- Friedrich Hayek
color = #B0C4DE
name = Friedrich August von Hayek
birth = birth date|1899|5|8
death = death date and age|1992|3|23|1899|5|8
school_tradition = Old Whig,
Classical liberalismand Austrian School
Economics, social philosophy, political philosophy, philosophy of mind
Bernard Mandeville, David Hume, Adam Ferguson, John Locke, Edmund Burke, Alexis de Tocqueville, Lord Acton, Carl Menger, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Friedrich von Wieser, Ludwig von Mises, Karl Popper
Karl Popper, Konrad Lorenz, Robert Nozick, Israel Kirzner, Murray Rothbard, John Hicks, George Stigler, Ben Reid, Milton Friedman, Michael Novak, Barry Goldwater, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Sowell, Sir Keith Joseph Margaret Thatcher, Bruno Leoni, Giovanni Sartori, Atilla Yayla, Bruce Caldwell, John Gray, Jimmy Wales, Ludwig Erhard, Ron Paul, Alan Greenspan
Economic calculation problem, Catallaxy, Extended order, Dispersed knowledge, Spontaneous order|
Friedrich August von Hayek CH (
May 8, 1899ndash March 23, 1992) was an Austrian-British economistand political philosopher known for his defence of classical liberalismand free-market capitalismagainst socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. He is considered to be one of the most important economists and political philosophers of the twentieth century. [Edward Feser (edt), "The Cambridge Companion to Hayek", Cambridge University Press (2007), ISBN 0521849772, p.13] One of the most influential members of the Austrian Schoolof economics, he also made significant contributions in the fields of jurisprudenceand cognitive science. He shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in Economicswith ideological rival Gunnar Myrdal"for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena." [cite web|url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1974/index.html|title=The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1974|author=Bank of Sweden|year=1974] He also received the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedomin 1991. [cite web|url=http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/research/public_papers.php?id=3642&year=&month=|title=Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Medal of Freedom Awards|author= George H. W. Bush|date= 1991-11-18] He is considered to be one of the major forces of change from the dominant interventionist and Keynesian policies of the first part of the 20th century back towards classical liberalismafter the 1980s.
Hayek was born in
Vienna, Austro-Hungarian Empire, as part of an aristocratic family of prominent intellectuals working in the fields of statistics and biology. His father published a major botanical treatise while working as a doctor in the government's social welfare system. On his mother's side, he was second cousin to the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. When World War Ibegan in 1914, Hayek lied about his age and joined the Austro-Hungarian Army. He survived the war without serious injury and was decorated for bravery.
After being discharged and seeing the horrors of war, he decided to pursue an academic career with the determination to avoid the precursors that led to World War I. Said Hayek of his experience, "The decisive influence was really World War I. It's bound to draw your attention to the problems of political organization." He vowed to work for a better world. [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitext/tr_show01.html]
University of Vienna, he earned doctorates in law and political science in 1921 and 1923 respectively, and he also studied psychologyand economics with a keen interest. Initially sympathetic to socialism, Hayek's economic thinking was transformed during his student years in Vienna through attending Ludwig von Mises' private seminars along with Fritz Machlupand other young students. He was a student of Friedrich von Wieser.
Hayek worked as a research assistant to Prof.
Jeremiah Jenksof New York Universityfrom 1923 to 1924. He then aided the Austrian government with the legal and economic details of the Treaty of Versaillesat the close of the First World War.Fact|date=June 2008 After his work for the government, Hayek founded and served as director of the Austrian Institute for Business Cycle Researchbefore joining the faculty of the London School of Economicsat the behest of Lionel Robbinsin 1931. In the 1930s Hayek enjoyed a considerable reputation as a leading economic theorist, but his models were not received well by the followers of John Maynard Keynesand debate between the two schools of thought continues to this day.
Unwilling to return to Austria after the
Anschlussbrought it under the control of Nazi Germany in 1938, Hayek fled to BritainFact|date=June 2008 and became a British subjectFact|date=June 2008, a status he held for the remainder of his life.
The Road to Serfdom
It was during this time that "
The Road to Serfdom" was written. Hayek was concerned about the general view in Britain's academia that Fascismwas a capitalist reaction against socialism. A chapter in the book is entitled, "The Socialist Roots of Nazism." The book was to be the popular edition of the second volume of a treatise entitled "The Abuse and Decline of Reason". [Alan Ebenstein, "Friedrich Hayek. A Biography" (New York: Palgrave, 2001), p. 107.] It was written between 1940-1943. The title was inspired by the French classical liberal thinker Alexis de Tocqueville's writings on the "road to servitude". [Ibid., p. 116.] It was first published in Britain by Routledgein March 1944 and was quite popular, leading Hayek to call it "that unobtainable book," also due in part to wartime paper rationing. [Ibid., p. 128.] The book was favorably reviewed by George Orwellamong others. When it was published in the United States by the University of Chicagoin September of that year, it achieved greater popularity than in Britain (though it was not better received by critics). The American magazine " Reader's Digest" also published an abridged version in April 1945, enabling "The Road to Serfdom" to reach a far wider audience than academics.
libertarianeconomist Walter Blockhas observed critically that while the "The Road to Serfdom" makes a strong case against centrally-planned economies, it appears only lukewarm in its support of pure "laissez-faire" capitalism, with Hayek even going so far as to say that "probably nothing has done so much harm to the liberal cause as the wooden insistence of some liberals on certain rules of thumb, above all of the principle of laissez-faire capitalism" [Hayek, "Constitution of Liberty," U. Chicxago Press (1960) pp. 502-3] . In the book, Hayek writes that the government has a role to play in the economy through the monetary system, work-hours regulation, social welfare, and institutions for the flow of proper information. [Block W. (1996). [http://mises.org/journals/jls/12_2/12_2_6.pdf "Hayek's Road to Serfdom". "Journal of Libertarian Studies"] .]
In 1950, Hayek left the
London School of Economicsfor the University of Chicago, becoming a professor in the Committee on Social Thought. Hayek's position was unpaid and he was barred from entering the Economics department because of his Austrian economic views. Though Hayek would not name the department member responsible for this setback, many speculate that it was Frank Knight. For his livelihood he depended on donations from private philanthropists. At Chicago, he found himself among other prominent economists, such as Milton Friedman, but, by this time, Hayek had turned his interests towards political philosophyand psychologyndash although he continued to work on economic issues. Most of his economic notes from this period have yet to be published.
After editing a book on
John Stuart Mill's letters and lecturing in Cairo in 1955, he intended to write two books on the liberal order. He worked on the first of these, "The Constitution of Liberty" [Ibid., p. 195.] , for the next four years, completing it in May 1959 leading to publication in February 1960. Among others recipients, Hayek sent complementary copies of this work to former U.S. President Herbert Hooverand then-Vice President Richard Nixon, both of whom sympathized with the book's basic arguments. [Ibid., p. 203.] However, Hayek was disappointed that the book did not receive the same enthusiastic general reception as "The Road to Serfdom" had been fifteen years before.
From 1962, until his retirement in 1968, he was a professor at the University of Freiburg. It was here that most of "
Law, Legislation and Liberty" was written. This was not intended for a general audience, and it was published in three volumes in 1973, 1976 and 1979.
In 1974, he shared the
Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics, causing a revival of interest in the Austrian schoolof economics. In 1984, he was appointed as a member of the Order of the Companions of Honourby Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on the advice of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcherfor his "services to the study of economics." Later, he was a visiting professor at the University of Salzburg. In 1991 George H. W. Bushawarded Hayek with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States, for a "lifetime of looking beyond the horizon". Hayek died in 1992 in Freiburg, Germany.
The Economic Calculation Problem
Hayek was one of the leading academic critics of
collectivismin the 20th century. Hayek believed that all forms of collectivism (even those theoretically based on voluntary cooperation) could only be maintained by a central authority of some kind. In his popular book, " The Road to Serfdom" (1944) and in subsequent works, Hayek claimed that socialism required central economic planning and that such planning in turn had a risk of leading towards totalitarianism, because the central authority would have to be endowed with powers that would have an impact on social life as well, and because the scope of knowledge required for central planning is inherently decentralized.
Building on the earlier work of Mises and others, Hayek also argued that while, in centrally-planned economies, an individual or a select group of individuals must determine the distribution of resources, these planners will never have enough information to carry out this allocation reliably. The efficient exchange and use of resources, Hayek claimed, can be maintained only through the
pricemechanism in free markets (see economic calculation problem). In " The Use of Knowledge in Society" (1945), Hayek argued that the price mechanism serves to share and synchronize local and personal knowledge, allowing society's members to achieve diverse, complicated ends through a principle of spontaneous self-organization. He used the term catallaxyto describe a "self-organizing system of voluntary co-operation."
In Hayek's view, the central role of the state should be to maintain the
rule of law, with as little arbitrary intervention as possible.
Hayek viewed the
free price system, not as a conscious invention (that which is intentionally designed by man), but as spontaneous order, or what is referred to as "that which is the result of human action but not of human design".Fact|date=June 2008 Thus, Hayek put the "price mechanism" on the same level as, for example, language. Such thinking led him to speculate on how the human brain could accommodate this evolved behavior. In " The Sensory Order" (1952), he proposed, independently of Donald Hebb, the connectionist hypothesis that forms the basis of the technology of neural networksand of much of modern neurophysiology¹.
Hayek attributed the birth of civilization to
private propertyin his book " The Fatal Conceit" (1988). According to him, price signalsare the only means of enabling each economic decision maker to communicate tacit knowledgeor dispersed knowledgeto each other, in order to solve the economic calculation problem.
The Business Cycle
Capital, money, and the
business cycleare prominent topics in Hayek's early contributions to economics. Mises had earlier explained monetary and banking theory in his " Theory of Money and Credit" (1912), applying the marginal utilityprinciple to the value of money and then proposing a new theory of industrial fluctuations based on the concepts of the British Currency Schooland the ideas of the Swedish economist Knut Wicksell. Hayek used this body of work as a starting point for his own interpretation of the business cycle, which defended what later became known as the " Austrian Theory of the Business Cycle". In his "Prices and Production" (1931) and "The Pure Theory of Capital" (1941), he explained the origin of the business cycle in terms of central bank credit expansionand its transmission over time in terms of capital misallocation caused by artificially low interest rates.
This business cycle theory was criticised when published by
Keynes, Sraffaand then Kaldor[ [http://www.economyprofessor.com/theorists/friedrichhayek.php ECONOMY PROFESSOR | Friedrich Hayek ] ] . Since then, the "Austrian business cycle theory" has been criticized by advocates of rational expectationsand other components of neoclassical economics, who point to the neutrality of moneyand to the real business cycletheory as providing a sounder understanding of the phenomenon. Hayek, in his 1939 book "Profits, Interest and Investment," distanced himself from a position held by other theorists of the Austrian School, such as Mises and later Rothbard, by beginning to shun the wholly monetary theory of the business cycle in favor of an understanding based more on profits than on interest rates. Hayek explicitly notes that most of the more accurate explanations of the business cycle place greater emphasis on "real" than on nominal variables.Fact|date=June 2008 He also notes that this model of the business cycle cannot be wholly reconciled with any specific "Austrian" theory.Fact|date=June 2008
Social and Political Philosophy
In the latter half of his career Hayek made a number of contributions to social and
political philosophy, which he based on his views on the limits of human knowledge [ [http://www.econlib.org/library/Essays/hykKnw1.html The Use of Knowledge in Society] ] , and the idea of "spontaneous order" in social institutions. He argues in favor of a society organized around a market order, in which the apparatus of state is employed almost (though not entirely) exclusively to enforce the legal order (consisting of abstract rules, and not particular commands) necessary for a market of free individuals to function. These ideas were informed by a moral philosophy derived from epistemologicalconcerns regarding the inherent limits of human knowledge.
philosophy of science, which has much in common with that of his good friend Karl Popper, Hayek was highly critical of what he termed " scientism": a false understanding of the methods of science that has been mistakenly forced upon the social sciences, but that is contrary to the practices of genuine science. Usually scientism involves combining the philosophers' ancient demand for demonstrative justification with the associationists' false view that all scientific explanations are simple two-variable linear relationships. Hayek points out that much of science involves the explanation of complex multi-variable and non-linear phenomena, and that the social science of economics and undesigned order compares favorably with such complex sciences as Darwinian biology. These ideas were developed in "The Counter-Revolution of Science: Studies in the Abuse of Reason", 1952 and in some of Hayek's later essays in the philosophy of science such as "Degrees of Explanation" and "The Theory of Complex Phenomena".Fact|date=June 2008
In "The Sensory Order: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology" (1952), Hayek independently developed a "
Hebbian learning" model of learning and memoryndash an idea which he first conceived in 1920, prior to his study of economics. Hayek's expansion of the "Hebbian synapse" construction into a global brain theory has received continued attention in neuroscience, cognitive science, computer science, behavioral science, and evolutionary psychology.
Hayek and Conservatism
Hayek attracted new attention in the 1980s and 1990s with the rise of conservative governments in the
United Statesand the United Kingdom. Margaret Thatcher, the Conservative British prime minister from 1979 to 1990, was an outspoken "dévotée" of Hayek's writings. Shortly after Thatcher became Leader of the party, she “reached into her briefcase and took out a book. It was Friedrich von Hayek's " The Constitution of Liberty". Interrupting [the speaker] , she held the book up for all of us to see. ‘This’, she said sternly, ‘is what we believe’, and banged Hayek down on the table.” [John Ranelagh, "Thatcher's People: An Insider's Account of the Politics, the Power, and the Personalities" (HarperCollins, 1991), p. ix.] After winning the 1979 election, Thatcher appointed Keith Joseph, the director of the Hayekian Centre for Policy Studies, as her secretary of state for industry in an effort to redirect parliament’s economic strategies. Likewise, some of Ronald Reagan’s economic advisers were friends of Hayek. [Muller, Jerry Z. The Mind and the Market. Anchor Books, New York. 2003.]
Hayek wrote an essay titled "Why I Am Not a Conservative" [ [http://www.fahayek.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=46 Why I Am Not a Conservative] ] (included as an appendix to "The Constitution of Liberty"), in which he disparaged
conservatismfor its inability to adapt to changing human realities or to offer a positive political program. His criticism was aimed primarily at European-style conservatism Fact|date=June 2008, which has often opposed capitalism as a threat to social stability and traditional values. Hayek identified himself as a classical liberal, but noted that in the United States it had become almost impossible to use "liberal" in its original definition, and the term "libertarian" has been used instead. However, for his part Hayek found this term "singularly unattractive" and offered the term “Old Whig” (a phrase borrowed from Edmund Burke) instead. In his later life he said: "I am becoming a Burkean Whig". [E. H. H. Green, "Ideologies of Conservatism. Conservative Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 259.]
Influence and recognition
By 1947, Hayek was an organizer of the
Mont Pelerin Society, a group of classical liberals who sought to oppose what they saw as socialism in various areas. He was also instrumental in the founding of the Institute of Economic Affairs, the free-market think tank that inspired Thatcherism. In his speech at the 1974 Nobel Prize banquet, Hayek, whose work emphasized the fallibility of individual knowledge about economic and social arrangements, expressed his misgivings about promoting the perception of economics as a strict science on par with physics, chemistry, or medicine (the academic disciplines recognized by the original Nobel Prizes).
While there is some dispute as to the matter of influence, Hayek had a long-standing and close friendship with philosopher of science
Karl Popper, also from Vienna. In a letter to Hayek in 1944, Popper stated, "I think I have learnt more from you than from any other living thinker, except perhaps Alfred Tarski." (See Hacohen, 2000). Popper dedicated his "Conjectures and Refutations" to Hayek. For his part, Hayek dedicated a collection of papers, "Studies in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics", to Popper, and in 1982 said, "...ever since his "Logik der Forschung" first came out in 1934, I have been a complete adherent to his general theory of methodology." (See Weimer and Palermo, 1982). Popper also participated in the inaugural meeting of the Mont Pelerin Society. Their friendship and mutual admiration, however, do not change the fact that there are important differences between their ideas (See Birner, 2001).
Having heavily influenced Margaret Thatcher's economic approach, and some of Ronald Reagan's economic advisors such as his director of OMB David Stockman, in the 1990s Hayek became one of the most-respected economists in Eastern Europe.
Hayek's greatest intellectual debt was to Carl Menger, who pioneered an approach to social explanation similar to that developed in Britain by Bernard Mandeville and the Scottish moral philosophers. He had a wide-reaching influence on contemporary economics, politics, philosophy, sociology, psychology and anthropology. For example, Hayek's discussion in "
The Road to Serfdom" (1944) about truth, falsehood and the use of language influenced some later opponents of postmodernism(e.g., Wolin 2004).
Even after his death, Hayek's intellectual presence was noticeable, especially in the universities where he had taught: the London School of Economics, the University of Chicago, and the University of Freiburg. A number of tributes resulted, many posthumous. A student-run group at the LSE
Hayek Society, was established in his honor. At Oxford University, there is also a Hayek Society. The Cato Institutenamed its lower level auditorium after Hayek, who had been a Distinguished Senior Fellow at Cato during his later years. Also, the auditorium of the school of economics in Universidad Francisco Marroquínin Guatemalais named after him.
Hayek's work on price theory has been central to the thinking of
Jimmy Walesabout how to manage the Wikipedia project. [Katherine Mangu-Ward: [http://www.reason.com/news/show/119689.html "Wikipedia and Beyond. Jimmy Wales´ sprawling vision", June 2007]
Hayek was cited many times in the recent BBC TV series The Trap.
Criticism of Hayek
Richard Posnerhas criticized Hayek's legal theory. [cite journal
authorlink=Richard A. Posner
title=Hayek, Law, and Cognition
journal=NYU Journal of Law & Liberty
accessdate=2008-08-24] Posner defended cost-benefit judicial decision-making that has no place in Hayek's theory.
In his 1944 book review,
George Orwellcalled "The Road to Serfdom" "an eloquent defence of "laissez-faire capitalism" and praised Hayek's criticism of contemporary left-wing and conservative thought. [Orwell, George "The Road to Serfdom" by F. A. Hayek, "The Mirror of the Past" by K. Zilliacus", London, 1944]
He then expressed the following opinion of Hayek's solutions: "But he does not see, or will not admit, that a return to 'free' competition means for the great mass of people a tyranny probably worse, because more irresponsible, than that of the State. The trouble with competitions is that somebody wins them. Professor Hayek denies that free capitalism necessarily leads to monopoly."
The problem to Orwell was: "Capitalism leads to dole queues, the scramble for markets, and war."
In the early 1980s, Hayek was connected with the
Centro de Estudios Publicos,a market-oriented think tank in Chile.In a 1981 [http://www.fahayek.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=121 interview] ,the Chilean newspaper " El Mercurio" asked"What opinion, in your view, should we have of dictatorships?"Hayek is often quoted as responding,"Personally I prefer a liberal dictator to democratic government lacking liberalism."Since Pinochetstill exercised dictatorial powers at that time,this statement has been cited to suggest that Hayek endorsed Pinochet and had no qualms about Pinochet's human-rights violations. Hayek's complete reply to the question was as follows:
Well, I would say that, as long-term institutions, I am totally against dictatorships. But a dictatorship may be a necessary system for a transitional period. At times it is necessary for a country to have, for a time, some form or other of dictatorial power. As you will understand, it is possible for a dictator to govern in a liberal way. And it is also possible for a democracy to govern with a total lack of liberalism. Personally I prefer a liberal dictator to democratic government lacking liberalism. My personal impressionndash and this is valid for South America - is that in Chile, for example, we will witness a transition from a dictatorial government to a liberal government. And during this transition it may be necessary to maintain certain dictatorial powers, not as something permanent, but as a temporary arrangement.The full interview provides more context for Hayek's response.
List of books by Friedrich Hayek"
* "Monetary Theory and the Trade Cycle", 1929.
* "Prices and Production", 1931.
* "Profits, Interest and Investment: And other essays on the theory of industrial fluctuations", 1939.
The Road to Serfdom", 1944.
Individualism and Economic Order", 1948.
The Constitution of Liberty", 1960.
Law, Legislation and Liberty" (3 volumes): 1) Rules and Order, 1973: 2) The Mirage of Social Justice, 1976: 3) The Political Order of a Free People, 1979
The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism", 1988. (The content of the book was heavily influenced by William Warren Bartley) [ [http://libertyunbound.com/archive/2005_03/ebenstein-deceit.html Liberty - The Fatal Deceit ] ]
* Birner, Jack, 2001, "The mind-body problem and social evolution," CEEL Working Paper 1-02.
* Birner, Hack, and Rudy van Zijp, eds., "Hayek: Co-ordination and Evolution: His legacy in philosophy, politics, economics and the history of ideas" (1994)
* Caldwell, Bruce, 2005. "Hayek's Challenge: An Intellectual Biography of F.A. Hayek".
* Cohen, Avi J. "The Hayek/Knight Capital Controversy: the Irrelevance of Roundaboutness, or Purging Processes in Time?" "History of Political Economy" 2003 35(3): 469-490. Issn: 0018-2702 Fulltext: online in Project Muse, Swetswise and Ebsco
* Brian Doherty. 2007. "Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement"
* Ebenstein, Alan O., 2001. " Friedrich Hayek: A Biography".
* Gray, John, 1998. "Hayek on Liberty".
* Hacohen, Malachi, 2000. "Karl Popper: The Formative Years, 1902 – 1945".
* Horwitz, Steven. "Friedrich Hayek, Austrian Economist." "Journal of the History of Economic Thought" 2005 27(1): 71-85. Issn: 1042-7716 Fulltext: in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco
* Kasper, Sherryl, 2002, "The Revival of Laissez-Faire in American Macroeconomic Theory: A Case Study of Its Pioneers". Chpt. 4.
* Kley, Roland, 1994. "Hayek's Social and Political Thought". Oxford Univ. Press.
* Muller, Jerry Z., 2002. "The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought". Anchor Books.
* Rosenof, Theodore, 1974, "Freedom, Planning, and Totalitarianism: The Reception of F. A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom," "Canadian Review of American Studies".
* Samuelson, Richard A. "Reaction to the Road to Serfdom." "Modern Age" 1999 41(4): 309-317. Issn: 0026-7457 Fulltext: in Ebsco
* Shearmur; Jeremy, 1996. "Hayek and after: Hayekian Liberalism as a Research Programme". Routledge.
* Touchie, John, 2005. "Hayek and Human Rights: Foundations for a Minimalist Approach to Law". Edward Elgar.
* Vanberg, V. (2001). "Hayek, Friedrich A von (1899–1992)," "
International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences", pp. 6482-6486. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7MRM-4MT09VJ-12W&_rdoc=50&_hierId=151000072&_refWorkId=21&_explode=151000072&_fmt=summary&_orig=na&_docanchor=&_idxType=SC&view=c&_ct=148&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=694b75be2c8c99e03874335b254ddae9 Abstract.]
* Vernon, Richard. "The 'Great Society' and the 'Open Society': Liberalism in Hayek and Popper." "Canadian Journal of Political Science" 1976 9(2): 261-276. Issn: 0008-4239 Fulltext: in Jstor
* Weimer, W., and Palermo, D., eds., 1982. "Cognition and the Symbolic Processes". Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Contains Hayek's essay, "The Sensory Order" after 25 Years" with "Discussion."
*Wolin, R. 2004. "The Seduction of Unreason: The Intellectual Romance with Fascism from Nietzsche to Postmodernism." Princeton University Press, Princeton.
*Pavlík, Ján. 2004 [http://nb.vse.cz/kfil/pavlik.htm ] . "
University of Economics, PragueF. A. von Hayek and The Theory of Spontaneous Order." Professional Publishing 2004, Prague [http://www.profespubl.cz/index_soubory/hayek.htm] .
Rule of Law
*Austrian School of economics
Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk
Ludwig von Mises
*Chicago School of economics
Mont Pelerin Society
List of Austrian scientists
List of Austrians
Liberalism in Austria
* [http://www.mises.org/content/hayekbio.asp Bio from the Ludwig von Mises Institute]
* [http://www.hayekcenter.org The Hayek Scholar's Page]
* [http://www.friesian.com/hayek.htm Hayek's influence on Friesian philosophy]
* [http://nobelprize.org/economics/laureates/1974/ Official 1974 Nobel Prize page]
* [http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Hayek.html Bio and online works] on Econlib
* [http://revver.com/video/10904 The Road to Serfdom in Five Minutes] Hayek's book, as illustrated by Look Magazine, condensed into a 5-minute movie
* [http://dmoz.org/Science/Social_Sciences/Economics/Schools_of_Thought/Austrian_School/People/Hayek,_F._A/ Hayek, F. A] Directory of links on Hayek from the Open Source Directory
* [http://www.adamsmith.org/hayek/ F A Hayek] on the [http://www.adamsmith.org/ Adam Smith Institute] website
* [http://www.hayek.de/frames/biographie.html Hayek Bio at hayek.de]
* [http://www.reason.com/0406/fe.jr.objections.shtml Reason magazine's article on what Hayek might think of gay marriage] (describes the conservatism vs. liberalism dispute)
* [http://reality.gn.apc.org/econ/hayek.htm Information and Economics: A critique of Hayek] essay included in the book [http://ricardo.ecn.wfu.edu/~cottrell/socialism_book/new_socialism.pdf "Towards a New Socialism"] [http://www.mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae7_1_6.pdf reviewed] by the hayekian Len Brewster
* [http://www.econ-pol.unisi.it/pubdocenti/HEI99.pdf The economics of information, market socialism and Hayek's legacy]
* [http://cob.jmu.edu/rossermv/Caldwell.pdf Hayek and Socialism] by Bruce Caldwell
* [http://www.deregulo.com/facetation/pdfs/marketDynamicsOfSpeculation.pdf The Market Dynamics of Speculation: Hayekian Market Signals and the Rise of the Culture Industries]
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3620/is_200207/ai_n9135114/print Consumer learning, connectionism and Hayek's theoretical legacy]
* [http://cogprints.org/306/00/connect.html The Connectionist Mind: A Study of Hayekian Psychology] by Barry Smith
* [http://hayeklinks.causaliberal.net/ Hayek Links] The most extensive list of links on Hayek
* [http://www.oxford-hayek.org/ Oxford Hayek Society]
* [http://reason.com/hayekint.shtml "The Road from Serfdom"] , interview in "Reason" by Thomas W. Hazlett
* [http://hayek.org.uk/ London School of Economics Hayek Society]
* [http://www.centrostudilogos.com/news_ita/upload/uploads/Hayek%20and%20the%20idea%20of%20plan%20coordination.pdf Hayek and the Idea of Plan-Coordination] by
* [http://ideas.repec.org/e/pvo8.html IDEAS/RePEc]
NAME = Hayek, Friedrich August von
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = Austrian (later British) economist and political philosopher; Nobel Memorial Prize winner; professor; Austrian school member; supported free markets and liberal democracy; anti-Marxist
DATE OF BIRTH = birth date|1899|5|8|mf=y
PLACE OF BIRTH =
Vienna, Austria-Hungary(now Austria)
DATE OF DEATH = death date|1992|3|23|mf=y
PLACE OF DEATH =
Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.