Viking Runestones

Viking Runestones

The Viking Runestones are runestones that mention Scandinavians who participated in Viking expeditions. This article treats the runestone that refer to people who took part in voyages abroad, in western Europe, and stones that mention men who were Viking warriors and/or died while travelling in the West. However, it is likely that all of them do not mention men who took part in pillaging. They were all engraved in Old Norse with the Younger Futhark.

The largest group consists of 30 stones that mention England, and they are treated separately in the article England Runestones. The runestones that talk of voyages to eastern Europe, the Byzantine Empire and the Middle East are treated separately in the article Varangian Runestones and its subarticles.

The most notable of the Viking runestones is the Kjula Runestone and it contains a poem in Old Norse in the metre fornyrðislag that refers to the extensive warfare of a man called "Spear":

Below follows a presentation of the runestones based on the Rundata project. The transcriptions into Old Norse are in the Swedish and Danish dialect to facilitate comparison with the inscriptions, while the English translation provided by Rundata gives the names in the de facto standard dialect (the Icelandic and Norwegian dialect):

Uppland

U 349

This runestone was located at Odenslunda, but it has disappeared. It was in style RAK.

Latin transliteration:

: [uikitil × uk × usur -...u × risa × stin × þina * iftiR × ustin × faþ... ... ...þan × on furs × uti × miþ × ala × skibin × kuþ × ialbi × (a)t]

Old Norse transcription:: "Vikætill ok Ossurr [let] u ræisa stæin þenna æftiR Øystæin, fað [ur] ... [go] ðan. Hann fors uti með alla skipan. Guð hialpi and."

English translation:

: "Véketill and Ôzurr had this stone raised in memory of Eysteinn, ... good father. He perished abroad with all the seamen. May God help (his) spirit." [Entry U 349 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 363

This runestone was a boulder which was located at Gådersta, but it has disappeared. It was possibly in style Pr4.

Latin transliteration:

: [kislauk * lit * hakua * at sun sin * sbialtbuþi * ulfr * ikuar * hulfastr * kairi * þaiR * at broþur * sin * þiakn * fors * uti ok * at biarn faþur sin bro kirþu * ku=þ hialbi silu]

Old Norse transcription:

: "Gislaug let haggva at sun sinn, Spiallbuði, UlfR, Ingvarr, Holmfastr, GæiRi, þæiR at broður sinn Þiagn, fors uti, ok at Biorn, faður sinn. Bro gærðu. Guð hialpi salu."

English translation:

: "Gíslaug had (this) cut in memory of her son; Spjallboði, Ulfr, Ingvarr, Holmfastr, Geiri, they made the bridge in memory of their brother Þegn, (who) perished abroad, and in memory of Bjôrn, their father. May God help (their) souls." [Entry U 363 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 504

This runestone is an early inscription in style RAK without ornamentations. It is located in Ubby and it was raised in memory of a father. This man had participated in Viking expeditions both in the west and in the east.Pritsak 1981:342]

Latin transliteration:

: + kitil×fastr × risti × stin + þina × iftiR × askut × faþur + sin × saR × uas × uistr × uk × ustr + kuþ ialbi × as × salu

Old Norse transcription:

: "Kætilfastr ræisti stæin þenna æftiR Asgaut, faður sinn. SaR vas vestr ok austr. Guð hialpi hans salu."

English translation:

: "Ketilfastr raised this stone in memory of Ásgautr, his father. He was in the west and in the east. May God help his soul." [Entry U 504 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 611

This runestone in style Pr1 is located at Tibble. It appears to be raised in memory of a man who died in the retinue of the Viking chieftain Freygeirr.

Latin transliteration:

: biurn : auk : stnfriþ : litu : arisa s--n : afti : kisila : han : uti : fial : i liþi : frekis *

Old Norse transcription:

: "Biorn ok Stæinfrið letu ræisa s [tæi] n æftiR Gisla. Hann uti fioll i liði FrøygæiRs(?)."

English translation:

: "Bjôrn and Steinfríðr had the stone raised in memory of Gísli. He fell abroad in Freygeirr's(?) retinue." [Entry U 611 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

U 668

This runestone is found in Kolsta (also spelled Kålsta). In the 17th c. this stone was found by one of Johannes Bureus' assistants and it was part of the wall of a manor house.Enoksen 1998:125] After having been lost for 100 years it was rediscovered in the mid-19th c.

The stone is of high notability because it was raised in memory of one of the members of the Dano-English kings' personal guard, the Þingalið, consisting of elite warriors who mostly came from Scandinavia. This elite unit existed between 1016 and 1066.Enoksen 1998:127] Another runestone raised in memory of a man who died in the same retinue is found in Södermanland, the Råby Runestone. [Pritsak 1981:339]

The Kolsta runestone is in style Pr3, [Rundata] and it is not older than the mid-11th c. which is indicated by the use of dotted runes and the use of the ansuz rune for the o phoneme.

Latin transliteration:

: ' sterkar * auk ' hioruarþr ' letu * reisa * þensa * stein at ' faþur sin keir(a) ' sum ' uestr ' sat ' i þikaliþi * kuþ hialbi salu

Old Norse transcription:

: "Stærkarr ok Hiorvarðr letu ræisa þennsa stæin at faður sinn GæiRa, sum vestr sat i þingaliði. Guð hialpi salu."

English translation:

: "Styrkárr and Hjôrvarðr had this stone raised in memory of their father Geiri, who sat in the Assembly's retinue in the west. May God help (his) soul." [Entry U 668 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Södermanland

ö 14

This runestone is found at the church of Gåsinge. It is in style Fp and it was raised by two ladies in memory of their husband and father. He took part in an expedition in the west, possibly with Canute the Great.

Latin transliteration:

: rakna * raisti * stain * þansi * at * suin * buta * sit * auk * sifa * auk * r-knburk * at * sit * faþur * kuþ * hil [b] i * at * [hat] s * uit * iak * þet * uaR * sui- * uestr * miþ * kuti

Old Norse transcription:

: "Ragna ræisti stæin þannsi at Svæin, bonda sinn, ok Sæfa ok R [a] gnborg at sinn faður. Guð hialpi and hans. Væit iak, þæt vaR Svæi [nn] vestr með Gauti/Knuti."

English translation:

: "Ragna raised this stone in memory of Sveinn, her husbandman, and Sæfa and Ragnbjôrg in memory of their father. May God help his spirit. I know that Sveinn was in the west with Gautr/Knútr." [Entry Sö 14 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 53

This runestone has disappeared but it was located in Valstad. It was possibly in the style RAK and it was raised in memory of a son who died in the west.

Latin transliteration:

: [lafR * raisþi * stain * þansi : iftiR * sulfu * sun sin : han uarþ : uastr * tauþr]

Old Norse transcription:

: "OlafR ræisþi stæin þannsi æftiR Sylfu/Solfu, sun sinn. Hann varð vestr dauðr."

English translation:

: "Ólafr raised this stone in memory of Sylfa/Solfa, his son. He died in the west." [Entry Sö 53 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 62

This runestone is found at Hässlö, today Hässle, and it is in style Pr1. It was raised in memory of a son who died on the western route.

Latin transliteration:

: kuni : rasti stan : þansi : a ragna : sun san : kuþan : i uak : uaþ : taþR uastr

Old Norse transcription:

: "Gunni ræisti stæin þannsi at Ragna, sun sinn goðan, i veg varð dauðr vestr."

English translation:

: "Gunni raised this stone in memory of Ragni, his good son; (he) died on the western route." [Entry Sö 62 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 106

.Pritsak 1981:409]

It tells of a man called Spjót ("spear") who had taken part in extensive warfare in western Europe. It is held to have been raised by the same aristocratic family as the Ramsund carving nearby and the Bro Runestone in Uppland.

Several Scandinavian authorities such as Sophus Bugge, Erik Brate and Elias Wessén have discussed the runestone and how extensive the warfare of Spjót could have been. Spjót, meaning "spear", is a unique name and it may have been a name he earned as a warrior.

Latin transliteration:

: alrikR ¤ raisti ¤ stain × sun × siriþaR × at × sin faþur × sbiut ×× saR × uisitaula × um × uaRit : hafþi × burg × um brutna : i : auk × um barþa +× firþ × han × kar(s)aR + kuni + alaR ×

Old Norse transcription:

: "AlrikR ræisti stæin, sunn SigriðaR, at sinn faður Spiut, saR vestarla um vaRit hafði, borg um brutna i ok um barða, færð hann karsaR kunni allaR."

English translation:

: "Alríkr, Sigríðr's son, raised the stone in memory of his father Spjót, who had been in the west, broken down and fought in townships. He knew all the journey's fortresses." [Entry Sö 106 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 137

This is one of the runestones at Aspa and it is in style RAK. It was engraved with both long-branch runes and staveless runes. In the last row all the words but the last one were written with staveless runes.

Latin transliteration:

: A þura : raisþi : stin : þ--si at : ubi : buanti : sin: B : stain : saR:si : stanr : at : ybi : o þik*staþi : at ¶ : þuru : uar : han : uestarla : uakti : karla ¶ [sa þar] * sunr þaþ * raknasuatau(k)i(f)maR [sua]

Old Norse transcription:

: A "Þora ræisþi stæin þ [ann] si at Øpi, boanda sinn.": B "Stæinn saRsi standr at Øpi a þingstaði at Þoru ver. Hann vestarla væknti(?) karla, sa þaR sunR það. ..."

English translation:

: A "Þóra raised this stone in memory of Œpir, her husbandman." : B "This stone stands in memory of Œpir, on the Assembly-place in memory of Þóra's husband. He armed(?) (his) men in the west. The son saw this there ..." [Entry Sö 137 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 159

This runestone is tentatively categorized at style RAK, ant it is found in Österberga. It has both long-branch runes and staveless runes. It was raised in memory of a father who had been in the west for a long time.

Latin transliteration:

: : ikialtr : ak : aluiR : raisþu : stain : þansi : at : þurbiurn : faþur : sin : han uaistr hafR uf uaRit leki rorikR * kumytr biu * kunlaifR hiuku runaR

Old Norse transcription:

: "Ingialdr ok AlveR/ØlveR ræisþu stæin þannsi at Þorbiorn, faður sinn. Hann vestr hafR of vaRit længi. HrøRikR(?), Guðmundr, , GunnlæifR hiuggu runaR."

English translation:

: "Ingjaldr and Ôlvir raised this stone in memory of Þorbjôrn, their father. He has been long in the west. Hrœríkr(?), Guðmundr, (and) Gunnleifr cut the runes." [Entry Sö 159 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 164

This runestone is found at Spånga and it sports not only long-branch runes, but also cipher runes made of both short-twig runes and staveless runes. The ornamentation is a ship where the mast is an artful cross. It was raised in memory of a man who took part in an expedition to the west where he was buried.

Latin transliteration:

: kuþbirn : uti : þaiR r(a)isþu : stan þansi : at : kuþmar : f(a)þur : sin : stuþ : triki:l(a) : i * stafn skibi : likR uistarla uf huln sar tu :

Old Norse transcription:

: "Guðbiorn, Oddi, þæiR ræisþu stæin þannsi at Guðmar, faður sinn. Stoð drængila i stafn skipi, liggR vestarla of hulinn(?), saR do."

English translation:

: "Guðbjôrn (and) Oddi, they raised this stone in memory of Guðmarr, their father. He who died stood valiantly in the staff of the ship; (now) lies inhumed in the west." [Entry Sö 164 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 173

In the village of Tystberga there are three raised stones.The article " [http://www.raa.se/cms/extern/kulturarv/arkeologi_och_fornlamningar/tystberga_runstenar_i_sverige.html Tystberga] " on the site of the Swedish National Heritage Board, retrieved May 20, 2007.] Two of them are runestones called Sö 173 and , of which the last one has a cross. Both inscriptions are from the 11th century and tell of the same family. They probably refer to Viking expeditions both westwards and eastwards.

The location was first described by Lukas Gadd during the nation-wide revision of pre-historic monuments that took place in the 17th century. In a paddock at the state owned homestead of Tystberga there was a flat stone lying with runes and next to it there was another flat stone that was leaning. In addition, there was a large square stone surrounded with rows of smaller stones, which Gadd described as a "fairly large cemetery". Not far from the stones, there were also two giant passage graves, about 20 paces long.

There is a depiction of the cross-less stone from the 17th century, made by Johan Hadorph and Johan Peringskiöld. This depiction has helped scholars reconstruct the parts that are damaged today. The runestone was raised anew by Richard Dybeck in 1864. In 1936, Ivar Schnell examined the stone, and he noted that there was a large stone next to it. When this stone was raised, they discovered that it was also a runestone, and it was probably the one that had been previously described by Lukas Gadd as the "square stone". In the vicinity, Schnell found a destroyed stone without runes which probably was the leaning stone described by Gadd. Since they would hinder agriculture, the three stones were re-erected at a distance of 60 metres, at the side of the road. The stone circle and the other monuments described by Gadd could not be found anymore.

The runes mani can be interpreted in two ways, since runic inscriptions never repeat two runes. One possibility is that it refers to Máni, the moon, and the other alternative is the male name "Manni" which is derived from "maðr" ("man").

The runes mus:kia are more challenging and the older interpretation that it was "Mus-Gea" is nowadays rejected. It is probably a nominalization of "myskia" which means "darken" as during sunset, and one scholar has suggested that it could mean "sunset" and "twilight" and refer to e.g. a hair colour. A second theory is that the name refers to the animal bat. It is also disputed whether it is a man's name or a woman's name, but most scholars think that it refers to a woman. The name "Myskia" appears in a second runic inscription [According to Rundata it is the runestone Sö 13.] in Södermanland, and it may refer to the same person.

The last part of the cross-less inscription is both unusual and partly problematic. The word "ystarla" could without context be interpreted as both "westwards" and "eastwards", but since an "austarla" appears later in the inscription, it is agreed that "ystarla" means "westwards". It is unusual, but not unique, that the "y-rune" ( with "um vaRit". It is not known whether "he" refers to Hróðgeirr (Roger) or Holmsteinn, but most think that it is Holmsteinn who had been westwards. The plural ending -"u" in the verb form "dou" shows that both Hróðgeirr and Holmsteinn died in the Ingvar expedition.

Latin transliteration:

: A mus:kia : a(u) [k :] (m)an(i) : litu : rasa : ku [(m)(l) : þausi : at : b] ruþur * (s)in : hr(u)þkaiR * auk : faþur sin hulm:stain *: B * han hafþi * ystarla u(m) : uaRit * lenki : tuu : a:ustarla : meþ : inkuari

Old Norse transcription:

: A "Myskia ok Manni/Mani letu ræisa kumbl þausi at broður sinn HroðgæiR ok faður sinn Holmstæin.": B "Hann hafði vestarla um vaRit længi, dou austarla með Ingvari."

English translation:

: A "Myskja and Manni/Máni had these monuments raised in memory of their brother Hróðgeirr and their father Holmsteinn." : B "He had long been in the west; died in the east with Ingvarr." [Entry Sö 173 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 217

This runestone in style Fp is found in Sorunda. It is raised in memory of a father who died in a war expedition led by a commander named Guðvé. Erik Brate argues that it was the same expedition as the one mentioned on the Grinda Runestone and where the targets are reported to have been England and Saxony. [http://runeberg.org/runor/0063.html Brate 1922:62] ]

Latin transliteration:

: + suertikr : nuk + kari : auk : kuþmutr : auk : skari : auk : knutr : raistu : stain : þena : aftiR : utruk * faþur : sin : is fel * i liþi : kuþuis +

Old Norse transcription:

: "SværtingR ok Kari ok Guðmundr ok Skari ok Knutr ræistu stæin þenna æftiR Otrygg, faður sinn, es fell i liði Guðvis."

English translation:

: "Svertingr and Kári and Guðmundr and Skári and Knútr raised this stone in memory of Ótryggr, their father, who fell in Guðvé's retinue." [Entry Sö 217 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 260

This runestone is located in Södra Beteby, and it may be one of the Hakon Jarl Runestones. It is not only the stone that has been found on the farm, but also a hoard of several hundred English coins.Jansson 1980:35] More Anglo-Saxon pence of this period have been found in Sweden than in England due to the Danegelds.

Omeljan Pritsak argues that this Hakon is the same as the one who is mentioned on the Bro Runestone and whose son Ulf was in the west, i.e. in England.Pritsak 1981:412] This Swedish Hakon Jarl would then actually be the Norwegian Hákon Eiríksson.

Latin transliteration:

: ... ... ...a : stin : eftiR : ierunt : sun : sia : aR * uaR : uestþr : meþ ulfi : suni * hakunar *

Old Norse transcription:

: "... ... [ræis] a stæin æftiR Iarund, sun sinn, eR vaR vestr með Ulfi, syni HakonaR."

English translation:

: "... ... raise the stone in memory of Jôrundr, his son, who was in the west with Ulfr, Hákon's son." [Entry Sö 260 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

ö 319

This runestone was found in Sannerby, but was moved to the park of the manor house Stäringe, where it is presently raised beside the runestone Sö 320. It is in the style RAK.

Latin transliteration:

: : finiþr : kiarþi : kuml : þaisi : eftiR : kaiRbiurn : faþur sin :: han uarþ : tauþr uestr

Old Norse transcription:

: "Finnviðr(?) gærði kuml þessi æftiR GæiRbiorn, faður sinn. Hann varð dauðr vestr."

English translation:

: "Finnviðr(?) made these monumenst in memory of Geirbjôrn, his father. He died in the west." [Entry Sö 319 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Östergötland

Ög 68

This runestone was found at the church of Ekeby, and it was moved into the church porch in 1961. It is in style RAK. It mentions the death of a man named Eyvindr who died while participating in an expedition westwards under a chieftain named Væringr. Erik Brate considers this Væringr to be the one who is mentioned on runestone Ög 111, below.Pritsak 1981:383]

Latin transliteration:

: suina × karþi × bru × þesi × eftiR × ouint × bruþur × sin × han × uas × uesteR × tauþeR × i × uereks × (k)ai-i

Old Norse transcription:

: "Svæina gærði bro þessi æftiR Øyvind, broður sinn. Hann vas vestr dauðr i Værings ."

English translation:

: "Sveina made this bridge in memory of Eyvindr, his brother. He died in the west on Væringr's ..." [Entry Ög 68 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Ög 83

Ög 83 is one of the runestones of Högby and it is tentatively categorized as style Pr1-Pr2. It was made in memory of a son who died in the West.

Latin transliteration:

: * þura * sati * stin * þasi * aftiR * suin * sun * sin * Rs * uRstr * o * ualu

Old Norse transcription:

: "Þora satti stæin þannsi æftiR Svæin, sun sinn, es vestr a "

English translation:

: "Þóra placed this stone in memory of Sveinn, her son, who died in the west in ." [Entry Ög 83 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Ög 111

This runestone in style Fp is found in the wall of the church of Landeryd. It was raised by a man named Væringr in memory of a brother who had served under Canute the Great. Erik Brate considers this Væringr to be same man as the one who is mentioned on runestone Ög 68, above. The cross is in Ringerike style.Horn Fuglesang 1998:201]

Latin transliteration:

: * uirikR : resti : stan : eftiR : þialfa : bruþur : sin : trak : þan : aR * uaR * miR * knuti :

Old Norse transcription:

: "VæringR ræisti stæin æftiR Þialfa, broður sinn, dræng þann, eR vaR með Knuti."

English translation:

: "Væringr raised the stone in memory of Þjalfi , his brother, the valiant man who was with Knútr." [Entry Ög 111 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Ög Fv1970;310

This runestone from the first half of the 11th century, was discovered in june 1969, in the cemetery wall some 40 metres from the gate of the church of Kullerstad. The engraved side had been facing inwards. The stone was raised next to the entrance to the church. It is in light red granite and it is 1.84 m tall (1.55 m above the soil) and 84 cm wide. The length of the runes is between 12 and 15 cm. It was raised by Hákon in memory of his son Gunnarr and both men are also known from the runestone Ög 162 at Gunnar's bridge about half a km north of the church, which relates that Hákon named the bridge in memory of his son Gunnarr. The runestone which was discovered at the church was probably the main memorial, but it reports that at least two memorials had been raised in Gunnarr's memory. It is consequently likely that both runestones formed a twinned memorial at Gunnar's bridge, and they were probably made by the same runemaster. [Svärdström 1970:310ff]

Latin transliteration:

: hakun + raiþi × kuml × þausi × eftiR × kunar + sun × sin × han × uarþ × taurþ × uastr +

Old Norse transcription:

: "Hakon ræisþi kumbl þausi æftiR Gunnar, sun sinn. Hann varð dauðr vestr."

English translation:

: "Hákon raised these monuments in memory of Gunnarr, his son. He died in the west." [Entry Ög Fv1970;310 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Västergötland

Vg 61

This runestone is raised at Härlingstorp. It is in style RAK and it was raised in memory of a man who died on the western route.

Latin transliteration:

: : tula : sati : sten : þ... ... [iR kR : sun] : sin : harþa × kuþon : trok : sa × uarþ : tuþr : o : uastr:uakm : i : uikiku :

Old Norse transcription:

: "Tola satti stæin þ [annsi æft] iR GæiR, sun sinn, harða goðan dræng. Sa varð dauðr a vestrvegum i vikingu."

English translation:

: "Tóla placed this stone in memory of Geirr, her son, a very good valiant man. He died on a Viking raid on the western route." [Entry Vg 61 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Vg 197

This runestone is found on the cemetery of the church of Dalum. It was raised in memory of two brothers of which one died in the east and the other one died in the west.

Latin transliteration:

: tuki * auk * þiR * bryþr * ristu * stin * þesi * eftiR : bryþr : sina * eR : uarþ * tu(þ)r uestr : en * anar : au(s)tr :

Old Norse transcription:

: "Toki ok þæiR brøðr ræistu stæin þennsi æftiR brøðr sina. ER varð dauðr vestr, en annarr austr."

English translation:

: "Tóki and his brothers raised this stone in memory of their brothers. One died in the west, another in the east." [Entry Vg 197 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Småland

m 10

This runestone is found at the Cathedral of Växjö near its western wall. It is raised by a man who entitled himself "the Viking" and it is in style Pr2. It was discovered in 1813 under plaster in the wall of the cathedral. The inscription starts at the head of the serpent, and the inscription is carved in the circular band that follows the sides of the stone until it reaches the x. The prayer is read from bottom-up in the right hand rectangle. The runes tyki are found above the serpent's head in the central rectangle, whereas the runes uikikr are found in the left-hand rectangle. The epithet "Viking" indicates that Tóki had taken part in Viking expeditions and it was probably used to distinguish him from other men named Tóki in the region. [The local information plaque, signed by County Administrative Board, the National Heritage Society and the Museum of Småland.]

Latin transliteration:

: -u(k)i tyki × uikikr reisti * stein * e(f)tir : kunar : sun : kirims × kuþ healbi sel hans

Old Norse transcription:

: " [T] oki, Toki vikingR, ræisti stæin æftiR Gunnar, sun Grims. Guð hialpi salu hans!"

English translation:

: "Tóki, Tóki the Viking, raised the stone in memory of Gunnarr, Grímr's son. May God help his soul!" [Entry Sm 10 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

m 42

This runestone in the style RAK is located in Tuna. It was raised in memory of Özurr who was in the service of a king named Harald, who was probably the English king Harold Harefoot.Jansson 1980:37] the þingalið. According to a local tradition, "ancient coins" were once found near the stone, and these coins were possibly Özur's payment from his service in England.

Latin transliteration:

: tumi × risti : stin : þansi : iftiR × asur : bruþur × sin × þan : aR : uaR : s=kibari : hrhls : kunuks

Old Norse transcription:

: "Tumi/Tummi/Domi ræisti stæin þannsi æftiR Assur, broður sinn, þann eR vaR skipari Haralds kunungs."

English translation:

: "Tumi/Tummi/Dómi raised this stone in memory of Ôzurr, his brother, he who was King Haraldr's seaman." [Entry Sm 42 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

m 51

This runestone is found near the old exterior wall of the cemetery of the church of Forsheda. It is in style RAK and it was raised in memory of a man who died westwards.

Latin transliteration:

: tusti × (r)...(i) ...tin × efti(R) kuno × mak × sin × þ... ...---s × ... × uistar- × uar- ...

Old Norse transcription:

: "Tosti r [æist] i [s] tæin æftiR Gunna, mag sinn, ... ... ... vestar [la] var [ð] ..."

English translation:

: "Tosti raised the stone in memory of Gunni, his kinsman-by-marriage ... ... ... was westwards ..." [Entry Sm 51 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Gotland

G 370

This runestone is found at the church of Hablingbo. It is in style Pr3 and it was raised in memory of a man who died when travelling with the Vikings.

Latin transliteration:

: uatar : auk ... hilkaiR : raistu : stain : iftir ... hailka ... f-þur : sin : hn : uahR -istr : farin miþ uikikum

Old Norse transcription:

: "Hvatarr ok HæilgæiRR(?) ræistu stæin aftiR Hæilga, f [a] ður sinn. Hann var [v] estr farinn með vikingum."

English translation:

: "Hvatarr and Heilgeirr(?) raised the stone in memory of Helgi, their father. He travelled to the west with the Vikings." [Entry G 370 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

cania

Dr 266

This runestone in style RAK was discovered at Uppåkra but is presently at Stenshöggård.

Latin transliteration:

: A nafni × risþi × stin × þasi ¶ aftiR × tuka × bruþur × si [n] : B han × uarþ × uistr ¶ tuþr

Old Norse transcription:

: A "Nafni resþi sten þæssi æftiR Toka, broþur sin.": B "Han warþ wæstr døþr."

English translation:

: A "Nafni raised this stone in memory of Tóki, his brother." : B "He died in the west." [Entry Dr 266 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Dr 330

This 11th century runestone was discovered at Gårdstånga, but it is presently located at "runestone hill" in Lund. It is in the style RAK.

Latin transliteration:

: A ...usti : auk : kunar : ...u : stina : þasi : aiftiR : kn... ¶ ... ...biurn : filaka : si(n)(-): B : þiR : trikaR : uaRu : u--(-) --isiR : i * uikiku

Old Norse transcription:

: A "Tosti(?) ok Gunnar ... stena þæssi æftiR ... [ok] ...biorn, felaga sin [a] .": B "ÞeR drængiaR waRu w [iþa] [un] esiR i wikingu."

English translation:

: A "Tosti(?) and Gunnarr ... these stones in memory of ... [and] ...-bjôrn, their partners." : B "These valiant men were widely renowned on viking raids." [Entry Dr 330 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Dr 334

This runestone in style RAK is part of the Strö monument and it was made by the same person as Dr 335.

Latin transliteration:

: faþiR : lit : hukua : runaR : þisi : uftiR : osur : bruþur : sin : is : nur : uarþ : tuþr : i : uikiku :

Old Norse transcription:

: "FaþiR let hoggwa runaR þæssi æftiR Azur, broþur sin, æs nor warþ døþr i wikingu."

English translation:

: "Faðir had these runes cut in memory of Ôzurr, his brother, who died in the north on a viking raid." [Entry Dr 334 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Denmark

Dr 216

This runestone is located in Tirsted on the island of Lolland, Denmark. It is the earliest native Scandinavian document that mentions Sweden together with the runestones Dr 344 and Sö Fv1948;289. It is raised in memory of a Viking who died in Sweden and according to one reading, he fought in the retinue of Freygeirr.Pritsak 1981:399]

Latin transliteration:

: A osraþr auk hiltu(-)-R raisþu stain þansi aft froþa fronti sin sin ian han uas þo foink uaiRa ian han uarþ tauþr o suoþiauþu auk uas furs i frikis ioþi þo aliR uikikaR

Old Norse transcription:

: "Asraþr ok Hildu [ng] R/Hildv [ig] R/Hildu [lf] R resþu sten þænsi æft Fraþa/Fræþa, frænda sin sin, æn han was þa fækn(?) wæRa, æn han warþ døþr a Sweþiuþu ok was fyrst(?) i(?) Friggis(?) liði(?) þa alliR wikingaR."

English translation:

: "Asrathr and Hildung/Hildvig/Hildulf erected this stone after Fretha, their kinsman, ... he died in Sweden and was first .... of every viking." [Entry Dr 216 in Rundata 2.0 for Windows.]

Notes

ources

*Brate, Erik. (1922). "Sverges runinskrifter". Stockholm, Bokförlaget Natur och kultur. [http://runeberg.org/runor/]
*Enoksen, Lars Magnar. (1998). "Runor : historia, tydning, tolkning". Historiska Media, Falun. ISBN 91-88930-32-7
*Horn Fuglesang, S. (1998). "Swedish runestones of the eleventh century: ornament and dating", Runeninschriften als Quellen interdisziplinärer Forschung (K.Düwel ed.). Göttingen, pp. 197-218.
*Jansson, Sven B. (1980). "Runstenar". STF, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7156-015-7
*Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). "The origin of Rus'". Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4
*Svärdström, E. (1970). "Runfynd 1969", in Gräslund, B. & Swartling, I. (eds) "Fornvännen årgång 65". [http://fornvannen.se/1970talet/fornvannen_1970.html] . pp. 301-313.
* [http://www.sofi.se/servlet/GetDoc?meta_id=1472 "Nordisk runnamnslexikon"] by Lena Peterson at the Swedish Institute for Linguistics and Heritage (Institutet för språk och folkminnen).
*Rundata
*The article "Kjula" in "Nationalencyklopedin".
* [http://web.telia.com/~u58110628/so106kjula.html A Swedish site on the runestone.]
* [http://www.runor.se/bra/bra62.htm Brate, E. (1922). "Sveriges runinskrifter". p. 125.]
* [http://www.skaldic.arts.usyd.edu.au/db.php?table=verses&id=10056 The poem at Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages.]

External links

* [http://runicdictionary.nottingham.ac.uk/index.php An English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark, at the university of Nottingham]


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