- Treatment pond
A treatment pond treats water fouled by anaerobic
bacteria. It is largely used by tree nurseries, dairyfarms and other agricultural companies near horse or cattle sheds or barns. The pond treats unclean rainwater and animal effluent so that it may be returned to the environment as fertilizer and irrigation water. A treatment pond may be used in combination with a rainwater reservoirto form an ecological, self-purifying irrigation reservoir or swimming pond. [ [http://www.oieau.fr/ciedd/contributions/atriob/contribution/russian.htm Ecologic water basins used for agriculture/irrigation] ] [ [http://www.swimpond.com/pools_or_ponds.html reservoirs made self-purifying trough addition of treatment pond] ] A pond may dispose or treat industrial liquid wastes. An example is the Martinez, Californiatreatment ponds developed by IT Corporation. Small-scale treatment can be done in small ponds if the effluentis given time to break into harmless nutrients. However, smaller ponds may need to be divided in much the same manner as septic tanks.
Three reedbed setups are in use. Each are being used in commercial systems (usually together with septic tanks). [ [http://www.certipro.be/docs/Certificering%20van%20plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen.pdf reedbed descriptions] ] They are:
* Surface flow (SF) reedbeds
* Subsurface Flow (SSF) reedbeds
* Vertical Flow (VF) reedbeds
All three are placed in a closed basin with a substrate. For most commercial purposes (e.g., agriculture) ponds are lined with rubber to ensure being watertight (essential in urban areas). The substrate can be
gravel, sandor lavastone.
Surface flow reedbeds use a horizontal flow of waste water between plant roots. They are no longer much used, as they need considerable space (A person requires 20m² to purify the water they use.) They have increased smell and poorer purification in winter. [ [http://www.certipro.be/docs/Certificering%20van%20plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen.pdf reedbed secriptions] ]
With subsurface flow reedbeds, the flow of waste water is between plant roots, but not at the water surface. This is more efficient, less smelly and less sensitive to winter conditions. The soil to purify water is 5-10m² per person. Intakes, which can clog easily, are a potential problem. [ [http://www.certipro.be/docs/Certificering%20van%20plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen.pdf reedbed secriptions] ]
Vertical flow reedbeds are similar to subsurface flow reedbeds (subsurface wastewater flow is present here as well). Therefore they have similar efficiency and winter hardiness. Wastewater flow is somewhat different though, as it is vertical. The wastewater is divided at the bottom with the assistance of a
pump. Other than the two previous systems, this system almost makes exclusive use of fine sandto increase bacteria counts. Intake of oxygen into the water is better. Pumping is done in pulses to reduce obstructions with the intakes. Only 3m² is needed to purify the water for one person. [ [http://www.certipro.be/docs/Certificering%20van%20plantenwaterzuiveringssystemen.pdf reedbed secriptions] ]
Usually, common reed or Phragmites australis are used in treatment ponds (e.g., in
greywater treatmentsystems to purify wastewater). In self-purifying water reservoirs(used to purify rainwater), other plants are used as well. These reservoirs need to be filled with 1/4 lavastones and water-purifying plants. [ [http://www.stowa-selectedtechnologies.nl/Sheets/Sheets/Lava.Filters.html Overview of lavafilters] ]
Treatment ponds use a wide variety of plants, depending on the local climate and other conditions. Plants are generally chosen which are indiginous, for environmental reasons and optimum performance. In addition to water purifying (de-nutrifying) plants, plants that supply oxygen, and shade are added in ecological water
catchments, ponds. This allows a complete ecosystem. Local bacteriaand non- predatory fish may be added to eliminate pests. The bacteria are usually grown by submerging strawin water and allowing bacteria from the surrounding air to form on it. Plants are divided in four water depth-zones:
# A water depth from 0-20cm.
Iris pseudacorus, Sparganium erectum may be placed here (temperate climates).
# A water depth from 40-60cm. Stratiotes aloides, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae may be placed here (temperate climates).
# A water depth from 60-120cm. Nymphea alba, may be placed here (temperate climates).
# A submerged water depth. Myriophyllum spicatum may be placed here (temperate climates).
Three non-predatory fish (surface, bottom and ground-swimmers) are chosen. This ensures the fish 'get along'. Examples for temperate climates are:
* Surface swimming fish:
Leuciscus leuciscus, Leuciscus idus, and Scardinius erythrophthalmus
* Bottom-swimming fish:
The plants are usually grown on
coconutfibre. [ [http://www.lukmertens.be/kwekerij.html Coconut growing medium used for water purifying plants] ] At the time of implantation to water-purifying ponds, de-nutrified soil is used to prevent growth of algaeand other unwanted organisms
These systems, for example, aerate the water after the final reedbed using cascades such as flowforms before holding the water in a shallow pond. [ [http://www.sheepdrove.com/article.asp?art_id=115] reedbed and flowform cascade polishing, Sheepdrove Organic Farm, England ] Primary treatments such as
septic tanks, and pumps such as grinder pumps may be added. [ [http://www.pure-milieutechniek.be/Page22.htm Pictures of hybrid reedbed systems] ]
Rooftop treatment ponds
Rooftop water purifying ponds are being used on rooftops. These
green roofs can be built from a simple substrate (as is being done in Dongtan) [ [http://www.eukn.org/eukn/themes/Urban_Policy/Urban_environment/Environmental_sustainability/dongtan-eco-city_1348.html Dongtan green roofs filter water] ] or with plant-based ponds (as is being done by WaterWorks UK Grow System). [ [http://www.wwuk.co.uk/grow.htm WWUK rooftop water purification with plants] ] Waterzuiveren.be [ [http://www.waterzuiveren.be/concepten/dakvijvers Waterzuiveren.be building water-purifying roofponds] ] Plants used include calamus, Menyanthes trifoliata, Mentha aquatica, ... [ [http://www.toontoelen.be/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=684&Itemid=58 Description of plants used in water-purifying rooftop ponds] ]
* [http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/kirby/4ponds.html Pictures of a treatment pond]
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