- Wears Valley, Tennessee
Wears Valley is an
unincorporated areain Sevier County, Tennessee, treated by the U.S. Census Bureauas a census county division. As of the 2000 Census, the population of Wears Valley was 6,486. [U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, " [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=06000US4715593560&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF4_U_DP1&-ds_name=D&-_lang=en Wear Valley CCD, Sevier County, Tennessee Data Set (sample)] ." Retrieved: 2 December 2007.]
Wears Valley is situated in a valley known as Wear Cove, which runs parallel to the
Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Like other park border communities, the history and economy of the valley are intertwined with that of the Smokies.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,486 people, 2,585 households, and 1,955 families residing in Wears Valley. The racial makeup of this area was 97.7% White, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, and 0.5% African American. Hispanics and Latinos comprise 1.8% of the population.
Of the 2,585 households, 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.6% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.4% were non-families. 20.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.89.
77.8% of the population was 18 years of age or older with 12.3% being 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. The population was 49.9% male and 50.1% female.
The median income for a household in the area was $34,479, and the median income for a family was $39,901. The
per capita incomefor the city was $17,422. About 9.1% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line.
Wears Valley is located at coor dms|35|42|50|N|83|39|11|W|city (35.7139, -83.6531). [http://www.topozone.com/map.asp?lat=35.71393&lon=-83.65315&size=m&u=4&datum=nad27&layer=DRG] The community covers most of Wear Cove, with the national park boundary comprising the town's entire southern border and the Blount-Sevier County line providing its western border.
Wear Cove is a type of valley known as a "limestone window," created when erosion weathers through the older
Precambrian sandstoneand exposes the younger Paleozoic limestonebeneath. The northern rim of the Smokies is dotted with limestone coves, the most well-known of which are Cades Coveand Tuckaleechee Cove. Limestone coves contain very fertile soil which lured early settlers.
Wear Cove is hemmed in by Cove Mountain to the southeast, Roundtop to the southwest, Davis Mountain to the northwest, and Hatcher Mountain to the northeast. Numerous hollows cut into the ridges throughout the cove, including Happy Hollow, Smith Hollow, and Little Cove.
U.S. Route 321is the valley's main road, connecting Townsend in the west with Pigeon Forge in east, where it merges with U.S. Route 441. This section of 321 is known as "Wears Valley Road." Lyon Springs Road connects Wears Valley Road with Little River Road inside the national park, crossing the gap between Cove Mountain and Roundtop and emerging at the Metcalf Bottoms campground.
Wears Valley is named after Samuel Wear (1753-1817), a Revolutionary War veteran who erected a fort near the entrance to the valley in what is now Pigeon Forge. The original name of the valley was "Crowson Cove," after its first settler, Aaron Crowson (1774-1849). While no one is sure why its name changed, the valley was using its current name by 1900. [Inez Burns, "History of Blount County, Tennessee" (Nashville: Benson Printing, 1957).]
Crowson arrived in Wears Valley from North Carolina in 1792 along with his friend, Peter Percefield. This was a period of elevated strife between the
Cherokeeand the fast-encroaching Euro-American settlers. Wear's Fort was attacked in 1793, with Wear leading a punitive march against the Cherokee village of Tallassee shortly thereafter. In May of 1794, Percefield was killed in a Cherokee attack. Crowson rode to Wear's Fort to get help, but the Cherokee had fled by the time he returned. Several settlers marched onward to Great Tellicoto the west, where they murdered four Cherokee while they slept. Percefield was buried on a hill in the eastern half of Wear Cove in what is now Crowson Cemetery. Later that year, Crowson received a land grant for this plot of land. [Ida Headrick Myers, "Recollections of Wears Valley," "The Sevier County News-Record", 1953. (http://www.headrickchapel.org/wears_valley.shtml) Retrieved: 16 July 2007.]
Along with Crowson, other early settlers in Wears Valley included a Revolutionary War veteran named William Headrick (1744-1839), who arrived in 1821, and John Ogle (1788-1841), a
War of 1812veteran and son of the first settlers in Gatlinburg. Another War of 1812 veteran, Peter Brickey (1769-1856), arrived in 1808. Brickey operated a large farm and distillery in the valley until his death in 1856. The log house he built shortly after his arrival still stands in Smith Hollow (between Wears Valley and Townsend) and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [The Center for Historic Preservation, "Tennessee Century Farms — Blount County" (http://histpres.mtsu.edu/centfarms/blount_county/#Brickey_Farm) Retrieved: 16 July 2007.]
Like many other farms in Wears Valley, the Brickey farm was ravaged by the
U.S. Civil War. Isaac Trotter, who operated the iron forge at Pigeon Forge reported a Cherokee raid in Wear Cove in 1864. [D.M.G. Emert, Beulah Linn (editor), "The Isaac Trotter Papers," "Smoky Mountain Historical Society Newsletter" 12, no. 2 (Summer of 1986): 31.] Earlier in the war, a Union army passed through the valley en route to dislodge the troops of Will Thomas who were entrenched in Gatlinburg. [Beulah Linn, "Reunion At the River: Official History of Pigeon Forge, Tennessee 1783-1930" (Pigeon Forge Homecoming '86 Committee, 1986), 10-20.]
Sometime after the war, Alfred Line (1831-1897) established a farm at the base of Roundtop Mountain, near the southern half of Wear Cove. Line Spring, a clear mountain spring which flows down from the slopes of Roundtop, gave its name to a small recreational area that developed in this part of the cove. In the 1880s and 1890s, mineral-rich mountain springs were thought to have health-restoring qualities, and provided an early form of tourism for the mountain regions. In 1910, D.B. Lawson, the son of a circuit rider who had purchased the Line farm, constructed the Line Spring Hotel. The hotel boosted the valley's economy by providing a market for local farmers. [Ida Headrick Myers, "Recollections of Wears Valley," "The Sevier County News-Record", 1953. (http://www.headrickchapel.org/wears_valley.shtml) Retrieved: 16 July 2007.]
Around 1800, Crowson and several other settlers erected a crude log church known as the Bethlehem Church. The church was used by both Methodists and Baptists throughout the 1800s, with Baptist services being conducted by an elected pastor and Methodist services being conducted by circuit riders. On occasion, both congregations would meet in a mini-revival known as a "union meeting." In 1886, both Baptists and Methodists constructed separate structures, although union meetings were still fairly common. [Ida Headrick Myers, "Recollections of Wears Valley," "The Sevier County News-Record", 1953. (http://www.headrickchapel.org/wears_valley.shtml) Retrieved: 16 July 2007.]
For most of the 19th century, funerals in Wears Valley were held at Headrick Cemetery, near the valley's western entrance. A large oak tree provided shelter for funeral-goers, although cold weather and rain often made apparent the need for a building in which to conduct indoor services. In 1902, according to local lore, the oak tree was destroyed by lightning, and in response, the residents erected Headrick Chapel on the cemetery's grounds. The chapel was shared by four Baptist and Methodist congregations, with funeral services having priority. The chapel's bell would ring once for every year of the deceased's life, a tradition still observed by the inhabitants of Wears Valley. In 2001, Headrick Chapel was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. [David Frye, "Headrick Chapel: Symbol of a Rural East Tennessee Community," "Smoky Mountain Historical Society Journal" 18, no. 4 (Winter of 2004): 2. (http://www.headrickchapel.org/davids_article.shtml) Retrieved: 16 July 2007.]
The national park
In 1934, the
Great Smoky Mountains National Parkwas established. The park's border paralleled Wears Valley to the south, following the crest of Roundtop and Cove Mountain. With improvements to US-321 in the 1950s, tourist outlets began to trickle into Wears Valley. Cabin rentals and outdoor supply stores are among the more common tourism-oriented venues in the valley today.
In 2005, a group of developers led by Ron Ogle and Jerry Miller sought to build 400 houses on the slopes of Cove Mountain. This raised concern among many Wears Valley residents over the impact such development might have on Cove Mountain's scenic value. In 2007, Friends of Wears Valley— a group opposed to the development— unsuccessfully petitioned the Sevier County Regional Planning Commission to block the housing expansion on Cove Mountain. The group has posted "Save Our Mountains" signs throughout the valley, although the developers insist their plans will not harm the mountain's natural qualities. [Craig Mintz, "Wears Valley Friends To Meet," "The Mountain Press", 27 September 2005.] [Greg Johnson, "Doomsday Development On Cove Mountain," "The Knoxville News-Sentinel", 4 May 2007. (NOTE: the Johnson article is an op-ed, and bias should be taken into account).]
* [http://www.seviercountytn.org/ Sevier County, Tennessee] - Official website
* [http://www.zianet.com/jmcdgwin/CrowsonsCovePlatMaps.htm Crowson's Cove Plat Maps Project] - A genealogical project dedicated to mapping the original settlement layout of Wears Valley
* [http://www.headrickchapel.org/ Headrick Chapel Preservation Site]
* [http://fowv.org/ Friends of Wears Valley]
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