Infobox Ethnic group
group = Quebecers of Scottish descent
caption = Notable Scots-Quebecers: '
John Redpath' ' James McGill'
poptime = Scots-Quebecers [ [http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/ethnic/pages/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&Code=24&Data=Count&Table=2&StartRec=1&Sort=3&Display=All&CSDFilter=5000 Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables - Quebec] ]
202,515 Total Responses
2.7% of Quebec's Population
30,255 Single Responses
0.4% of Quebec's Population
Montreal, Quebec City, Eastern Townships
langs = English, French, (formerly) Gaelic
Protestant( Anglican, Baptist, Presbyterian, United Church of Canada), Roman Catholic
related = Scottish,
Scottish Canadians, Ulster Scots, English-speaking Quebecer
The Scot-Quebecers (
French language: "Écossais-Québécois"), were pioneer settlers who emigratedfrom their native Scotlandto Quebec, migration that began when the province was a colony of British North America.
Few Scots came to Quebec (then New France) before the
Seven Years War. [ [http://www.francogene.com/quebec--genealogy/places/990132s.php Places - Genealogy of French in North America ] ] Those who did blended in with the French population. Perhaps the first Scot to settle was Abraham Martin dit l'Écossois, who by 1800 had 7765 married descendants among the French-speaking population. [ [http://www.genealogie.umontreal.ca/en/lesPionniers.htm#Les%20principales%20descendances The Pioneers ] ]
In 1763, the French population of Quebec was approximately 55,000 when
Francehanded it over to Great Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763)that ended the French and Indian War.
By the beginning of the 19th century, the Quebec population was expanding slowly as immigration began from Great Britain. Impoverished Scottish immigrants, many the victim of the Highland and
Lowland Clearances, saw unlimited opportunity in this huge forested land. However, the bond between Scotland and France also extended to numerous other areas such as the "Gens d’Armes Ecossais" (Scots Men-At-Arms) who guarded the kings of France for nearly three hundred years. Today in France there are many descendants of these Scots who have lived there for centuries. They carry names such as Campbelland MacDonald, the most famous of the latter being Étienne Macdonald, Marshal of France. As such, after France gave Quebec to the British in the Treaty of Paris (1763), the Battle of Cullodenwas still imprinted in the minds of the many Highlanders (there were actually more Scots fighting on the pro-monarch side at this battle) who readily chose to settle in French-speaking Quebec.
Some of these Scottish immigrants settled in
Quebec Citybut many with an entrepreneurial drive kept moving west to Montrealwhich at the time was little more than a small port town on the St. Lawrence River. By far the majority of the Scots arrived in Quebec with little more than the shirt on their back. Personal sacrifice, hard work, and determination was their greatest asset. Examples of this can be seen in people such as John Redpathwho had only enough money for ships passage to Quebec City and who then walked all the way to Montreal.
Commerce, Science and Culture
In 1779, Scotsman
Simon McTavishhelped establish what would become the North West Companyto compete in the fur trade with the English owned giant, the Hudson's Bay Company. Since 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company had been operating an unchallenged monopoly in the massive territory in the northwest known as Rupert's Landcomprising nearly half of what is now Canada. In the process, McTavish became the most important businessman in all of Canadaduring the second half of the 18th century.
By the first decade of the 1800s, Montreal had grown to around 9,000 inhabitants and the Scottish immigrants who chose to make Montreal their home soon began to play a key role in the city's cultural, scientific, and business life. Although at their peak, the Scots made up only a small percentage of Quebec's population, they had an impact on the city of Montreal and the Province of Quebec far beyond their numbers. Starting from an almost non-existent economic base, they were instrumental in improving the Province's commercial prospects by exploiting an untapped hinterland. They transformed the small fortified town into the business hub for much of the St Lawrence basin and worked to enhance the Province's economic power. Scots led a wave of
immigrantsseeking a better life that saw Montreal's population grow from 9,000 in 1800 to 50,000 by the year 1850.
Other Scots were instrumental in building the
Lachine Canalthat turned Montreal into one of the most important and prosperous ports in North America. The canal led to a rapid industrialization that began in the late 1840s with Montreal manufacturers producing products for the entire nation. It was also Scots who constructed Montreal's first bridge across the Saint Lawrence Riverand Henry Morgan built the first department store in Canada that was the envy of the country. Scot settlers founded many of the city's great industries including the Bank of Montreal, Redpath Sugar, and from headquarters they established in Montreal, Scots were the driving force that built both of Canada's national railroads. Early on, they realized the importance for the mercantile community to create the institutions and instruments that enabled business to be the catalyst for improved standards of living for all its citizens. Because of their work and vision, by 1860 they were greatly responsible for making Montreal the most important city in British North America.
Noted for their willingness to help fellow Scots succeed in the new world, they are also remembered for giving back to the country that had provided them with the opportunity to prosper. Scots established and funded numerous Montreal institutions such as
McGill University, the Literary and Historical Society of Quebecand the Royal Victoria Hospital.
A few of these Scots and their offspring who were major factors in building Montreal and the Province of Quebec into the economic hub of Canada are:
Hugh Allan(1810-1882), financier and shipping magnate
Montagu H. Allan(1860-1951), banker, ship owner, sportsman
Richard Bladworth Angus(1831-1922), banker
Robert Mitchell Ballantyne(1859-1929), businessman
Aeneas Cameron(1757-1822), fur trader
John William Dawson(1820-1899), scientist, educator
Richard Dobie(1731-1805), fur trader, businessman
William Dow(1800-1868), brewer and businessman
George Alexander Drummond(1829-1910), entrepreneur
*James Dunlop (1757-1815), businessman
Robert Ellice(1747-1790), merchant and fur trader
Duncan Fisher(1753-1820), businessman
*Hugh Graham (1848-1938), newspaper publisher
*Peter Grant (1764-1848), fur trader
*William Grant (1744-1805), merchant, politician
*Alexander Henderson (1831-1913), merchant and photographer
* James D. Johnson (1949) businessman
William C. Macdonald(1831-1917), tobacco manufacturer, philanthropist
Dugald Lorn MacDougall(1811-1885), stockbroker, investor
*Hugh Mackay (1832-1890), businessman
Robert Mackay(1840-1916), businessman, statesman
Roderick Mackenzie(1761-1844), fur trader, politician
James McGill(1744-1813), fur trader, merchant, politician
Peter McGill(1789-1860), businessman, politician
William McGillivray(1764-1825), fur trader
*Duncan McIntyre (1834-1894), businessman
Simon McTavish(1750-1804), fur trader, saw mill and flour mill operater
*Henry Morgan (1819-1893), built the first department store in Canada
John Neilson(1776-1848), printer, publisher, politician
Alexander Walker Ogilvie(1829-1902), miller, statesman
William Watson Ogilvie(1835-1900), businessman
*John Ogilvy (1769-1819), merchant
Andrew Paton(1833-1892), textile manufactrurer, politician
John Redpath(1796-1869), contractor, industrialist
Peter Redpath(1821-1894), businessman
James Gibb Ross(1819-1888), merchant, statesman
*James Ross (1848-1913), railway engineer, businessman
Philip Simpson Ross(1827-1907), founder of the Order of Chartered Accountants of Quebec
*George Simpson (1787-1860), executive, fur trader
*Donald Alexander Smith (1820-1914), fur trader, financier, railroad baron and politician.
*George Stephen (1829-1921), banker and railway executive
Daniel Sutherland(1756-1832), businessman
David Torrance(1805-1876), merchant, banker
John Torrance(1786-1870), merchant, shipper
*William Watson (c.1795-1867), miller, businessman, politician
*John Young (1811-1878), entrepreneur, statesman
* McCulloch, Ian Macpherson and Steve Noon (2008). "Highlander in the French-Indian War. 1756-67", Osprey Publishing, 64 p. ISBN 1846032741 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=ojN9WWwaPZcC online excerpt] )
* Ouellet, Jeannine (2007). "Des Écossais à Rivière-du-Loup et leurs descendants (1763-2004)", Montréal: Éditions Histoire Québec, 476 p. ISBN 978-2-89586-014-3
* McCulloch, Ian Macpherson (2006). "Sons of the Mountains: A History of the Highland Regiments in North America During the French & Indian War, 1756-1767", Purple Mountain Press & Fort Ticonderoga, vol. 1: 392 p., vol 2: 208 p.
* Campey, Lucille H. (2006). "Les Écossais: The Pioneer Scots of Lower Canada, 1763-1855", Toronto: Natural Heritage Books, 332 pages ISBN 189704514X ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=wUbHfaxCbHQC online excerpt] )
* Marrelli, Nancy and Simon Dardick (2005). "The Scots of Montreal: A Pictorial Album", Montreal: Véhicule Press, 156 p. ISBN 1550651927
* Bennett, Margaret (2004). "Oatmeal and the Catechism. Scottish Gaelic Settlers in Quebec", Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 352 pages ISBN 0773527753 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=tmRsHdy1v14C online excerpt] )
* Beaulieu, Carl (2001). "L'alliance écossaise au Québec", Chicoutimi: Éditions du Patrimoine, 486 p. ISBN 2-922693-08-2
* Symons, Jeffrey (1992). "The Auld Alliance in Canada: A Brief Examination of the Relationship between the French and the Scots throughout Canada's History", Lovell Litho ISBN 2980311626
* Little, John Irvine (1991). "Crofters and Habitants. Settler Society, Economy, and Culture in a Quebec Township, 1848-1881", Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 392 pages ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=YOlafx9QE4sC online excerpt] )
* Price, Lynda. (1981). "Introduction to the Social History of Scots in Quebec (1780-1840)", Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 152 pages ISBN 0660024837
* Baldwin, Alice Sharples (1960). "Metis, wee Scotland of the Gaspé", Montreal: An-lo Inc., 63 p.
* Le Moine, James MacPherson (1881). "The Scot in New France, 1535-1880", in "Transactions of the Literary and Historical Association of Quebec. Sessions of 1880-81, Quebec: Morning Chronicle Office", 1881 ( [http://books.google.ca/books?id=vk-lpzdH62QC online] )
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