Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93.13 g mol−1. All three are colourless liquids at room temperature and pressure and are miscible with water and most organic solvents. Data for the three compounds are summarized in the table.

Name(s) CAS# m.p. (°C) b.p. (°C) pKa of pyridinium ion structure
2-Methylpyridine, α-picoline [109-06-8] -66.7 129.4 5.96 α-picoline
3-Methylpyridine, β-picoline [108-99-6] -18 141 5.63 β-picoline
4-Methylpyridine, γ-picoline [108-89-4] 3.6 145.4 5.98 γ-picoline

The CAS number of an unspecified picoline isomer is [1333-41-1]

Environmental properties

Picolines exhibit greater volatility and are more slowly degraded than their carboxylic acid counterparts. Volatilization is much less extensive in soil than water, owing to sorption of the compounds to soil clays and organic matter.[1] Picoline degradation appears to be mediated primarily by bacteria, with the majority of isolates belonging to the Actinobacteria. 3-Methylpyridine degrades more slowly than the other two isomers, likely due to the impact of resonance in the heterocyclic ring. Like most simple pyridine derivatives, the picolines contain more nitrogen than is needed for growth of microorganisms, and excess nitrogen is generally excreted to the environment as ammonium during the degradation process.[2]


  1. ^ Sims, G. K. and L.E. Sommers. 1985. Degradation of pyridine derivatives in soil. J. Environmental Quality. 14:580-584.
  2. ^ Sims, G. K. and L.E. Sommers. 1986. Biodegradation of pyridine derivatives in soil suspensions. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 5:503-509.

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  • Picoline — Name 2 Picolin 3 Picolin 4 Picolin Andere Namen α Picolin, 2 Methylpyridin β Picolin, 3 Methylpyridin γ Picolin, 4 Methylpyridin Strukturformel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Picoline — Pic o*line, n. [L. pix, picis, pitch + oleum oil + ine.] (Chem.) Any one of three isometric bases ({C6H7N}) related to pyridine, and obtained from bone oil, acrolein ammonia, and coal tar naphtha, as colorless mobile liquids of strong odor;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Picoline — (Methylpyridine) C6H7N oder C5H4N.CH3, drei Basen, die sich im Steinkohlenteer und Knochenöl finden, farblose Flüssigkeiten bilden und mit Platinchlorid kristallisierbare Doppelsalze liefern. αPicolin siedet bei 130°, gibt bei Oxydation… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • picoline — ● picoline nom féminin Dénomination courante des méthylpyridines CH3―C5H4N. (On distingue trois isomères, qui accompagnent la pyridine dans l huile d os et les goudrons de houille.) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • picoline — [pik′ō lēn΄, pik′ōlin] n. [< L pix (gen. picis), PITCH1 + OL2 + INE3] any of three isomeric, colorless, strong smelling, liquid bases, C5H4 (CH3)N, found in the oil produced by the dry distillation of bones and coal: used in insecticides,… …   English World dictionary

  • Picoline — La picoline est le nom donné aux 3 différents isomères de la méthylpyridine, un dérivé méthylé de la pyridine. La formule chimique brute est C6H7N et la masse molaire de ces isomères vaut 93,13 g/mol. Les 3 isomères sont des liquides incolores à… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • picoline — ˈpikəˌlēn, lə̇n noun ( s) Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary pic (from Latin pic , pix pitch) + ol + ine more at pitch : any of three liquid pyridine bases CH3C5H4N that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridine, are found in coal tar,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • picoline — pikolinas statusas T sritis chemija formulė NC₅H₄CH₃ atitikmenys: angl. picoline rus. пиколин ryšiai: sinonimas – metilpiridinas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • picoline — noun Etymology: Latin pic , pix pitch + International Scientific Vocabulary 1 ol + 2 ine more at pitch Date: 1853 any of the three liquid isomeric pyridine derivatives C6H7N used chiefly as solvents and in organic synthesis …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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