Urology is the branch of Surgery that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders; they may hold one of the following medical degrees, either (MD, MBBS, MBChB, etc) or (DO) degree. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis).

In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. Urology combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the correction of congenital abnormalities and the surgical management of cancers. Such abnormalities within the genital region are called genitourinary disorders.

Urology is closely related to, and in some cases overlaps with, the medical fields of nephrology, andrology, gynecology, proctology and oncology.

Branches of urology

As a discipline that involves the study of many organs and physiological systems, urology can be broken down into subfields. Many urologists, particularly those involved in research, choose an informal specialization in a particular field of urology.

* Neurourology concerns nervous system control of the genitourinary system, and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Neurological diseases and disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injury can disrupt the lower urinary tract and result in conditions such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, urinary retention, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Less marked neurological abnormalities can cause urological disorders as well -- for example, abnormalities of the sensory nervous system are thought by many researchers to play a role in disorders of painful or frequent urination (e.g. interstitial cystitis). [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10459464&dopt=AbstractPlus Interstitial cystitis. [Curr Opin Urol. 1999 - PubMed Result ] ] Urodynamic studies play an important diagnostic role in neurourology; urologists often use diagnostic techniques such as flow cystometry or ambulatory urodynamic profiles to determine the best method of treatment for the patient. Medical therapy for nervous system disorders includes drugs that target the nervous system and neuromodulation.

* Pediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children. Such disorders include enuresis, hypospadias, vesicoureteral reflux, and hydronephrosis.

* Urologic oncology concerns malignant genitourinary diseases such as prostate cancer, bladder cancer, testicular cancer and penile cancer.

Other subfields of urology include stone disease, sexual dysfunction, trauma and reconstruction, and male infertility.


Further reading

* [http://www.contemporaryurology.com/conturo/ Contemporary Urology] - a monthly magazine

ee also

* Benign prostatic hyperplasia
* Bladder stones
* Bladder cancer
* Cystitis
* Development of the urinary and reproductive organs
* Interstitial Cystitis
* Kidney stones
* Medical specialty
* Prostatitis
* Prostate cancer
* Retrograde pyelogram
* URobotics: New technologies in Urology
* Uroscopy
* Vasectomy

External links

* [http://urology.jhu.edu/ Brady Urological Institute] - Urology at Johns Hopkins
* [http://uroportal.net/international/index.php Uroportal International]
* [http://www.urosource.com/ Urosource - Bridging the gap between Science & Practice] News portal for urology professionals offering conference reports, online abstracts, surgical video's and news.
* [http://www.nature.com/ncpuro/index.html A Journal for Urologists]
* [http://www.auanet.org/ American Urological Association] 15,000-member professional association for urologists. Annual meeting in May.
* [http://www.uroweb.org/ European Association of Urology] The EAU represents over 16,000 urological professionals across Europe and organises more than 25 meetings & courses each year
* [http://www.kasralainyurology.net Kasr Al-Ainy Department of Urology] Urology Department of Cairo University, Egypt. The leading urological establishment in the Middle-east and Africa.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Urology — U*rol o*gy, n. [1st uro + logy.] (Med.) See {Uronology}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • urology — 1753, from URO (Cf. uro ) + LOGY (Cf. logy) …   Etymology dictionary

  • urology — [yoo räl′ə jē] n. [ URO 1 + LOGY] the branch of medicine dealing with the urogenital or urinary system and its diseases urologic [yoor΄ə läj′ik] adj. urological urologist n …   English World dictionary

  • urology — urologic /yoor euh loj ik/, urological, adj. urologist, n. /yoo rol euh jee/, n. the scientific, clinical, and esp. surgical aspects of the study of the urine and the genitourinary tract in health and disease. [1745 55; URO 1 + LOGY] * * *… …   Universalium

  • Urology robotics — Urology Robotics, or URobotics, is a new interdisciplinary field for the application of robots in urology and for the development of such systems and novel technologies in this clinical discipline [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11954067] ,… …   Wikipedia

  • urology — noun see urologist …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • urology — noun The surgical specialty of medicine that treats disorders of the urinary tract and the urogenital system. See Also: urologic, urological, urologist …   Wiktionary

  • urology — The medical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the genitourinary tract. [uro + G. logos, study] * * * urol·o·gy jē n …   Medical dictionary

  • urology — study of urine; urinary tract Sciences and Studies …   Phrontistery dictionary

  • urology — n. branch of medicine dealing with the female urinary organs and the male urogenital organs and their diseasesu·rol·o·gy || ‚jÉ™ rÉ‘lÉ™dʒɪ /‚jÊŠÉ™ rÉ’l …   English contemporary dictionary

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