Québécois

Québécois

Infobox Ethnic group
group = Québécois


pop = 7,546,131
regions = flag|Quebec
langs = French
rels = Predominantly Roman Catholic
related = French Canadians, French, Acadians, Cajun, Metis, Franco-Ontarian, Franco-Manitoban, French American, Brayon, Franco-Columbian
A Québécois or Quebecois (pronounced IPAudio|FR-Québécois.ogg|/kebeˈkwa/), or in the feminine Québécoise (pronounced IPAudio|FR-Québécoise.ogg|/kebeˈkwɑːz/), (plural Québécoises) is a native or resident of the Canadian province of Quebec, but usually refers in English to a French-speaking native of the province. [cite web | title= "Quebecois." "Main entry. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition"|date=2003|accessdate=2007-03-16 |url=http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/quebecois] [cite web | title= "Québécois." A.a. "The Oxford English Dictionary Online" |date= 2000-03 |accessdate=2007-03-16 |url=http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50194642?single=1&query_type=word&queryword=Quebecois&first=1&max_to_show=10] [Citation
contribution = Québécois
year = 1983
title = Gage Canadian Dictionary
place = Toronto, Canada
publisher = Canada Publishing Corporation
"a Quebecer, especially a Francophone."
] [Citation
contribution = Québécois
title = Canadian Oxford Dictionary
"a francophone native or inhabitant of Quebec"
]

In English, Quebecer or Quebecker (pronEng|kwɪˈbɛkɚ or IPA|/kəˈbɛkɚ/) is used to refer to any resident of Quebec, including English-speaking, allophone, or Aboriginal residents of Quebec. [cite web | title= "Quebecer." "Main entry. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Eleventh Edition"|date=2003|accessdate=2007-03-16 |url=http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/Quebecer]

With a lower-case initial, the word is an adjective, and is also used to refer to Quebec French, a variety of the French language spoken by Quebec's population. As an adjective, it can refer to Quebec's francophone culture or population or the culture of the native French speaking population living in Quebec.

In French, "Québécois" refers to a native or any resident of Quebec. ["Dictionnaire québécois d'aujourd'hui", whose entry for "Québécois" gives as examples "Québécois francophone" "francophone Quebecer," "Québécois anglophone" "anglophone Quebecer."] In a cultural context, it can also refer to a French-speaking Quebecer living in Quebec,cite web
last =
first =
authorlink = Statistics Canada
coauthors =
title = Enquête sur la diversité ethnique
date = 2003 | work = Le Quotidien
publisher = Statistics Canada
isbn = 0-662-35031-6
url = http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/Francais/030929/q030929a.htm
format = html
accessdate = 2008-04-28
quote ="Outre la déclaration de l'identité ethnique canadienne, les identités provinciales ou régionales, comme les Acadiens, les Terre-Neuviens et les Québécois, ont également fait l'objet de cette enquête. Par exemple, au Québec, l'identité québécoise a été déclarée par 37 % de la population de 15 ans et plus, soit comme leur seule identité ou en plus d'autres identités."
] or, as an adjective, refers to French Canadian culture in Quebec. [Citation | title = Petit Robert. Dictionaire de la langue française. | last = Robert | first = Paul | publisher = Les Dictionnaires Roberts-Canada S.C.C. | location = Montreal | year = 1984 | pages = isbn = 2–85036–066–X "Specialt." (répandu v. 1965). Du groupe ethnique et linguistique canadien français composant la majorité de la population du Québec. Littérature québécoise; cinéma québécoise."]

Etymology

The name "Quebec" comes from a Mi'kmaq word meaning "where the waters get narrow" and originally referred to the area around Quebec City, where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose this name in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of Canada and New France. The Province of Quebec was first founded as a British colony in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of New France to Britain after the Seven Years' War. Quebec City remained the capital. The term "Québécois" has since been used in French as a way of referring to people and things originating both from Quebec City and from the province.

Québécois identity

The term became more common in English as "Québécois" largely replaced "French Canadian" as an expression of cultural and national identity among French Canadians living in Quebec during the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. The predominant French Canadian nationalism and identity of previous generations was based on the protection of the French language, the Roman Catholic Church, and Church-run institutions across Canada and in parts of the United States. In contrast, the modern Québécois identity is secular and based on a social democratic ideal of an active Quebec government promoting the French language and French-speaking culture in the arts, education, and business within the Province of Quebec. Politically, this resulted in a push towards more autonomy for Quebec and an internal debate on Quebec independence and identity that continues to this day. [cite web | last = Bélanger | first = Claude | title = The social-democratic nationalism: 1945 to today | work = Quebec Nationalism | publisher = Marianopolis College | date = 2000-08-27 | url = http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/events/natpart4.htm | accessdate = 2007-04-05 ] The emphasis on the French language and Quebec autonomy means that French-speakers across Canada now self-identify more specifically with provincial or regional identity-tags, such as "acadienne", or "franco-canadienne", "franco-manitobaine", "franco-ontarienne" or "fransaskoise". [cite web
last = Churchill
first = Stacy
authorlink =
coauthors =
publisher = Council of Europe, Language Policy Division
year = 2003
chapter = Linguistic and Cultural Identities in Canada
title = Language Education, Canadian Civic Identity, and the Identity of Canadians
location =
pages = pp. 8-11
url = http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/ChurchillEN.pdf
doi =
id =
isbn =
quote = French speakers usually refer to their ownidentities with adjectives such as québécoise, acadienne, or franco-canadienne,or by some term referring to a provincial linguistic minority such as francomanitobaine,franco-ontarienne or fransaskoise.
format=PDF
] [cite book
last = Denis
first = Angèle
authorlink =
coauthors = Adrienne Shadd and Carl E. James, Editors
year = 2001
chapter = Corridors: Language as Trap and Meeting Ground
title = Talking about Identity: Encounters in Race, Ethnicity and Language
pages = pp. 133–146
publisher = Between the Lines
location = Toronto
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=y7gtD9vcGJMC&pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=%22Angele+Denis%22+%2BCorridors&source=web&ots=xfvNIibC27&sig=1wN_frPwSpxmeZ8FYmY7-PxMc7w
doi =
id =
isbn = 1896357369
quote = The latent nationalism that is the corollary of folklorization is also visible in the persistence of Canadians in designating Québécois, Acadiens, and Fransaskois as French Canadian. Most Québécois speak French.
] As a result, francophone and anglophones now borrow the French terms when discussing issues of francophone linguistic and cultural identity in English, though outside of Quebec terms such as franco-ontarian, acadian and franco-manitoban are still predominant. [cite book
last = Bédard
first = Guy
authorlink =
coauthors = Adrienne Shadd and Carl E. James, Editors
year = 2001
chapter = Québécitude: An Ambiguous Identity
title = Talking about Identity: Encounters in Race, Ethnicity and Language
pages = pp.28–32
publisher = Between the Lines
location = Toronto
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=y7gtD9vcGJMC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=%22le+quebec+aux+quebecois%22&source=web&ots=xfvNGmaK0d&sig=0cCk5jRxJtqO3AtG0tXRcVdsYwI#PPA28,M1
doi =
id =
isbn = 1896357369
quote = In short, apart from the historical and cultural specificities, the process by which the "Québécois" identity was born was not much different from the formation of other community identities around the world.
] [cite book
last = Ship
first = Susan J.
authorlink =
coauthors = Adrienne Shadd and Carl E. James, Editors
year = 2001
chapter = Jewish, Canadian or Québécois: Notes on a Diasporic Identity
title = Talking about Identity: Encounters in Race, Ethnicity and Language
pages = pp.20–27
publisher = Between the Lines
location = Toronto
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=y7gtD9vcGJMC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=%22le+quebec+aux+quebecois%22&source=web&ots=xfvNGmaK0d&sig=0cCk5jRxJtqO3AtG0tXRcVdsYwI#PPA20,M1
doi =
id =
isbn = 1896357369
quote = ... the Anglo-American culture of Canada; the French Québécois culture of Quebec; and the distinct cosmopolitan multiculture of Montreal.
]

Québécois nation

The political shift towards a new Quebec nationalism in the 1960s led to Québécois increasingly referring to provincial institutions as being "national". This was reflected in the change of the provincial "Legislative Assembly" to "National Assembly" in 1968. Nationalism reached an apex the 1970s and 1990s, with contentious constitutional debates resulting in close to half of all Québécois and a clear majority of French-speaking Québécois seeking recognition of nation status through tight referendums on Quebec sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Having lost both referendums, the sovereignist Parti Québécois government renewed the push for recognition as a nation through symbolic motions that gained the support of all parties in the National Assembly. They affirmed the right to determine the independent status of Quebec. They also renamed the area around Quebec City the "Capitale-Nationale" (national capital) region and renamed provincial parks "Parcs Nationaux" (national parks). In opposition in October 2003, the Parti Québécois tabled a motion that was unanimously adopted in the National Assembly affirming that the Quebec people formed a nation. Bloc Québécois leader Gilles Duceppe scheduled a similar motion in the House of Commons for November 23, 2006, that would have recognized "Quebecers as a nation". Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper tabled the "Québécois nation motion" the day before the Bloc Québécois resolution came to a vote. The English version changed the word "Quebecer" to "Québécois" and added "within a united Canada" at the end of the Bloc motion.

The "Québécois nation" was recognized by the Canadian House of Commons on November 27, 2006. The Prime Minister specified that the motion used the "cultural" and "sociological" as opposed to the "legal" sense of the word "nation". According to Harper, the motion was of a symbolic political nature, representing no constitutional change, no recognition of Quebec sovereignty, and no legal change in its political relations within the federation. [cite web | url = http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/11/27/nation-vote.html | title = House passes motion recognizing Québécois as nation | publisher = Canadian Broadcasting Corporation | date = 2006-11-27 | accessdate = 2006-12-21] The Prime Minister has further elaborated, stating that the motion's definition of Québécois relies on personal decisions to self-identify as Québécois, and therefore is a personal choice. [cite web | url = http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2006/12/19/harper-motion.html?ref=rss | title = Who's a Québécois? Harper isn't sure | publisher = Canadian Broadcasting Corporation | date = 2006-12-19 | accessdate = 2006-12-21]

Despite near-universal support in the House of Commons, several important dissenters criticized the motion. Intergovernmental Affairs minister Michael Chong resigned from his position and abstained from voting, arguing that this motion was too ambiguous and had the potential of recognizing a destructive ethnic nationalism in Canada. [cite web
url = http://www.cbc.ca/cp/national/061128/n112804A.html
title = Harper Pays price for victory on Québécois nation motion
date = 2006-11-28
accessdate = 2007-09-23
author = Jim Brown
publisher = Canadian press (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation)
quote =
] Liberals were the most divided on the issue and represented 15 of the 16 votes against the motion. Liberal MP Ken Dryden summarized the view of many of these dissenters, maintaining that it was a game of semantics that cheapened issues of national identity. A survey by Leger Marketing in November 2006 showed that Canadians were deeply divided on this issue. When asked if Québécois are a nation, only 48 per cent of Canadians agreed, 47 per cent disagreed, with 33 per cent strongly disagreeing; 78 per cent of French-speaking Canadians agreed that Québécois are a nation, next to 38 per cent of English-speakers. As well, 78 per cent of 1,000 Québécois polled thought that Québécois should be recognized as a nation. Among French native-speaking Québécois the support was at 96%. [cite web
url = http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=23ba4837-5854-458d-b513-0c2d2d0b5ea3&k=50919
title = Quebec 'nation' debate divides French, English: poll
author = Hubert Bauch
date = 2006-11-11
accessdate = 2007-09-23
publisher = CanWest News Service; Montreal Gazette
quote =
]

Québécois in census and ethnographic studies

The Québécois are identified as an ethnic group in both the English and French versions of the Canadian census and in demographic studies of ethnicity in Canada. In the 2001 Census of Canada, 98,670 Canadians, or just over 1% of the population of Quebec identified "Québécois" as their ethnicity, ranking "Québécois" as the 37th most common response. [ [http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/highlight/ETO/Table1.cfm?Lang=E&T=501&GV=1&GID=0 Ethno-Cultural Portrait of Canada, Table 1 ] ] These results were based on a question on residents in each household in Canada: "To which ethnic or cultural group(s) did this person's ancestors belong?", along with a list of sample choices [cite web
title=Census questionnaire (long form)
url= http://www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/instrument/3901_Q2_V2_E.pdf]
format = pdf
] ("Québécois" did not appear among the various sample choices). [cite web
title = Census questionnaire (long form)
url= http://www.statcan.ca/english/sdds/instrument/3901_Q2_V2_E.pdf]
quote = To which ethnic or cultural group(s) did this person's ancestors belong? For example, canadian, French, English, Chinese, Italian, German, Scottish, Irish, Cree, Micmac, Metis, Inuit (Eskimo), East Indian, Ukranian, Dutch, polish, Portuguese, Filipino, Jewish, Greek, Jamaican, Vietnames, Labanese, Chilean, Somali, etc.
]

In the more detailed "Ethnic Diversity Survey",cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Ethnic Diversity Survey
date = 2003 | work = The Daily
publisher = Statistics Canada
url = http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/030929/d030929a.htm
format = html
accessdate = 2008-03-17
] Québécois was the most common ethnic identity in Quebec, reported by 37% ofQuebec's population aged 15 years and older, either as their only identity or alongsideother identities.cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Ethnic Diversity Survey: portrait of a multicultural society
date = 2003
publisher = Statistics Canada
isbn = 0-662-35031-6
url = http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/89-593-XIE/89-593-XIE2003001.pdf
format = pdf
accessdate = 2008-04-25
quote ="For example, in Quebec, Québécois was the most common ethnic identity and was reported by 37% ofQuebec's population aged 15 years and older, either as their only identity or alongsideother identities."
] The survey, based on interviews, asked the following questions: "1) I would now like to ask you about your ethnic ancestry, heritage or background. What were the ethnic or cultural origins of your ancestors? 2) In addition to "Canadian", what were the other ethnic or cultural origins of your ancestors on first coming to North America?"cite web
author = Statistics Canada
title = Ethnic Diversity Survey: Questionaire
publisher = Department of Canadian Heritage
date = April 2002
url = http://janus.ssc.uwo.ca/docfiles/2002eds/Questionnaire-E.pdf
format = pdf
accessdate = 2008-04-25
quote = p. 4-5
] This survey did not list possible choices of ancestry and permitted multiple answers.cite web
last = Jantzen
first = Lorna
title = The Advantages of analyzing ethnic attitudes across generations - Results from the Ethnic Diversity Survey
publisher = Department of Canadian Heritage
date = 2005
url = http://www.patrimoinecanadien.gc.ca/pc-ch/pubs/diversity2003/jantzen_e.cfm#2
format = html
accessdate = 2008-03-17
quote = Footnote 2 - It should also be noted that respondents were not provided examples of ancestries and they were permitted to report multiple responses.
]

In census ethnic surveys, French-speaking Canadians identify their ethnicity most often as French, "Canadien", "Québécois", or French Canadian, with the latter three referred to by Jantzen (2005) as "French New World" ancestries because they originate in Canada. [ Jantzen (2005) Footnote 9: "These will be called "French New World" ancestries since the majority of respondents in these ethnic categories are Francophones."] Jantzen (2005) distinguishes the English "Canadian", meaning "someone whose family has been in Canada for multiple generations", and the French "Canadien", used to refer to descendants of the original settlers of New France in the 17th and 18th centuries. [Jantzen (2005) Footnote 5: "Note that Canadian and Canadien have been separated since the two terms mean different things. In English, it usually means someone whose family has been in Canada for multiple generations. In French it is referring to "Les Habitant", settlers of New France during the 17th and 18th Century, who earned their living primarily from agricultural labour."] Among Quebec's population aged 15 years and older, 68.7% of the whole population identified ethnically as "Canadien" and 37% as "Québécois". [Ethnic Diversity Survey: " ... 37% of Quebec's population aged 15 years and older reported Québécois, either as their only ethnic identity or alongside other identities."]

Those reporting "French New World" ancestries overwhelmingly had ancestors that went back at least 4 generations in Canada: specifically, 90% of "Québécois" traced their ancestry back this far. [ Jantzen (2005): "The reporting of French New World ancestries (Canadien, Québécois, and French-Canadian) is concentrated in the 4th+ generations; 79% of French- Canadian, 88% of Canadien and 90% of Québécois are in the 4th+generations category."] Fourth generation Canadiens and Québécois showed considerable attachment to their ethno-cultural group, with 70% and 61% respectively reporting a strong sense of belonging. [ Jantzen (2005): "According to Table 3, the 4th+ generations are highest because of a strong sense of belonging to their ethnic or cultural group among those respondents reporting the New World ancestries of Canadien and Québécois."]

The generational profile and strength of identity of French New World ancestries contrast with those of British or Canadian ancestries, which represent the largest ethnic identities in Canada. [ Jantzen (2005): "For respondents of French and New World ancestries the pattern is different. Where generational data is available, it is possible to see that not all respondents reporting these ancestries report a high sense of belonging to their ethnic or cultural group. The high proportions are focused among those respondents that are in the 4th+ generations, and unlike with the British Isles example, the difference between the 2nd and 3rd generations to the 4th+ generation is more pronounced. Since these ancestries are concentrated in the 4th+ generations, their high proportions of sense of belonging to ethnic or cultural group push up the 4th+ generational results."] Although deeply rooted Canadians express a deep attachment to their ethnic identity, most English-speaking Canadians of British ancestry generally cannot trace their ancestry as far back in Canada as French-speakers. [Jantzen (2005): "As shown on Graph 3, over 30% of respondents reporting Canadian, British Isles or French ancestries are distributed across all four generational categories."] As a result, their identification with their ethnicity is weaker tending to have a more broad based cultural identification: for example, only 50% of third generation "Canadians" strongly identify as such, bringing down the overall average. [ Jantzen (2005): "Table 3: Percentage of Selected Ancestries Reporting that Respondents have a Strong* Sense of Belonging to the Ethnic and Cultural Groups, by Generational Status, 2002 EDS"] The survey report notes that 80% of Canadians whose families had been in Canada for three or more generations reported "Canadian and provincial or regional ethnic identities". These identities include "Québécois" (37% of Quebec population), "Acadian" (6% of Atlantic provinces) and "Newfoundlander" (38% of Newfoundland and Labrador). [See p. 14 of the [http://www.statcan.ca/cgi-bin/downpub/listpub.cgi?catno=89-593-XIE2003001 report] ]

English Usage

English expressions employing the term usually implies specific reference to francophones.
*"Québécois people"
*"Québécois society"
*"Québécois literature" [cite book | first = Paul |last = Perron| coauthors = | year =2003|chapter=| title = Narratology and Text: Subjectivity and Identity in New France and Québécois Literature. | location= Toronto|publisher=University of Toronto Press | pages= Pp. xvii + 338. | isbn = 0-8020-3688-0]
*"Québécois cinema"In each case above, "Québécois" could be replaced with "Quebec",Fact|date=March 2008 with a very tangible difference in meaning in "Quebec society" and "Quebec people". In "Quebec cinema," and "Quebec literature," implicit reference to works in the French language may subsist, perhaps because francophones are in the majority in Quebec,Fact|date=May 2008 or because works in English are more likely to be viewed as part of an English Canadian whole.Fact|date=May 2008

French usage

Most French usage employs references to people and things of Quebec origin.
*"Les Québécois et Québécoises" (masculine and feminine genders) to include women when referring to Quebecers as a whole.
*"Le québécois" (e.g., "Je parle québécois"/"I speak québécois").
*"Québécois de Québec: from Quebec City.
*"Québécois du Québec: from province of Quebec.

Possible use as an ethnic designation in French

Dictionaries

The dictionary "Le Petit Robert", published in France, states that the adjective "québécois", in addition to its territorial meaning, may refer specifically to francophone or French Canadian culture in Quebec. [Citation | title = Petit Robert. Dictionaire de la langue française. | last = Robert | first = Paul | publisher = Les Dictionnaires Roberts-Canada S.C.C. | location = Montreal | year = 1984 | pages = isbn = 2–85036–066–X "Specialt." (répandu v. 1965). Du groupe ethnique et linguistique canadien français composant la majorité de la population du Québec. Littérature québécoise; cinéma québécois."] The dictionary gives as examples "cinéma québécois" and "littérature québécoise".

However, an ethnic or linguistic sense is absent from "Le Petit Larousse", also published in France, ["Le Petit Larousse" (1989)] as well as from French dictionaries published in Canada such as "Le Dictionnaire québécois d'aujourd'hui" [Entry for "québécois" in "Dictionnaire québécois d'aujourd'hui". The entry is a column long.] Request quotation|date=March 2008 and "Le Dictionnaire du français Plus", which indicate instead "Québécois francophone" "francophone Quebecer" in the linguistic sense. These dictionaries also include phrases like "cinéma québécois" "Quebec cinema", but do not classify them as relating to language or ethnicity.Or|date=March 2008

The online dictionary "Grand dictionnaire terminologique" of the Office québécois de la langue française [Entry for "Québécois" at the [http://www.granddictionnaire.com/btml/fra/r_motclef/index1024_1.asp "Grand dictionnaire terminologique"] .] mentions only a territorial meaning for "Québécois".

Other documentation

Newspaper editor Lysiane Gagnon has referred to an ethnic sense of the word "Québécois" in both English and French. [cite web| url = http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20061113.wgagnon13/TPStory/specialComment/columnists | last = Gagnon | first = Lysiane | authorpage = Lysiane Gagnon | title = There's no Quebec 'nation' | publisher = Globe and Mail | date = 2006-11-13 | accessdate = 2007-04-03] [cite web| url = http://www.cyberpresse.ca/article/20061125/CPOPINIONS/611250816/6309/CPOPINIONS | last = Gagnon | first = Lysiane | authorpage = Lysiane Gagnon | title = La nation? Quelle nation? | publisher = La Presse | date = 2006-11-26 | accessdate = 2007-04-04]

Special terms using 'Québécois'

French expressions employing "Québécois" often appear in both French and English.

*"Parti Québécois": Provincial-level political party that supports Quebec independence from Canada
*"Bloc Québécois": Federal-level political party that supports Quebec independence from Canada
*"Québécois de souche" ("old-stock Quebecker"): Quebecer that can trace his or her ancestry back to the regime of New France
*"Québécois pure laine": "true blue" or "dyed-in-the-wool" Quebecker
*"Québécois francophone": "francophone Quebecer"
*"Québécois anglophone": "anglophone Quebecer"
*"néo-Québécois" ("new Quebecers"): immigrant Quebecers
*"Le Québec aux Québécois" ("Quebec for Québécois", or "Quebec for Quebecers"): slogan sometimes chanted at Quebec nationalist rallies or protests. This slogan can be controversial, as it might be interpreted both as a call for a Quebec controlled by "Québécois pure laine", with possible xenophobic connotations, or as a call for a Quebec controlled by the inhabitants of the province of Quebec, and free from outside interference. [cite web
url = http://faculty.marianopolis.edu/c.belanger/quebechistory/events/quiet.htm |
author = Claude Bélanger
title = The Quiet Revolution
publisher = Marionapolis College
date = 2000-08-23
accessdate = 2008-01-31
quote = There was no doubt that the Québécois, governed for so long by "Negro-Kings" [to use the interesting expression of André Laurendeau] in the interest of foreign powers, economical and political, had to become masters of their destiny, had to be "Maîtres chez-nous". Scads of Parti Québécois supporters were later to echo these sentiments in chanting loudly during political rallies: "Le Québec aux Québécois".
] [cite book
last = Bédard
first = Guy
authorlink =
coauthors = Adrienne Shadd and Carl E. James, Editors
year = 2001
chapter = Québécitude: An Ambiguous Identity
title = Talking about Identity: Encounters in Race, Ethnicity and Language
publisher = Between the Lines
location = Toronto
pages = 30
url = http://books.google.com/books?id=y7gtD9vcGJMC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=%22le+quebec+aux+quebecois%22&source=web&ots=xfvNGmaK0d&sig=0cCk5jRxJtqO3AtG0tXRcVdsYwI
doi =
id =
isbn = 1896357369
quote = The increasing uneasiness that I feel each time I hear nationalists say "Le Québec aux Québécois" illustrates this in another way. In adhering to this battle cry, "indépendentistes" are necessarily forced to admit that there are certain individuals whose status as residents of Quebec is not enough to qualify them as Québécois.
] POV-statement|date=March 2008

See also

*List of Quebecers
*Culture of Quebec
*Demolinguistics of Quebec
*Quebec nationalism
*Quebec sovereignty movement

*French Canadian
*"Pure laine"
*English-speaking Quebecer
*Irish Quebecers
*Scots-Quebecer

References

Further reading


*cite encyclopedia
title = Quebecers or Québécois?
encyclopedia = Encyclopedia Britannica Online
volume =
url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9438417/Quebecers-or-Quebecois
pages =
publisher = Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
date = 2007
id =
accessdate = 2008-02-01

*cite web
title = Québécois
work = Trésor de la langue française au Québec
publisher = Département de Langues, linguistique et traduction, Faculté des Lettres, Université Laval
url = http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/fichier/resultats.asp?mode=citations&page=1&init=true&affiche_entree=True&no_entree=96949&tri=entree
accessdate = 2008-02-01

*cite web
title = Quebecker
work = Trésor de la langue française au Québec
publisher = Département de Langues, linguistique et traduction, Faculté des Lettres, Université Laval
url = http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/fichier/resultats.asp?mode=citations&page=1&init=true&affiche_entree=True&no_entree=136300&tri=entree
accessdate = 2008-02-01

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Teboul, Victor (2007), L'identité québécoise est-elle inclusive ? http://www.tolerance.ca/Article.aspx?ID=3621&L=fr
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  • québécois — québécois, oise [ kebekwa, waz ] adj. et n. • quebecois 1754; de Québec (1608), nom de la ville, mot algonquin « détroit, resserrement, escarpement » 1 ♦ De Québec; du Québec et notamment de la province de Québec. La politique québécoise au sein… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Quebecois — Québécois Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Québecois — Québécois Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Quebecois — [kā be kwä′] n. pl. Quebecois [CdnFr Québécois] a French speaking person born or living in the province of Quebec …   English World dictionary

  • Quebecois — or Québécois or Québecois noun (plural Quebecois or Québécois or Québecois) Etymology: French québecois, québécois, from Québec Quebec Date: 1873 a native or inhabitant of Quebec; specifically a French speaking native or inhabitant of Quebec •… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Québécois — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme québécois peut désigner : Adjectif Qualifie quelque chose originaire de la ville de Québec ou de la province du Québec. Ex: Ce sirop d… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Québecois — /kay be kwah /; Fr. /kay be kwann /, n., pl. Québecois / be kwah , kwahz /; Fr. / be kwann /. 1. Quebecer. 2. a person, esp. a member of the Parti Québecois, who supports the separation and independence of the province of Quebec from the rest of… …   Universalium

  • Quebecois — 1. adjective Of or pertaining to Quebec, or French Canada. Canadians have mixed views concerning whether the Quebecois people constitute a distinct nation. 2. noun a) Any inhabitant or native of the city or province of Quebec, especially a French …   Wiktionary

  • Québecois — I. noun see Quebecois II. adjective see Quebecois …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Québécois — I. noun see Quebecois II. adjective see Quebecois …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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