- Binary Ordered Compression for Unicode
BOCU-1 is a
MIMEcompatible Unicode compression scheme. BOCU stands for Binary Ordered Compression for Unicode. BOCU-1 combines the wide applicability of UTF-8with the compactness of SCSU. This Unicodeencoding is designed to be useful for compressing short strings, and maintains code point order. BOCU-1 is specified in an Unicode Technical Note. [cite web |url=http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn6/#Introduction |title=UTN #6: BOCU-1|date=2006-02-04 |author=Markus Scherer, Mark Davis |accessdate=2008-05-18] For comparison SCSU was adopted as standard Unicode compression scheme with a byte/code point ratio similar to language-specific code pages. SCSU has not been widely adopted, as it is not suitable for MIME “text” media types. For example, SCSU cannot be used directly in emails and similar protocols. SCSU requires a complicated encoder design for good performance. Usually, the zip, bzip2, and other industry standard algorithms compact larger amounts of Unicode text more efficiently. [cite web |url=http://unicode.org/notes/tn14 |title=UTN #14: A survey of Unicode compression
date=2004-01-30 |first=Doug |last=Ewell |accessdate=2008-06-13 |format=PDF ]
Both SCSU [ [http://www.iana.org/assignments/charset-reg/SCSU IANA registration record for SCSU] ] and BOCU-1 [ [http://www.iana.org/assignments/charset-reg/BOCU-1 IANA registration record for BOCU-1] ] are IANA registered charsets.
All numbers in this section are
hexadecimal, and all ranges are inclusive.
Code points from
U+0020are encoded in BOCU-1 as the corresponding byte value. All other code points (that is,
U+10FFFF) are encoded as a difference between the code point and a normalized version of the most recently encoded code point that was not an ASCII space (
U+0020). The initial state is
U+0040. The normalization mapping is as follows:
The difference between the current code point and the normalized previous code point is encoded as follows:
Each byte range is lexicographically ordered with the following thirteen byte values excluded:
00 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E 0F 1A 1B 20. For example, the byte sequence
FC 06 FF, coding for a difference of
1156B, is immediately followed by the byte sequence
FC 10 01, coding for a difference of
Any ASCII input
U+0020resets the encoder to
U+0040. Because the above mentioned values cover line end code points
U+000A"as is" (
0D 0A), the encoder is in a known state at the begin of each line. The corruption of a single byte therefore affects at most one line. For comparison, the corruption of a single byte in
UTF-8affects at most one code point, for SCSU it can affect the entire document.
BOCU-1 offers a similar robustness also for input texts without the above mentioned values with the special reset code
0xFF. When a decoder finds this octet it resets its state to
U+0040as for a line end. The use of
0xFFreset bytes is not recommended in the BOCU-1 specification, because it conflicts with other BOCU-1 design goals, notably the "binary order".
The optional use of a signature
U+FEFFat the begin of BOCU-1 encoded texts, i.e. the BOCU-1 byte sequence
FB EE 28, changes the initial state
U+FE80. In other words the signature cannot simply be stripped as in most other Unicode encoding schemes. Adding a reset byte after the signature (
FB EE 28 FF) could avoid this effect, but the BOCU-1 specification does not recommend this practise.
UTF-1and UTF-8could encode the original UCS-4 set with 31 bits up to
7FFFFFFF. BOCU-1 and
UTF-16can encodethe modern Unicodeset from
U+10FFFF. Excluding the thirteen "protected" code points encoded as single octets BOCU-1 can use octets in multi-byte encodings. BOCU-1 needs at most four bytes consisting of a lead byte and one to three trail bytes. The trail bytes encode a remaining "
modulo243" (base 243) difference, the lead byte determines the number of trail bytes and an initial difference.Note that the reset byte
0xFFis not "protected" and can occur as trail byte.
UTF-1contains a comparison of the UTF-1, UTF-8, and BOCU-1 designs
International Components for UnicodeA library that can convert between BOCU-1 and other Unicode encodings
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