Disciples of Confucius

Disciples of Confucius

Sima Qian has Confucius saying: The disciples who received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them, were seventy-seven individuals. They were all scholars of extraordinary ability. The common saying is, that the disciples of the sage were three thousand, while among them there were seventy-two worthies. The following is a list of those whose names have come down to the present, as being his followers. Of the greater number it will be seen that we know nothing more than their names and surnames but some of them are mentioned in the Analects of Confucius.



Yan Hui

A tablet in honor of Yah Hui ("The Continuator of the Sage, Duke of Yanguo") in his temple in Qufu

Yan Hui, by designation Zi-yuan (顏回, 子淵). He was a native of State of Lu, the favorite of his master, whose junior he was by thirty years, and whose disciple he became when he was quite a youth. After I got Hui, Confucius remarked, the disciples came closer to me. We are told that once, when he found himself on the Nang hill with Hui, Zi-lu, and Zi-gong, Confucius asked them to tell him their different aims, and he would choose between them. Zi-lu began, and when he had done, the master said, It marks your bravery. Zi-gong followed, on whose words the judgment was, They show your discriminating eloquence. At last came Yan Hui, who said, I should like to find an intelligent king and sage ruler whom I might assist. I would diffuse among the people instructions on the five great points, and lead them on by the rules of propriety and music, so that they should not care to fortify their cities by walls and moats, but would fuse their swords and spears into implements of agriculture. They should send forth their flocks without fear into the plains and forests. There should be no sunderings of families, no widows or widowers. For a thousand years there would be no calamity of war. Yu would have no opportunity to display his bravery, or Ts'ze to display his oratory. The master pronounced, How admirable is this virtue!

When Hui was twenty-nine, his hair was all white, and at aged 32 he died. He was sacrificed to, along with Confucius, by the first emperor of the Han dynasty. The title which he now has in the sacrificial Canon,-- Continuator of the Sage, was conferred in the ninth year of the Jiajing era, A. D. 1530. Almost all the present sacrificial titles of the worthies in the temple were fixed at that time. Hui's place is the first of the four Assessors, on the east of the sage.

Min Sun

A symbolic tomb of Min Ziqian , with two ancient-looking bixi turtles

Min Sun (Chinese: ; pinyin: Mín Sǔn), styled Zi-qian (Chinese: ; pinyin: qiān; Wade–Giles: Tsu-chien), was one of Confucius' students from the kingdom of Lu in the Spring and Autumn Period of the Zhou Dynasty. According to Sima Qian, he was fifteen years younger than Confucius, but fifty years younger, according to the 'Narratives of the School,' which latter authority is followed in 'The Annals of the Empire.' When he first came to Confucius, we are told, he had a starved look, which was by-and-by exchanged for one of fullness and satisfaction. Zi-gong asked him how the change had come about. He replied, 'I came from the midst of my reeds and sedges into the school of the master. He trained my mind to filial piety, and set before me the examples of the ancient kings. I felt a pleasure in his instructions; but when I went abroad, and saw the people in authority, with their umbrellas and banners, and all the pomp and circumstance of their trains, I also felt pleasure in that show. These two things assaulted each other in my breast. I could not determine which to prefer, and so I wore that look of distress. But now the lessons of our master have penetrated deeply into my mind. My progress also has been helped by the example of you my fellow disciples. I now know what I should follow and what I should avoid, and all the pomp of power is no more to me than the dust of the ground. It is on this account that I have that look of fullness and satisfaction.' Zi-qian was high in Confucius's esteem. He was distinguished for his purity and filial affection. His place in the temple is the first, east, among 'The Wise Ones,' immediately after the four assessors. He was first sacrificed to along with Confucius, as is to be understood of the other 'Wise Ones,' excepting in the case of Yu Zuo, in the eighth year of the style Kaiyuan of the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty, AD 720. His title, the same as that of all but the Assessors, is-- 'The ancient Worthy, the philosopher Min.'

He is perhaps, most well known for his filial piety, i.e. a love and respect for one's parents. His mother died when he was young and after his father remarried, he was raised by his stepmother. Under her care, he was abused and mistreated. In one narrative, his stepmother during winter, would line her own sons' clothes with warm cotton, while she would line his clothes with weeds. One day, while taking his father out in a carriage, he almost succumbed to the cold. When his father learned what had happened, he went back to throw his wife out of the house. However, Zi-qian said, "If mother leaves, there will be three of your sons who go cold, but if she stays, then only one will suffer." His stepmother was touched by his kindness and never mistreated him again.

Ran Geng

Ran Geng, styled Bo-niu (冉耕, 白 [al. 百] 牛). He was a native of Lu, and Confucius's junior only by seven years. When Confucius became minister of Crime, he appointed Bo-niu to the office, which he had himself formerly held, of commandant of Zhongdu. His tablet is now fourth among 'The Wise Ones,' on the west.

Ran Yong

Ran Yong, styled Zhong-gong (冉雍, 仲弓). He was of the same clan as Ran Geng, and twenty-nine years younger than Confucius. He had a bad father, but the master declared that was not to be counted to him, to detract from his admitted excellence. His place is among 'The Wise Ones,' the second, east.


Ran Qiu, styled Zi-you (冉求, 子有). He was related to the two former, and of the same age as Zhong-gong. He was noted among the disciples for his versatile ability and many acquirements. Zi-gong said of him, 'Respectful to the old, and kind to the young; attentive to guests and visitors; fond of learning and skilled in many arts; diligent in his examination of things:-- these are what belong to Ran Qiu." It has been noted in the life of Confucius that it was by the influence of Zi-you that he was finally restored to Lu. He occupies the third place, west, among 'The Wise Ones.'


Zhong You, styled Zi-lu and Ji-lu (仲由, 子路, 季路). He was a native of Pian (卞) in Lu and only nine years younger than Confucius. At their first interview, the master asked him what he was fond of, and he replied, 'My long sword.' Confucius said, 'If to your present ability there were added the results of learning, you would be a very superior man.' 'Of what advantage would learning be to me?' asked Zi-lu. 'There is a bamboo on the southern hill, which is straight itself without being bent. If you cut it down and use it, you can send it through a rhinoceros's hide;-- what is the use of learning?' 'Yes,' said the master; 'but if you feather it and point it with steel, will it not penetrate more deeply?' Zi-lu bowed twice, and said, 'I will reverently receive your instructions.' Confucius was wont to say, 'From the time that I got You, bad words no more came to my ears.' For some time Zi-lu was chief magistrate of the district of Pu (蒲), where his administration commanded the warm commendations of the master. He died finally in Wei. His tablet is now the fourth, east, from those of the Assessors.


Zai Yu, styled Zi-wo (宰予, 子我). He was a native of Lu, but nothing is mentioned of his age. He had 'a sharp mouth,' according to Sima Qian. Once, when he was at the court of Chu on some commission, the king Chao offered him an easy carriage adorned with ivory for his master. Yu replied, 'My master is a man who would rejoice in a government where right principles were carried out, and can find his joy in himself when that is not the case. Now right principles and virtue are as it were in a state of slumber. His wish is to rouse and put them in motion. Could he find a prince really anxious to rule according to them, he would walk on foot to his court and be glad to do so. Why need he receive such a valuable gift, as this from so great a distance?' Confucius commended this reply; but where he is mentioned in the Analects, Zi-wo does not appear to great advantage. He took service in the State of Qi, and was chief magistrate of Lin-tsze (Wade Giles transliteration), where he joined with Tian Chang in some disorderly movement, which led to the destruction of his kindred, and made Confucius ashamed of him. His tablet is now the second, west, among 'The Wise Ones.'


Duanmu Ci, styled Zi-gong (端木賜, 子貢 [al. 子贛]), whose place is now third, east, from the Assessors. He was a native of Wei (衛), and thirty-one years younger than Confucius. He had great quickness of natural ability, and appears in the Analects as one of the most forward talkers among the disciples. Confucius used to say, 'From the time that I got Ci, scholars from a distance came daily resorting to me.' One instance of the language which he used to express his admiration of the master is as follows:-- The duke Ching of Qi asked Zi-gong how Zhong-ni was to be ranked as a sage. 'I do not know,' was the reply. 'I have all my life had the heaven over my head, but I do not know its height, and the earth under my feet, but I do not know its thickness. In my serving of Confucius, I am like a thirsty man who goes with his pitcher to the river, and there he drinks his fill, without knowing the river's depth.' He took leave of Confucius to become commandant of Xin-yang (信陽宰), when the master said to him, 'In dealing with your subordinates, there is nothing like impartiality; and when wealth comes in your way, there is nothing like moderation. Hold fast these two things, and do not swerve from them. To conceal men's excellence is to obscure the worthy; and to proclaim people's wickedness is the part of a mean man. To speak evil of those whom you have not sought the opportunity to instruct is not the way of friendship and harmony.' Subsequently Zi-gong was high in office both in Lu and Wei, and finally died in Qi. Following Confucius's death, many of the disciples built huts near the master's grave, and mourned for him three years, but Zi-gong remained sorrowing alone for three years more.

Yan Yan

Yan Yan, styled Zi-you (言偃, 子游), now the fourth in the western range of 'The Wise Ones.' He was a native of Wu (吳), forty-five years younger than Confucius, and distinguished for his literary acquirements. Being made commandant of Wuchang, he transformed the character of the people by 'proprieties' and music, and was praised by the master. After the death of Confucius, Ji Kang asked Yan how that event had made no sensation like that which was made by the death of Zi-chan, when the men laid aside their bowstring rings and girdle ornaments, and the women laid aside their pearls and ear-rings, and the voice of weeping was heard in the lanes for three months. Yan replied, 'The influences of Zi-chan and my master might be compared to those of overflowing water and the fattening rain. Wherever the water in its overflow reaches, men take knowledge of it, while the fattening rain falls unobserved.'


Pu Shang, styled Zi-xia (卜商, 子夏). It is not certain to what State he belonged, his birth being assigned to Wei (衛), to Wei (魏), and to Wen (溫). He was forty-five years younger than Confucius and lived to a great age, for in 406 BCE records show him at the court of Prince Wan of Wei (魏), to whom he gave copies of some of the classical Books. He is represented as an extensively read and exact scholar but one without great comprehension of mind. What is called Mao's Shi-jing (毛詩) is said to contain the views of Zi-xia. Gongyang Gao and Guliang Chi are also said to have studied the Spring and Autumn Annals with him. On the occasion of the death of his son he wept himself blind. He is placed in the fifth east position among 'The Wise Ones.'


Zhuansun Shi, styled Zi-zhang (顓孫師, 子張), has his tablet, corresponding to that of the preceding, on the west. He was a native of Chen (陳), and forty-eight years younger than Confucius. Zi-gong said, 'Not to boast of his admirable merit; not to signify joy on account of noble station; neither insolent nor indolent; showing no pride to the dependent:-- these are the characteristics of Zhuansun Shi.' When he was sick, he called (his son) Shan-xiang to him, and said, 'We speak of his end in the case of a superior man, and of his death in the case of a mean man. May I think that it is going to be the former with me to-day?'

Zeng Shen

Zeng Shen [or Cen] styled Zi-yu (曾參, 子輿 [al. 子與]). He was a native of south Wu-chang, and forty-six years younger than Confucius. In his sixteenth year he was sent by his father into Chu, where Confucius then was, to learn under the sage. Excepting perhaps Yan Hui, there is not a name of greater note in the Confucian school. Zi-gong said of him, 'There is no subject which he has not studied. His appearance is respectful. His virtue is solid. His words command credence. Before great men he draws himself up in the pride of self-respect. His eyebrows are those of longevity.' He was noted for his filial piety, and after the death of his parents, he could not read the rites of mourning without being led to think of them, and moved to tears. He was a voluminous writer. Ten Books of his composition are said to be contained in the 'Rites of the elder Tai' (大戴禮). The Classic of Filial Piety he is said to have made under the eye of Confucius. He was also connected with 'The Great Learning'. He was first associated with the sacrifices to Confucius in AD 668, but in 1267 he was advanced to be one of the sage's four Assessors. His title-- 'Exhibitor of the Fundamental Principles of the Sage,' dates from the period of Jiajing, as mentioned in speaking of Yan Hui. (See Zengzi)

Dantai Mieming

Dantai Mieming, styled Zi-yu (澹臺滅明, 子羽). He was a native of Wu-chang, thirty-nine years younger than Confucius, according to the 'Historical Records,' but forty-nine, according to the 'Narratives of the School.' He was excessively ugly, and Confucius thought meanly of his talents in consequence, on his first application to him. After completing his studies, he travelled to the south as far as the Yangtze. Traces of his presence in that part of the country are still pointed out in the department of Su-chau (Wade Giles transliteration). He was followed by about three hundred disciples, to whom he laid down rules for their guidance in their intercourse with the princes. When Confucius heard of his success, he confessed how he had been led by his bad looks to misjudge him. He, with nearly all the disciples whose names follow, first had a place assigned to him in the sacrifices to Confucius in AD 739. The place of his tablet is the second, east, in the outer court, beyond that of the 'Assessors' and 'Wise Ones.'

Fu Buji

Corresponding to the preceding, on the west, is the tablet of Fu Buji styled Zi-jian (宓 [al. 密 and 虙, all = 伏] 不齊, 子賤). He was a native of Lu, and, according to different accounts, thirty, forty, and forty-nine years younger than Confucius. He was commandant of Dan-fu ( 單父宰), and hardly needed to put forth any personal effort. Wu-ma Qi had been in the same office, and had succeeded by dint of the greatest industry and toil. He asked Buji how he managed so easily for himself, and was answered, 'I employ men; you employ men's strength.' People pronounced Fu to be a superior man. He was also a writer, and his works are mentioned in Liu Xin's Catalogue.

Yuan Xian

Next to that of Mieming is the tablet of Yuan Xian, styled Zi-si (原憲, 子思) a native of Song or according to Zhang Xuan, of Lu, and younger than Confucius by thirty-six years. He was noted for his purity and modesty, and for his happiness in the principles of the master amid deep poverty. After the death of Confucius, he lived in obscurity in Wei.

Gongye Chang

Gongye Chang [al. Zhi], styled Zi-chang [al. Zi-zhi], (公冶長 [al. 芝], 子長 [al. 子芝]), has his tablet next to that of Buji. He was son-in-law to Confucius. His nativity is assigned both to Lu and to Qi. Pseudohistory and many Chinese said that Gongye Chang knew bird‘s talk about.

Nangong Kuo

Nangong Kuo, styled Zi-rong (南宮括 [al. 适 and, in the 'Narratives of the School,' 縚 (Tao)], 子容), has the place at the east next to Yuan Xian. It is a question much debated whether he was the same with Nangong Zhang-shu, who accompanied Confucius to the court of Zhou, or not. On occasion of a fire breaking out in the palace of duke Ai, while others were intent on securing the contents of the Treasury, Nangong directed his efforts to save the Library, and to him was owing the preservation of the copy of the Zhou Li which was in Lu, and other ancient monuments.

Gongxi Ai

Gongxi Ai, styled Ji-ci [al. Ji-chan] (公皙哀, 季次 [al. 季沉]). His tablet follows that of Gongye. He was a native of Lu, or of Qi. Confucius commended him for refusing to take office with any of the Families which were encroaching on the authority of the princes of the States, and for choosing to endure the severest poverty rather than sacrifice a tittle of his principles.

Zeng Dian

Zeng Dian, styled Xi (曾蒧[al. 點], 皙). He was the father of Zeng Shan. His place in the temples is in the hall to Confucius's ancestors, where his tablet is the first, west.

Yan Wuyao

Yan Wuyao, styled Lu (顏無繇, 路). He was the father of Yan Hui, younger than Confucius by six years. His sacrificial place is the first, east, in the same hall as the last.

Shang Zhu

Following the tablet of Nangong Kuo is that of Shang Zhu, styled Zi-mu (商瞿, 子木). To him, it is said, we are indebted for the preservation of the Yijing, which he received from Confucius. Its transmission step by step, from Zhu down to the Han dynasty, is minutely set forth.

Gao Chai

Next to Gongxi Ai is the place of Gao Chai, styled Zi-gao and Ji-gao (高柴, 子羔 [al. 季羔; for 羔 moreover, we find 皋, and 睾]), a native of Qi, according to the 'Narratives of the School,' but of Wei, according to Sima Qian and Zhang Xuan. He was thirty (some say forty) years younger than Confucius, dwarfish and ugly, but of great worth and ability. At one time he was criminal judge of Wei, and in the execution of his office condemned a prisoner to lose his feet. Afterwards that same man saved his life, when he was flying from the State. Confucius praised Chai for being able to administer stern justice with such a spirit of benevolence as to disarm resentment.

Qidiao Kai

Shang Zhu is followed by Qidiao Kai [prop. Qi], styled Zi-kai, Zi-ruo, and Zi-xiu (漆雕開 [pr. 啟], 子開, 子若, and 子修/脩), a native of Cai (蔡), or according to Zhang Xuan, of Lu. We only know him as a reader of the Shujing, and refusing to go into office.

Gongbo Liao

Gongbo Liao, styled Zi-zhou (公伯僚, 子周). He appears in the Analects, XIV. xxxiii, slandering Zi-lu. It is doubtful whether he should have a place among the disciples.

Sima Geng

Sima Geng, styled Zi-niu (司馬耕, 子牛), follows Qidiao Kai; also styled 黍耕. He was a great talker, a native of Song, and a brother of Huan Tui, to escape from whom seems to have been the labour of his life.

Fan Xu

The place next Gao Chai is occupied by Fan Xu, styled Zi-chi (樊須, 子遲), a native of Qi, or, according to others, of Lu, and whose age is given as thirty-six and forty-six years younger than Confucius. When young, he distinguished himself in a military command under the Ji family.

You Ruo

You Ruo, styled Zi-ruo (有若, 子若). He was a native of Lu, and his age is stated very variously. He was noted among the disciples for his great memory and fondness for antiquity. After the death of Confucius, the rest of the disciples, because of some likeness in Ruo's speech to the Master, wished to render the same observances to him which they had done to Confucius, but on Zeng Shan's demurring to the thing, they abandoned the purpose. The tablet of Zi-ruo is now the sixth, east among 'The Wise Ones,' to which place it was promoted in the third year of Qianlong of the Qing dynasty. This was done in compliance with a memorial from the president of one of the Boards, who said he was moved by a dream to make the request. We may suppose that his real motives were a wish to do Justice to the merits of Zi-ruo, and to restore the symmetry of the tablets in the 'Hall of the Great and Complete One' (Dacheng-dian), which had been disturbed by the introduction of the tablet of Zhu Xi in the preceding reign.

Gongxi Chi

Gongxi Chi, styled Zi-hua (公西赤, 子華), a native of Lu, younger than Confucius by forty-two years, whose place is the fourth, west, in the outer court. He was noted for his knowledge of ceremonies, and the other disciples devolved on him all the arrangements about the funeral of the Master.

Wuma Shi

Wuma Shi [or Qi], styled Zi-Qi (巫馬施 [al. 期], 子期 [al. 子旗]), a native of Chan, or, according to Zhang Xuan, of Lu, thirty years younger than Confucius. His tablet is on the east, next to that of Sima Gang. It is related that on one occasion, when Confucius was about to set out with a company of the disciples on a walk or journey, he told them to take umbrellas. They met with a heavy shower, and Wuma asked him, saying, 'There were no clouds in the morning; but after the sun had risen, you told us to take umbrellas. How did you know that it would rain?' Confucius said, 'The moon last evening was in the constellation Pi (Wade Giles transliteration), and is it not said in the Shijing, "When the moon is in Pi, there will be heavy rain?" It was thus I knew it.'

Liang Zhan

Liang Zhan [al. Li], styled Shu-yu (梁鱣 [al. 鯉] 叔魚), occupies the eighth place, west, among the tablets of the outer court. He was a man of Qi, and his age is stated as twenty-nine and thirty-nine years younger than Confucius. The following story is told in connection with him.-- When he was thirty, being disappointed that he had no son, he was minded to put away his wife. 'Do not do so,' said Shang Zhu to him. 'I was thirty-eight before I had a son, and my mother was then about to take another wife for me, when the Master proposed sending me to Qi. My mother was unwilling that I should go, but Confucius said, 'Don't be anxious. Zhu will have five sons after he is forty.' It has turned out so, and I apprehend it is your fault, and not your wife's, that you have no son yet.' Zhan took this advice, and in the second year after, he had a son.

Yan Xing

Yan Xing [al. Xin, Liu, and Wei], styled Zi-liu (顏幸 [al. 辛, 柳, and 韋], 子柳), occupies the place, east, after Wuma Shi. He was a native of Lu, and forty-six years younger than Confucius.

Ran Ru

Liang Zhan is followed on the west by Ran Ru, styled Zi-lu [al. Zi-zeng and Zi-yu] (冉孺 [al. 儒] 子魯 [al. 子曾 and 子魚]), a native of Lu, and fifty years younger than Confucius.

Cao Xu

Yan Xing is followed on the east by Cao Xu, styled Zi-xun (曹卹, 子循), a native of Cai, fifty years younger than Confucius.

Bo Qian

Next on the west is Bo Qian, styled Zi-xi, or, in the current copies of the 'Narratives of the School,' Zi-jie (伯虔, 子皙 [al. 子析] or 子楷), a native of Lu, fifty years younger than Confucius.

Gongsun Long

Following Zi-xun is Gongsun Long [al. Chong] styled Zi-shi (公孫龍 [al. 寵], 子石), whose birth is assigned by different writers to Wei, Chu, and Zhao (趙). He was fifty-three years younger than Confucius. We have the following account:-- 'Zi-gong asked Zi-shi, saying, "Have you not learned the Book of Poetry?" Zi-shi replied, "What leisure have I to do so? My parents require me to be filial; my brothers require me to be submissive; and my friends require me to be sincere. What leisure have I for anything else?" "Come to my Master," said Zi-gong, "and learn of him."'

Less known disciples

Sima Qian here observes: 'Of the thirty-five disciples which precede, we have some details. Their age and other particulars are found in the Books and Records. It is not so, however, in regard to the fifty-two which follow.'

36. Ran Ji, styled Zi-chan [al. Ji-chan and Zi-da] (冉季, 子產 [al. 季產 and 子達]), a native of Lu, whose place is the 11th, west, next to Bo Qian.

37. Gongzu Gouzi or simply Zi, styled Zi-zhi (公祖勾茲 [or simply 茲], 子之), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 23rd, east, in the outer court.

38. Qin Zu, styled Zi-nan (秦祖, 子南), a native of Qin. His tablet precedes that of the last, two places.

39. Qidiao Chi, styled Zi-lian (漆雕哆 [al. 侈], 子斂), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 13th, west.

40. Yan Gao, styled Zi-jiao (顏高, 子驕). According to the 'Narratives of the School,' he was the same as Yan Ke (刻, or 剋), who drove the carriage when Confucius rode in Wei after the duke and Nan-zi. But this seems doubtful. Other authorities make his name Chan (產), and style him Zi-jing (子精). His tablet is the 13th, east.

41. Qidiao Dufu [al. Cong], styled Zi-you, Zi-qi and Zi-wen (漆雕徒父 [al. 從], 子有 [al. 子友], 子期 and 子文), a native of Lu, whose tablet precedes that of Qidiao Chi.

42. Zeng Sichi, styled Zi-tu, or Zi-cong (壤 [al. 穰] 駟赤, 子徒, or 子從), a native of Qin. Some consider Zengsi (壤駟) to be a double surname. His tablet comes after that of No. 40.

43. Shang Zhai, styled Zi-ji and Zi-xiu (商澤, 子季 and 子秀), a native of Lu. His tablet is immediately after that of Fan Xu, No. 26.

44. Shi Zuo [al. Zhi and Zi]-shu, styled Zi-ming (石作 [al. 之 and 子]蜀, 子明). Some take Shizuo (石作) as a double surname. His tablet follows that of No. 42.

45. Ren Buji, styled Xuan (任不齊, 選), a native of Chu, whose tablet is next to that of No. 28.

46. Gongliang Ru, styled Zi-zheng (公良孺 [al. 儒], 子正), a native of Qin, follows the preceding in the temples. The 'Sacrificial Canon' says:-- 'Zi-zheng was a man of worth and bravery. When Confucius was surrounded and stopped in Pu, Zi-zheng fought so desperately, that the people of Pu were afraid, and let the Master go, on his swearing that he would not proceed to Wei.'

47. Hou [al. Shi] Chu [al. Qian], styled Zi-li [al. Li-chi] (后 [al. 石]處 [al. 虔], 子里 [al. 里之]), a native of Qi, having his tablet the 17th, east.

48. Qin Ran, styled Kai (秦冉, 開), a native of Cai. He is not given in the list of the 'Narratives of the School,' and on this account his tablet was put out of the temples in the ninth year of Jiajing. It was restored, however, in the second year of Yongzhang, AD 1724, and is the 33rd, east, in the outer court.

49. Gongxia Shou, styled Sheng or Zi-sheng (公夏首 [al. 守], 乘 or 子乘), a native of Lu, whose tablet is next to that of No. 44.

50. Xi Yongdian [or simply Dian], styled Zi-xi [al. Zi-jie and Zi-qie] (系容蒧 [or 點], 子皙 [al. 子偕 and 子楷]), a native of Wei, having his tablet the 18th, east.

51. Gong Jianding [al. Gong Yu], styled Zi-zhong (公肩 [al. 堅]定 [al. 公有], 子仲 [al. 中 and 忠]). His nativity is assigned to Lu, to Wei, and to Jin (晉). He follows No. 46.

52. Yan Zu [al. Xiang], styled Xiang and Zi-xiang (顏祖 [al. 相], 襄 and 子襄), a native of Lu, with his tablet following that of No. 50.

53. Jiao [al. Wu]dan , styled Zi-jia (鄡 [al. 鄔]單, 子家), a native of Lu. His place is next to that of No. 51.

54. Zhu [al. Gou] Jing-qiang [and simply Jing], styled Zi-qiang [al. Zi-jie and Zi-mang] (句 [al. 勾 and 鉤] 井疆 [and simply 井], 子疆 [al. 子界 and 子孟]), a native of Wei, following No. 52.

55. Han [al. Zai]-fu Hei, styled Zi-hei [al. Zi-suo and Zi-su] (罕 [al. 宰] 父黑, 子黑 [al. 子索 and 子素]), a native of Lu, whose tablet is next to that of No. 53.

56. Qin Shang, styled Zi-pei [al. Pei-zi and Bu-zi] (秦商, 子丕 [al. 丕茲 and 不茲]), a native of Lu, or, according to Zhang Xuan, of Chu. He was forty years younger than Confucius. One authority, however, says he was only four years younger, and that his father and Confucius's father were both celebrated for their strength. His tablet is the 12th, east.

57. Shen Dang, styled Zhou (申黨, 周). In the 'Narratives of the School' there is a Shen Ji, styled Zi-zhou (申續, 子周). The name is given by others as Tang (堂 and 儻) and Zu (續), with the designation Zi-zu (子續). These are probably the same person mentioned in the Analects as Shen Chang (申棖). Prior to the Ming dynasty they were sacrificed to as two, but in AD 1530, the name dang was expunged from the sacrificial list, and only that of Chang left. His tablet is the 31st, east.

58. Yan Zhipo, styled Zi-shu [or simply Shu] (顏之僕, 子叔 [or simply 叔]), a native of Lu, who occupies the 29th place, east.

59. Yong Qi, styled Zi-qi [al. Zi-yan] (榮旂 [al. 祈], 子旗 or 子祺 [al. 子顏]), a native of Lu, whose tablet is the 20th, west.

60. Xian Chang, styled Zi-qi [al. Zi-hong] (縣成, 子棋 [al. 子橫]), a native of Lu. His place is the 22nd, east.

61. Zuo Renying [or simply Ying], styled Xing and Zi-xing (左人郢 [or simply 郢], 行 and 子行), a native of Lu. His tablet follows that of No. 59.

62. Yan Zhi, styled En [al. Zi-si] (燕伋 [or 級], 恩 [al. 子思]) a native of Qin. His tablet is the 24th east.

63: Zhang Guo, styled Zi-tu (鄭國, 子徒), a native of Lu. This is understood to be the same with the Xue Bang, styled Zi-cong (薛邦, 子從), of the 'Narratives of the School.' His tablet follows No. 61.

64. Qin Fei, styled Zi-zhi (秦非, 子之), a native of Lu, having his tablet the 31st, west.

65. Shi Zhichang, styled Zi-hang [al. chang] (施之常, 子恆 [al. 常]), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 30th, east.

66. Yan Kuai, styled Zi-sheng (顏噲, 子聲), a native of Lu. His tablet is the next to that of No. 64.

67. Bu Shusheng, styled Zi-che (步叔乘 [in the 'Narratives of the School' it is an old form of 乘], 子車), a native of Qi. Sometimes for Bu (步) we find Shao (少). His tablet is the 30th, west.

68. Yuan Kang, styled Zi-ji (原亢, 子籍), a native of Lu. Sima Qian calls him Yuan Kang-ji, not mentioning any designation. The 'Narratives of the School' makes him Yuan Kang (抗), styled Ji. His tablet is the 23rd, west.

69. Yue Ke [al. Xin], styled Zi-sheng (樂欬, [al. 欣], 子聲), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 25th, east.

70. Lian Jie, styled Yong and Zi-yung [al. Zi-cao] (廉潔, 庸 and 子庸 [al. 子曹]), a native of Wei, or of Qi. His tablet is next to that of No. 68.

71. Shuzhung Hui [al. Kuai], styled Zi-qi (叔仲會 [al. 噲], 子期), a native of Lu, or, according to Zhang Xuan, of Jin. He was younger than Confucius by fifty-four years. It is said that he and another youth, called Kong Xuan (孔琁), attended by turns with their pencils, and acted as amanuenses to the sage, and when Mang Wubo expressed a doubt of their competency, Confucius declared his satisfaction with them. He follows Lian Jie in the temples.

72. Yan He, styled Ran (顏何, 冉), a native of Lu. The present copies of the 'Narratives of the School' do not contain his name, and in AD 1588 Ran was displaced from his place in the temples. His tablet, however, has been restored during the Qing. It is the 33rd, west.

73. Di Hei, styled Zhe [al. Zi-zhe and Zhe-zhi] (狄黑, 晢 [al. 子晢 and 晢之]), a native of Wei, or of Lu. His tablet is the 26th, east.

74. Kui [al. Bang] Sun, styled Zi-lian [al. Zi-yin] (□ (kui1 刲左邦右) [al. 邦] 巽, 子歛 [al. 子飲]), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 27th, west.

75. Kong Zhong, styled Zi-mie (孔忠, 子蔑). This was the son, it is said, of Confucius's elder brother, the cripple Mang-pi. His tablet is next to that of No. 73. His sacrificial title is 'The ancient Worthy, the philosopher Mie.'

76. Gongxi Yuru [al. Yu], styled Zi-shang (公西輿如 [al. 輿], 子上), a native of Lu. His place is the 26th, west.

77. Gongxi Dian, styled Zi-shang (公西蒧 [or 點], 子上 [al. 子尚]), a native of Lu. His tablet is the 28th, east.

78. Qin Zhang [al. Lao], styled Zi-kai (琴張 [al. 牢], 子開), a native of Wei. His tablet is the 29th, west.

79. Chan Kang, styled Zi-kang [al. Zi-qin] (陳亢, 子亢 [al. 子禽]), a native of Ch'an.

80. Xian Dan [al. Dan-fu and Fang], styled Zi-xiang (縣亶 [al. 亶父 and 豐], 子象), a native of Lu. Some suppose that this is the same as No. 53. The advisers of the Qing dynasty in such matters, however, have considered them to be different, and in 1724, a tablet was assigned to Xian Dan, the 34th, west.

The three preceding names are given in the 'Narratives of the School.'

Twenty others added by scholars

The research of scholars has added about twenty others.

81. Lin Fang, styled Zi-qiu (林放, 字子邱), a native of Lu. The only thing known of him is from the Ana. III. iv. His tablet was displaced under the Ming, but has been restored by the Qing. It is the first, west.

82. Zhu Yuan, styled Bo-yu (蘧瑗, 字伯玉), an officer of Wei, and, as appears from the Analects and Mencius, an intimate friend of Confucius. Still his tablet has shared the same changes as that of Lin Fang. It is now the first, east.

83 and 84. Shen Chang (申棖) and Shen Tang (申堂). See No. 57.

85. Mu Pi (牧皮), mentioned by Mencius, VII. Pt. II. xxxvii. 4. His entrance into the temple was under the Qing. His tablet is the 34th, east.

86. Zuo Qiuming or Zuoqiu Ming (左丘明) has the 32nd place, east. His title was fixed in AD 1530 to be 'The Ancient Scholar,' but in 1642 it was raised to that of 'Ancient Worthy.' To him we owe the most distinguished of the annotated editions of the Chun Qiu. But whether he really was a disciple of Confucius, and in personal communication with him, is much debated.

The above are the only names and surnames of those of the disciples who now share in the sacrifices to the sage. Those who wish to exhaust the subject, mention in addition, on the authority of Zuo Qiuming, Zhongsun Heji (仲孫何忌), a son of Meng Xizi(孟僖子), and Zhongsun Shuo (仲孫說), little brother of Zhongsun Heji, supposed by many to be the same with No. 17; Ru Bei, (孺悲), mentioned in the Analects, XVII. xx, and in the Li Ji, XVIII. Sect. II. ii. 22; Gongwang Zhiqiu (公罔之裘) and Xu Dian (序點), mentioned in the Li Ji, XLIII. 7; Binmou Jia (賓牟賈), mentioned in the Li Ji, XVII. iii. 16; Kong Xuan (孔琁) and Hai Shulan (惠叔蘭), on the authority of the 'Narratives of the School;' Chang Ji (常季), mentioned by Zhuangzi; Ju Yu (鞫語), mentioned by Yanzi (晏子); Lian Yu (廉瑀) and Lu Jun (魯峻), on the authority of Wenweng Shishi 文翁石室; and finally Zifu He (子服何), the Zifu Jingbo (子服景伯) of the Analects, XIV. xxxviii.

Four Correlates and Twelve Philosophers

The most venerated Confucians, some of them direct disciples of Confucius, are often grouped as the "Four Correlates" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Pèi) and the "Twelve Philosophers" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shíèr Zhé). The Four Correlates are: Yan Hui (颜回), Zeng Shen (曾参), Kong Ji (孔汲), and Mencius (孟轲).


This text is a part of The Chinese Classics by James Legge in Five Volumes, public domain, to be wikified. Check http://www.harvestfields.ca/ebook/01/009/06.htm#SECTION_III. The text is also available in:

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