Infobox Ethnic group
group = Quebecers of Scottish descent

caption = Notable Scots-Quebecers: 'John Redpath' 'James McGill'
poptime = Scots-Quebecers [ [ Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables - Quebec] ]
202,515 Total Responses
2.7% of Quebec's Population

30,255 Single Responses
0.4% of Quebec's Population
popplace = Montreal, Quebec City, Eastern Townships
langs = English, French, (formerly) Gaelic
rels = Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Presbyterian, United Church of Canada), Roman Catholic
related = Scottish, Scottish Canadians, Ulster Scots, English-speaking Quebecer

The Scot-Quebecers (French language: "Écossais-Québécois"), were pioneer settlers who emigrated from their native Scotland to Quebec, migration that began when the province was a colony of British North America.


Few Scots came to Quebec (then New France) before the Seven Years War. [ [ Places - Genealogy of French in North America ] ] Those who did blended in with the French population. Perhaps the first Scot to settle was Abraham Martin dit l'Écossois, who by 1800 had 7765 married descendants among the French-speaking population. [ [ The Pioneers ] ]

In 1763, the French population of Quebec was approximately 55,000 when France handed it over to Great Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763) that ended the French and Indian War.

By the beginning of the 19th century, the Quebec population was expanding slowly as immigration began from Great Britain. Impoverished Scottish immigrants, many the victim of the Highland and Lowland Clearances, saw unlimited opportunity in this huge forested land. However, the bond between Scotland and France also extended to numerous other areas such as the "Gens d’Armes Ecossais" (Scots Men-At-Arms) who guarded the kings of France for nearly three hundred years. Today in France there are many descendants of these Scots who have lived there for centuries. They carry names such as Campbell and MacDonald, the most famous of the latter being Étienne Macdonald, Marshal of France. As such, after France gave Quebec to the British in the Treaty of Paris (1763), the Battle of Culloden was still imprinted in the minds of the many Highlanders (there were actually more Scots fighting on the pro-monarch side at this battle) who readily chose to settle in French-speaking Quebec.


Some of these Scottish immigrants settled in Quebec City but many with an entrepreneurial drive kept moving west to Montreal which at the time was little more than a small port town on the St. Lawrence River. By far the majority of the Scots arrived in Quebec with little more than the shirt on their back. Personal sacrifice, hard work, and determination was their greatest asset. Examples of this can be seen in people such as John Redpath who had only enough money for ships passage to Quebec City and who then walked all the way to Montreal.

Commerce, Science and Culture

In 1779, Scotsman Simon McTavish helped establish what would become the North West Company to compete in the fur trade with the English owned giant, the Hudson's Bay Company. Since 1670, the Hudson's Bay Company had been operating an unchallenged monopoly in the massive territory in the northwest known as Rupert's Land comprising nearly half of what is now Canada. In the process, McTavish became the most important businessman in all of Canada during the second half of the 18th century.

By the first decade of the 1800s, Montreal had grown to around 9,000 inhabitants and the Scottish immigrants who chose to make Montreal their home soon began to play a key role in the city's cultural, scientific, and business life. Although at their peak, the Scots made up only a small percentage of Quebec's population, they had an impact on the city of Montreal and the Province of Quebec far beyond their numbers. Starting from an almost non-existent economic base, they were instrumental in improving the Province's commercial prospects by exploiting an untapped hinterland. They transformed the small fortified town into the business hub for much of the St Lawrence basin and worked to enhance the Province's economic power. Scots led a wave of immigrants seeking a better life that saw Montreal's population grow from 9,000 in 1800 to 50,000 by the year 1850.

Other Scots were instrumental in building the Lachine Canal that turned Montreal into one of the most important and prosperous ports in North America. The canal led to a rapid industrialization that began in the late 1840s with Montreal manufacturers producing products for the entire nation. It was also Scots who constructed Montreal's first bridge across the Saint Lawrence River and Henry Morgan built the first department store in Canada that was the envy of the country. Scot settlers founded many of the city's great industries including the Bank of Montreal, Redpath Sugar, and from headquarters they established in Montreal, Scots were the driving force that built both of Canada's national railroads. Early on, they realized the importance for the mercantile community to create the institutions and instruments that enabled business to be the catalyst for improved standards of living for all its citizens. Because of their work and vision, by 1860 they were greatly responsible for making Montreal the most important city in British North America.

Noted for their willingness to help fellow Scots succeed in the new world, they are also remembered for giving back to the country that had provided them with the opportunity to prosper. Scots established and funded numerous Montreal institutions such as McGill University, the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec and the Royal Victoria Hospital.

Notable Scots-Quebecers

A few of these Scots and their offspring who were major factors in building Montreal and the Province of Quebec into the economic hub of Canada are:

*Hugh Allan (1810-1882), financier and shipping magnate
*Montagu H. Allan (1860-1951), banker, ship owner, sportsman
*Richard Bladworth Angus (1831-1922), banker
*Robert Mitchell Ballantyne (1859-1929), businessman
*Aeneas Cameron (1757-1822), fur trader
*John William Dawson (1820-1899), scientist, educator
*Richard Dobie (1731-1805), fur trader, businessman
*William Dow (1800-1868), brewer and businessman
*George Alexander Drummond (1829-1910), entrepreneur
*James Dunlop (1757-1815), businessman
*Robert Ellice (1747-1790), merchant and fur trader
*Duncan Fisher (1753-1820), businessman
*Hugh Graham (1848-1938), newspaper publisher
*Peter Grant (1764-1848), fur trader
*William Grant (1744-1805), merchant, politician
*Alexander Henderson (1831-1913), merchant and photographer
* James D. Johnson (1949) businessman
*William C. Macdonald (1831-1917), tobacco manufacturer, philanthropist
*Dugald Lorn MacDougall (1811-1885), stockbroker, investor
*Hugh Mackay (1832-1890), businessman
*Robert Mackay (1840-1916), businessman, statesman
*Roderick Mackenzie (1761-1844), fur trader, politician
*James McGill (1744-1813), fur trader, merchant, politician
*Peter McGill (1789-1860), businessman, politician
*William McGillivray (1764-1825), fur trader
*Duncan McIntyre (1834-1894), businessman
*Simon McTavish (1750-1804), fur trader, saw mill and flour mill operater
*Henry Morgan (1819-1893), built the first department store in Canada
*John Neilson (1776-1848), printer, publisher, politician
*Alexander Walker Ogilvie (1829-1902), miller, statesman
*William Watson Ogilvie (1835-1900), businessman
*John Ogilvy (1769-1819), merchant
*Andrew Paton (1833-1892), textile manufactrurer, politician
*John Redpath (1796-1869), contractor, industrialist
*Peter Redpath (1821-1894), businessman
*James Gibb Ross (1819-1888), merchant, statesman
*James Ross (1848-1913), railway engineer, businessman
*Philip Simpson Ross (1827-1907), founder of the Order of Chartered Accountants of Quebec
*George Simpson (1787-1860), executive, fur trader
*Donald Alexander Smith (1820-1914), fur trader, financier, railroad baron and politician.
*George Stephen (1829-1921), banker and railway executive
*Daniel Sutherland (1756-1832), businessman
*David Torrance (1805-1876), merchant, banker
*John Torrance (1786-1870), merchant, shipper
*William Watson (c.1795-1867), miller, businessman, politician
*John Young (1811-1878), entrepreneur, statesman



* McCulloch, Ian Macpherson and Steve Noon (2008). "Highlander in the French-Indian War. 1756-67", Osprey Publishing, 64 p. ISBN 1846032741 ( [ online excerpt] )
* Ouellet, Jeannine (2007). "Des Écossais à Rivière-du-Loup et leurs descendants (1763-2004)", Montréal: Éditions Histoire Québec, 476 p. ISBN 978-2-89586-014-3
* McCulloch, Ian Macpherson (2006). "Sons of the Mountains: A History of the Highland Regiments in North America During the French & Indian War, 1756-1767", Purple Mountain Press & Fort Ticonderoga, vol. 1: 392 p., vol 2: 208 p.
* Campey, Lucille H. (2006). "Les Écossais: The Pioneer Scots of Lower Canada, 1763-1855", Toronto: Natural Heritage Books, 332 pages ISBN 189704514X ( [ online excerpt] )
* Marrelli, Nancy and Simon Dardick (2005). "The Scots of Montreal: A Pictorial Album", Montreal: Véhicule Press, 156 p. ISBN 1550651927
* Bennett, Margaret (2004). "Oatmeal and the Catechism. Scottish Gaelic Settlers in Quebec", Montreal: McGill-Queen's Press, 352 pages ISBN 0773527753 ( [ online excerpt] )
* Beaulieu, Carl (2001). "L'alliance écossaise au Québec", Chicoutimi: Éditions du Patrimoine, 486 p. ISBN 2-922693-08-2
* Symons, Jeffrey (1992). "The Auld Alliance in Canada: A Brief Examination of the Relationship between the French and the Scots throughout Canada's History", Lovell Litho ISBN 2980311626
* Little, John Irvine (1991). "Crofters and Habitants. Settler Society, Economy, and Culture in a Quebec Township, 1848-1881", Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 392 pages ( [ online excerpt] )
* Price, Lynda. (1981). "Introduction to the Social History of Scots in Quebec (1780-1840)", Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 152 pages ISBN 0660024837
* Baldwin, Alice Sharples (1960). "Metis, wee Scotland of the Gaspé", Montreal: An-lo Inc., 63 p.
* Le Moine, James MacPherson (1881). "The Scot in New France, 1535-1880", in "Transactions of the Literary and Historical Association of Quebec. Sessions of 1880-81, Quebec: Morning Chronicle Office", 1881 ( [ online] )

See also

*Scottish American
*Celtic music in Canada
*Irish Quebecers
*List of Irish Quebecers

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • English-speaking Quebecer — Ethnic group group=English speaking Quebecer|100px] caption = James McGill · Sir John Abbott · Dr. Wilder Penfield · Doug Harvey · Oscar Peterson ·Brian Mulroney · The Arcade Fire poptime= Mother tongue: 575,555 (7.7%) [… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Scots — is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland. This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Contents 1 Actors 2 Architects 3 Artists …   Wikipedia

  • Québécois — Infobox Ethnic group group = Québécois pop = 7,546,131 regions = flag|Quebec langs = French rels = Predominantly Roman Catholic related = French Canadians, French, Acadians, Cajun, Metis, Franco Ontarian, Franco Manitoban, French American, Brayon …   Wikipedia

  • Scottish people — The Scots people (Scots Gaelic: Albannaich ) are a nation [ That I am not exaggerating in calling the Scots people a great nation must be evident to anyone... cite book |last=Bulloch |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Scottish Notes and… …   Wikipedia

  • Scottish Canadian — Infobox Ethnic group group = Scottish Canadians caption = Notable Scottish Canadians: John A. Macdonald, Alexander Mackenzie (prime minister), James Naismith and Sir Alexander Mackenzie (explorer) poptime = Scottish 4,719,850 Canadians 15.10% of… …   Wikipedia

  • Scottish American — Infobox Ethnic group group = Scottish American caption = Notable Scottish Americans: Alexander Hamilton·Lucille Ball·Douglas MacArthur Johnny Cash·Edgar Allan Poe·Reese Witherspoon poptime = Scottish Americans 20 25 million Up to 8.3% of the U.S …   Wikipedia

  • List of Quebecers — List of famous Quebecers: citizens of the Canadian province of Quebec.Anchors*Brian Britt, CTV *Bernard Derome, SRC / RDI *Nathalie Chung, RDI / SRC *Simon Durivage, RDI / SRC *Céline Galipeau, SRC / RDI *Debra Arbec, CTV *Bill Haugland, CTV… …   Wikipedia

  • Irish Quebecers — ( fr. Québécois Irlandais) are residents of the Canadian province of Quebec who have Irish ancestry. In 2006, there were 406,085 Quebecers who identified themselves as having partial or exclusive Irish descent in Quebec, representing 5.5% of the… …   Wikipedia

  • George Kennedy (sports promoter) — George Washington Kendall (aka George Kennedy) (December 29, 1881 October 19, 1921) was a Canadian sports promoter best known as the owner of the Montreal Canadiens ice hockey team from 1910 to 1921. [See Sports E cyclopedia… …   Wikipedia

  • Henderson (surname) — Henderson is a common surname.The surname Henderson is of Scottish origin and means son of Henry . The name is derived from the Scots Gaelic clan MacEanruig of Glencoe which was later anglified to Henderson and McKendrick. Other areas of Scotland …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”