which said order was then and there carried into execution and said eleven natives, and each of them, were shot with rifles, from the effects of which they then and there died.
:This at Basey, Island of Samar, Philippine Islands, on or about the 20th day of January, 1902.
Waller's attorney, Cdr Adolf Marix USN, first argued, unsuccessfully, that the Army had no jurisdiction over him as he was still under Marine Corps command.Fact|date=February 2007From the court martial transcript:
"The specification does not allege that Major Waller is now detached for service with the United States Army, nor does it allege that due process against him for the offence was instituted before he was detached from the Army. The charge does not, therefore, represent a case within the jurisdiction of the Army court martial." In other words, Marix said, the Army did not charge Waller when he was assigned to them, and he is not assigned to them any longer.
"The charges brought against Major Waller were handed to him on March 4th, and constitute the first process against him. This was several days after he was detached from the Army ... the jurisdiction was therefore voluntarily surrendered."
"The plea is that the defendant is not subject to the jurisdiction of this court", General Bisbee noted.
"We want to know whether there is any possible written or other evidence from the President of the United States placing him on detached duty with the Army, and thereby placing him within the province of this court." "I can have them here tomorrow morning", the prosecutor responded, and next day he submitted in evidence a series of telegrams between Admiral Rogers and General Chaffee in which the offer of three hundred Marines for service with the Sixth Brigade is made and accepted. "The Marines were serving in Samar by order of the President. The Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy knew they were there." Besides, Major R. N. Getty had been assigned to investigate the shootings at Basey, and had so advised Waller before the Marine battalion was detached from Sixth Brigade on 19 February."
Not sufficient, Marix responded. "Legal proceedings are defined clearly ... the accused has a right to be present, the witnesses sworn, and be represented by counsel. Nothing of the kind happened in this case. An inspector is not a judicial officer."
General Bisbee decided that the court was without jurisdiction in the case, but left open the possibility of reversing himself if instructions were received from the office of the Adjutant General of the Army.
On 21 March, the instructions arrived. The Assistant Adjutant General noted that the Commanding General of the Philippine Department (General Mac Arthur) had ordered a preliminary examination of the case, with a view to legal action, before Waller was relieved of duty with the Army. Waller assisted in Major Getty’s investigation, and was questioned by him, so he had to know that he was a party to the proceedings. Besides, a “brief lapse of jurisdiction” cannot mitigate a murder charge.
General Bisbee “now decides that (the court) has jurisdiction and directs that the case proceed to trial.” Waller enters his plea:
To the specification - Guilty, except to the words “willfully and feloniously and with malice aforethought, murder and” - to those words, not guilty. To the charge - Not Guilty
Waller did not use Smith's orders "I want all persons killed" to justify his deed, instead relying on the rules of war and provisions of a Civil War
General Order Number 100that authorized "exceeding force", much as J. Franklin Bellhad successfully done months before. Waller's counsel had rested his defense.
The prosecution then decided to call General Smith as a rebuttal witness. On April 7, 1902, in sworn testimony, Smith denied that he had given any special verbal orders to Waller. Waller then produced three officers who corroborated Waller's version of the Smith-Waller conversation, and copies of every written order he had received from Smith, Waller informed the court he had been directed to take no prisoners and to kill every male Filipino over age 10.ref|punishment
During the trial, American newspapers, including his hometown newspaper in Philadelphia, nicknamed Waller the "Butcher of Samar".ref|newspaper
The court martial board voted 11-2 for acquittal of Waller. Later, the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General dismissed the entire case, agreeing that a Marine Corps officer was not subject to an Army court.Fact|date=February 2007
As as result of evidence introduced at the Waller trail, General Smith was then court martialed, convicted, admonished, and forced to retire.Fact|date=February 2007
Return to America, military excursions into Central America
Returning to the United States soon thereafter, Waller served in charge of recruiting in
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and western New Jerseyinto 1903 and commanded, in succession, the Provisional Regiment of Marineson the Isthmus of Panamain 1904; the expeditionary forces on the island of Cuba from 1906 and rose to command the Provisional Brigade in Cuba by 1911. He later commanded the Marine Barracks at the Mare Island Navy Yardfrom 1911 to 1914 and the First Brigade of Marines during action at Veracruz in Mexicoin 1914 before being appointed to command marines in Haitiin 1915. Under Colonel Waller's command, his troops successfully crushed most armed resistance to the American occupation of the country and restored some semblance of peace and order to Haiti.
Conventional wisdom holds that the Manila court-martial cost Waller the post of Commandant of the Marine Corps. Most sources claim that his career was stunted, but an extract from his Officer's Qualification Record tells a different story. Waller's acquittal is dated April 28, 1902. He had been "promoted MAJOR August 28, 1899, to take rank from July 25, 1899". He is "promoted LIEUTENANT COLONEL, U.S.M.C., by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, March 23, 1903, to rank as such from March 3, 1903", and then "promoted COLONEL, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, March 21, 1905, to rank from March 11, 1905". Consider this entry:
"On March 28, 1901, appointed Lieutenant-Colonel by brevet, in the Marine Corps of the United States, for distinguished conduct and public service in the presence of the enemy near Tientsin, China, from the 13th day of July, 1900. On March 28, 1901, advanced two (2) numbers in rank on the list of Majors, in the Marine Corps, for eminent and conspicuous conduct in battle on June 21, & 23, and July 3, and 9, 1900, at Tientsin, China, from March 8, 1901. Under suspension for ten days (10) from September 18, 1901, for being under the influence of liquor, and thereby unfit for the proper performance of duty."Suspended from duty for being drunk, with an official entry made of the event, Waller still was promoted from captain to full colonel in less than six years. This is hardly indicative of a stalled career, especially in the early twentieth century. It becomes hard to believe that the court-martial prevented Waller's appointment to the commandancy, especially since he is promoted less than a year afterward.
But if it was not the reason, could it have been the excuse? In his 1930 memoir, Captain Archibald Butt, U.S. Army, military aide to Presidents Roosevelt and Taft, recalls a White House meeting in March 1910. The subject was the next Marine Commandant. Secretary of the Navy George Meyer had the necessary papers to appoint Waller, and President Taft agreed. Then, according to Butt:
"(Waller's) name was practically written, when Senator Penrose of Pennsylvania called on the President, and in five minutes Waller was sidetracked and Biddle elevated to the place in command. (Biddle) happened to be a cousin of the junior Senator from Pennsylvania, George T. Oliver."
With no love for the Marines and no reason to care who their Commandant was, Butt has no reason to lie. Nor is he alone in giving this version of events.
In the Proceedings of the U. S. Naval Institute, November 1986, Lieutenant Colonel Merrill L. Bartlett, U. S. Marine Corps (Retired), discusses the career of Waller's protege Smedley D. Butler. Like Waller, Butler was the choice for Commandant among the rank-and-file of the Corps. Butler, too, was denied the position, because of the influence of politics. Col. Bartlett writes:
"In 1910, following a spate of in-house acrimony between the CMC, Major General George F. Elliott, and the Adjutant and Inspector, the colorful Colonel Charles H. Lauchheimer, Elliott opted for retirement. Most observers -- including Butler -- assumed that the venerable Waller would gain the Corps' highest post. However, in a private meeting with Secretary of the Navy George von Meyer, President William H. Taft bowed to pressure from the powerful Pennsylvania Senator Boise Penrose and appointed his constituent, Philadelphia's William A. Biddle, to the post."Political influence was even more pronounced in the selection of the next Commandant. Col. Bartlett continues:
"The passage of legislation in 1913 that limited the tenure of each CMC to four years -- unless reappointed -- ended the traditional system of appointment until retirement, which had been in effect since 1798. Instead Josephus Daniels, the new Secretary of the Navy . . .(sent) Biddle into retirement and began the search for a new CMC. Excitedly, Butler assumed that Waller would win this time. He generated a flurry of correspondence knowing full well that every letter would be read by his congressman father ... Much to Butler's dismay -- and despite whatever political leverage his father applied -- stronger forces determined the selection of a new CMC in 1913-14. Biddle had hoped to slide in the veteran campaigner, Colonel Lincoln Karmany, before sufficient political forces could be organized to oppose this handpicked successor. But Secretary Daniels eliminated Karmany from the running when he learned of his messy divorce in order to marry another woman. Waller had the endorsement of all 21 Democrats in the Senate, but carried the unacceptable baggage of Samar with him. Secretary Daniels reasoned that it made no sense to appoint an officer with a reputation for callous and inhumane treatment of the Filipino people, just when the Wilson Administration promised a more enlightened and humane government of the Philippines."
Several key points are evident here. Waller had the endorsement of "all 21 Democrats in the Senate", but in 1913 the U.S. had forty-eight states, for a total of ninety-six senators. The Democrats were not only a minority, they were all Southerners. In a capital, and a government, dominated by Yankee Republicans, Waller's chances were hardly helped by the Democratic senators or by the fact that his cousin L.W. Tazewell was the former Democratic governor of Virginia. Col. Bartlett speaks of "the unacceptable baggage of Samar", but as we have seen this did not seem to hamper Waller's rise from Captain to Colonel. Waller's "reputation for callous and inhumane treatment of the Filipino people" was based almost entirely on the editorials in the anti-imperialist press, but these views had been rejected by the public long before. The elections of Roosevelt in 1904 and Taft in 1908 came long after the courts-martial not only of Waller and Day, but also of the Army officers Smith and Glenn.
Waller was also frustrated at being sidelined, as he saw it, from the fighting in France. Perhaps the mention of his name triggered some response in the Army hierarchy, and it was decided that he would not be appointed to the American Expeditionary Force. He wrote a poignant letter to the Marines on the Western Front: "July 15, 1918
From: The Oldest Active Officer of the United States Marines to the Officers and Men of the Marine Brigade fighting in France.
Fate has denied me the honor of leading you, my own people, in this great struggle, but I want you to know and feel that I am with you in spirit. Your splendid achievements in the recent fighting during the early part of June forces the admiration of the World and the deep gratitude of your comrades at home, in that you have lived up to the best traditions of our beloved Corps and have made a brilliant page in its history. You will go on with this work in the same spirit.
All honor to you living men and the peace of God which passeth all understanding to the souls of our beloved comrades who have given their lives in this great cause. May the pain of the wounded be alleviated by the full realization that they have stood for righteousness, truth and the honor of Country and Corps. Always faithful, always ready. In all the world there is no better precept, no better aim. May the God of Battles have you in his (sic) keeping and bring victory to your banners.
As "you have stood as a stone wall between the Hun and Paris" you will always stand for the liberty of the World.
Your old leader and always friend, LITTLETON W.T. WALLER, Brigadier General, U.S.M.C."
One of Waller's last official acts as senior Marine officer for the Atlantic Fleet was richly symbolic. On June 16, 1919, Waller joined the Commandant, Maj. Gen. Barnett, in presenting the commissions to the graduating class of the Marine Officer's Candidate School at Quantico. "You have come in and absorbed our traditions and beliefs", Waller told the new lieutenants, "and I tell you, you can't go wrong if you live up to their principles". Among the new officers was a Virginian from Gloucester county, not far from Norfolk. Lewis Burwell Puller by name, he would become famous as
Chesty Puller, winner of five Navy Crosses for valor.
On March 22, 1920, Waller appeared before the Retirement Board at Headquarters, Marine Corps. The board found that he was "incapacitated for active service by reason of arterial sclerosis, general, and that his incapacity is the result of an incident of the service." On March 27 the finding was made official:
THE WHITE HOUSE
The proceedings and findings of the Retiring Board in this case are approved, and MajorWOODROW WILSON
General (T) Littleton W.T. Waller, U.S. Marine Corps, will be retired from active service and
placed on the retired list with the rank he now temporarily holds,that of Major General, in
conformity with the provisions of Sections 1622 and 1251 of the Revised Statutes, and those of
the act of May 22, 1917.
The last entry in his Officer's Qualification Record reads:
"Continued on active duty at Headquarters, Advanced Base Force until June 16, 1920, on which date relieved from all active duty."On November 5, 1920, a flight of aircraft led by Col.
Billy Mitchelltook off on a bombing attack. Their target was a U.S. Navy vessel, now decommissioned, in Chesapeake Bay. Her guns and engines had been removed, and the derelict hulk was rusty, unkempt and empty. The crew was gone, and even the American flag had been removed, for she was no longer a ship of the line. Bombs fell, the target hulk slipped beneath the waves, and the USS Indiana, veteran of Santiago, was no more.
3 of Waller's sons would go on to serve their country as Officers in the Marines and Navy. Although Littleton W.T. Waller Sr. sat out World War 1 serving in Haiti and later Philadelphia, his son Littleton W. T. Waller Jr. carried the name to France as a Major in the Marine Corps during the War and saw extensive action on the
Western Front. Waller Jr. alternately commanded the 81st Company, First Machine Gun Battalion; the Sixth Machine Gun Battalion, Second Division, the Eighth Machine Gun Battalion, Third Division; and served as the Division Machine Gun Officer of the Second Division. During his service he participated in the following operations: the Toulon-Troyon Sector; in action with 47th French Infantry at Julgonne; in action on the Marne River; in action at Belleau Wood; in action in the Aisne-Marne Offensive; Marbache Sector; St. Mihiel Sector; and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Waller Jr. later participated in the march to the Rhine and served with the Army of Occupation. He was awarded the Croix de Guerrefor action in the Champagne Sector; made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honorfor action in Aisne-Marne Offensive; and was cited in General Orders, No. 88, Headquarters, Second Division, dated December 31, 1918. He also received letters of commendation from the Commanding Officer, Second Battalion, Sixth Regiment, Commanding General, Fourth Brigade and Commanding General, Second Division. Waller Jr. was also awarded the Navy Crossby the Secretary of the Navy and would go on to serve a full career in the Corps, eventually rising to the rank of Major General just as his Father had.
Having been promoted to brigadier general on 29 August, 1916 and to major general on 29 August, 1918, Littleton W. T. Waller Sr. closed out his active duty in the Marine Corps as Commander of the Advanced Base Force at
Philadelphia Navy Yardfrom 8 January, 1917 until his retirement in June 1920. According to the entry in Webster's American Military Biographies, L.W.T. Waller was "reputed to have taken part in more actions than any other Marine officer of the period."
Major General Waller lived in retirement in Philadelphia, Penn. until his death on 13 July, 1926 at the age of 69. He is buried in
Arlington National Cemetery.
In 1942, the
destroyerUSS "Waller" (DD-466) was named in his honor.
The decorations and medals of General Waller
1. U.S.M.C. Brevet Medal - This rarest of all Naval Service decorations was awarded on June 7, 1921, to the twenty living Marine officers whose gallantry in action during the Civil War, Spanish-American War, Philippine Campaign or Boxer Rebellion had been recognized by a brevet commission. Prior to 1918 the United States had only one award for bravery in action, the Medal of Honor, and this decoration was not available to officers of the Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard until May 3, 1915. Brevet promotions were authorized instead. Major General Commandant Lejeune believed that "the brevet commission, as a mark of honor, associated as it was with the early history of the Marine Corps, should receive recognition commensurate with like honors of a later day." The medal is a stately bronze cross attached by a Marine Corps Emblem to a dark red ribbon with thirteen white stars (only seven stars show on the ribbon bar worn without the medal). The obverse of the medal is inscribed "United States Marine Corps - Brevet", and the reverse "For Distinguished Conduct in Presence of the Enemy". General Lejeune added that:
"In view of the fact that the Brevet Medal is awarded to indicate that the recipient is the holder of a commission issued by the President and confirmed by the Senate, for distinguished conduct and public service in the presence of the enemy, it ranks immediately after the Medal of Honor".Waller's medal recognized his promotion to the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel, "for distinguished conduct and public service in the presence of the enemy near Tientsin, China", on 13 July 1900. He had retired prior to the creation of the medal, but went to Washington to receive it. At least one photograph taken in the early 'twenties shows him wearing the ribbon.
2. Specially Meritorious Service Medal - The letter of August 3, 1904, awarding this medal to Waller "in recognition of your gallant conduct in assisting in rescuing crews from the burning Spanish ships after the battle of Santiago de Cuba on July 3, 1898" is reproduced above. This is one of only 93 known awards of the decoration, given for "specially meritorious service, otherwise than in battle, during the Spanish-American War". It was not awarded before the war with Spain, nor since. Because it recognizes heroism not in direct contact with the enemy, it may be considered a forerunner to the present-day Navy and Marine Corps Medal. The decoration is a bronze cross pattee, with an anchor in its center encircled by a wreath of oak and laurel and the inscription "U.S. Naval Campaign West Indies". The arms of the cross are inscribed "Specially Meritorious Service 1898", and it is suspended from a bright red ribbon.
3. Sampson Medal - Properly speaking, the "Commemorative Medal for Naval Engagements in the West Indies", it took its popular name from the fact that its obverse shows a portrait of Rear Admiral William T. Sampson. The ribbon, red with a wide central blue stripe, is suspended from a bronze pin bearing the name of the ship on which the individual served. Bronze bars are pinned to the front of the ribbon for each engagement with the enemy. No attachments were worn on the ribbon bar. Waller's medal had a ship's pin inscribed "USS Indiana", and four engagement bars - "San Juan Porto Rico", for the occupation of that city, and three bars inscribed "Santiago", for the siege, for the great battle of July 3, 1898, and for the occupation of the city. It was awarded in 1901.
4. Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal - Originally authorized in 1919 as a ribbon-only award. The medal was authorized in 1929, three years after Waller's death. It is not known if his survivors received the medal posthumously. At the time, numerals were worn on the ribbon to show total awards.Waller was authorized the ribbon with numeral "4" in recognition of the following service:
- Egypt, 1882
- Panama, 1903-04
- Cuba, 1911-12
- Haiti, 1916-17
5. Spanish Campaign Medal - Awarded to all members of the Navy and Marine Corps who served between 20 April and 10 December 1898. Medal authorized in 1908.
6. Philippine Campaign Medal - For service ashore in the Philippine Islands between 04 February 1899 and 04 July 1902. Medal authorized in 1908.
7. China Relief Expedition Medal - For service ashore in China between 24 May 1900 and 27 May 1901. Medal authorized in 1908.
8. Cuban Pacification Medal - For service ashore in Cuba between 12 September 1906 and 01 April 1909. Medal authorized in 1909.
9. Mexican Service Medal - For service at Vera Cruz from 21 April to 23 April 1914. Medal authorized in 1918.
10. Haitian Campaign Medal - For service ashore in Haiti between 09 July and 06 December 1915. Medal authorized in 1917.
11. WW1 Victory Medal - For service during the period 06 April 1917 to 11 November 1918, both dates inclusive. The only campaign medal awarded for service in World War I, this medal when awarded to members of the Navy or Marine Corps was accompanied by a service clasp indicating the area or type of service rendered. On the ribbon bar, a bronze star was worn instead of a clasp. Only one service clasp could be worn, no matter how many the individual might have earned. Waller was entitled to clasps for "Atlantic Fleet" and "West Indies".
Photos of Waller, and other Marine officers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, also show the wearing of numerous unofficial medals awarded by fraternal and patriotic societies.
Freemasons, Sons of the American Revolution, Society of the Cincinnatiand Grand Army of the Republicare some of the more common ones. It is likely that the officers wore these emblems only in the photographers studio, but indeed the regulations of the era say nothing about whether they would have actually been permitted for public display. In the photograph above, Waller wears a distinct triangular medal which represents the Military Order of the Carabao, an association of officers with service in the Philippines which was founded in 1900.
Jacob H. Smith
John H. Quick
# cite web
title=Tazewell, Littleton Waller - Biographical Information
work=Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
# "Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903",
Stuart Creighton Miller, (Yale University Press, 1982). p. 220; [http://www.pbs.org/crucible/Transcript.txt PBS documentary "Crucible of Empire"] ; [http://www.philnews.com/2005/da4.html Philippine NewsLink interview with Bob Couttie author of "Hang the Dogs, The True and Tragic History of the Balangiga Massacre"] Ten days after President McKinley’s death, the residents of Balangiga, a tiny village 400 miles southeast of Manila, attacked the local U.S. garrison. While U.S. soldiers ate breakfast, the [http://www.philnews.com/2005/da5.html church bells] rang a signal. Filipinos brandishing machetes emerged from their hiding places. Forty-eight Americans, two-thirds of the garrison, were butchered, in what is called the Balangiga massacre. On the orders of General Jacob H. Smith, U.S. troops retaliated against the entire island "(600 square miles)" of Samar where Balangigais located. The exchange is known because of two courts-martials: one was of Waller who was later court-martialed for ordering or allowing the execution of a dozen Filipino bearers, and the court-martial of Gen. Jacob H. Smithwho was actually court-martialed for giving that order. They jury is out to the extent that order was carried out, because Littleton Waller actually countermanded it to his own men and said " [Captain David] Porter, I've had instructions to kill everyone over ten years old. But we are not making war on women and children, only on men capable of bearing arms. Keep that in mind no matter what other orders you receive." Undoubtedly, some men did atrocities regardless of Waller's commands.
# Miller, p. 226-8
# Miller, p. 228; "
Philadelphia North American", March 16,17, 1902
# Miller, p. 230-232; Before the "Howling Wilderness": The Military Career of Jacob Hurd Smith, 1862-1902 David L. Fritz "Military Affairs" Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 1979), p. 187; "Most of the material for this article is derived from The Adjutant General's Office (AGO) 1890-1917, National Archives (NA), record group (RG) 94, File 309120 "Considerable older material is filed under the same numerical file number, but has the additional designation of S293CB1867."
work=Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
publisher=Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy
title=Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903
author=Miller, Stuart Creighton Miller
publisher=Yale University Press
title=Littleton Waller Tazewell Waller,Major General, United States Marine Corps
publisher=Arlington National Cemetery
title=Tientsin: Report of Major Littleton W.T. Waller
publisher=Documents of the United States Marine Corps
date=July 30, 1900
title=U.S. Marines in the Boxer Rebellion
author=Plante, Trevor K.
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