List of medical emergencies

List of medical emergencies

The following is a list of symptoms and conditions that signal or constitute a possible medical emergency and may require immediate first aid, emergency room care, surgery, or care by a physician or nurse. Please note that not all medical emergencies listed below are life-threatening; some conditions require medical attention in order to prevent significant and long-lasting effects on physical or mental health.

Injury and illness

* Abdominal pain, severe
* Appendicitis (leading to peritonitis)
* Bone fracture, compound
* Chest pain, acute
* Cholecystitis
* Drug overdose or withdrawal
* Ear injury
* Electric shock
* Gangrene
* Head trauma
* Hyperthermia (heat stroke or sunstroke)
** Malignant hyperthermia
* Hypothermia or frostbite
* Intestinal obstruction
* Pancreatitis
* Peritonitis
* Poisoning
** Food poisoning
** Venomous animal bite
* Ruptured spleen
* Septic arthritis
* Septicaemia blood infection
* Severe burn (including scalding and chemical burns)
* Spreading wound infection
* Suspected spinal injury
* Traumatic brain injury
* Spinal disc herniation


* Lyme disease infection
* Malaria infection
* Rabies infection
* Salmonella poisoning

Cardiac and circulatory

* Air embolism
* Aortic aneurysm (ruptured)
* Aortic dissection
* Bleeding
** Hemorrhage
** Hypovolemia
** Internal bleeding
* Cardiac arrest
* Cardiac arrhythmia
* Cardiac tamponade
* Hypertensive emergency
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
* Ventricular fibrillation


* Acute renal failure
* Addisonian crisis (seen in those with Addison's disease)
* Dehydration, advanced
* Diabetic coma
** Diabetic ketoacidosis
** Hypoglycemic coma
* Electrolyte disturbance, severe (along with dehydration, possible with severe diarrhea or vomiting, chronic laxative abuse, and severe burns)
* Hepatic encephalopathy
* Lactic acidosis
* Malnutrition and starvation (as in extreme anorexia and bulimia)
* Thyroid storm

Neurological and Neurosurgical

* Attempted suicide, non-fatal
* Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
* Subarachnoid hemorrhage
* Subdural hematoma, acute
* Convulsion or seizure
* Meningitis
* Syncope (fainting)


* Psychotic episode
* Suicidal ideation


* Acute angle-closure glaucoma
* Orbital perforation or penetration
* Retinal detachment


* Agonal breathing
* Asphyxia
** Angioedema
** Choking
** Drowning
** Smoke inhalation
* Asthma, acute
* Epiglottitis or severe croup
* Pneumothorax
* Pulmonary embolism
* Respiratory failure


* Anaphylaxis
* Cardiogenic shock
* Hypovolemic shock (due to hemorrhage)
* Neurogenic shock
* Obstructive shock (e.g., massive pulmonary embolism or Cardiac tamponade)
* Septic shock

Urological, andrological, gynecologic, and obstetric0

* Eclampsia
** Pre-eclampsia
** HELLP syndrome
* Ectopic pregnancy
* Gynecologic hemorrhage
* Obstetrical hemorrhage
* Paraphimosis
* Priapism
* Sexual assault (rape)
* Testicular torsion
* Urinary retention

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