Partition (politics)

Partition (politics)

In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one community’s homeland. That change is done primarily via diplomatic means, and use of military force is negligible.Fact|date=November 2007

Common arguments for partitions include:
* historicist - that partition is inevitable, or is already happening, this argument is related to historicism
* last resort - that partition should be pursued to avoid the worst outcomes (genocide or largescale ethnic expulsions), if other means fail
* cost-benefit - that partition offers, on balance, a better prospect of conflict reduction than the maintenance of the existing borders
* better tomorrow - that there will be a reduction in actual violence and conflict recurrence, and that the new more homogenized polities that emerge will have better prospects for the peaceful development in future
* rigorous end - heterogeneity in cultures is bad, homogeneous states should be the goal of any policyFact|date=November 2007


Notable examples (see also ) are:
* Partition of Prussia by the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 [Norman Davies: God's Playground [] ] [Stephen R. Turnbull, Tannenberg 1410: Disaster for the Teutonic Knights [] ] creating Royal Prussia, and Duchy of Prussia in 1525 [Elements of General History: Ancient and Modern, by Millot (Claude François Xavier) [] ]
*In the 1757 Second Treaty of Versailles, France agreed upon the partition of Prussia [Arthur Hassall, The Balance of Power. 1715 - 1789 [] ]
* Partition of Prussia in 1919 [Norman Davies: God's Playground [,M1] ]
* German occupation of Czechoslovakia ["The Polish Occupation. Czechoslovakia was, of course, mutilated not only by Germany. Poland and Hungary also each asked for their share" - Hubert Ripka: Munich, Before and After: A Fully Documented Czechoslovak Account of the ..., 1939 [] ] and Munich Agreement of 1938
* Partition and Elimination [Samuel Leonard Sharp: Poland, White Eagle on a Red Field, [] ] of East Prussia [Norman Davies: God's Playground [] ] among People's Republic of Poland and Soviet Union [Debates of the Senate of the Dominion of Canada [] ]
* Three Partitions of Luxembourg, the last of which in 1839, that divided Luxembourg between France, Prussia, Belgium, and the independent Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
* Three Partitions of Poland and Poland-Lithuania in the 18th, with the fourth one sometimes referring to events of 19th and 20th centuries
* 1905 Partition of Bengal and 1947 Partition of Bengal
* Partition of Tyrol by the London Pact of 1915
* Partition of the German Empire in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles
* Partition of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire in 1919 by the Treaty of St. Germain
* Partition of Ireland in 1920 into the independent Irish Free State and (British) Northern Ireland
* Treaty of Kars of 1921, which partitioned Ottoman Armenia between the republic of Turkey and the then Soviet Union (Western and Eastern Armenia)
* Partition of Germany and Berlin after World War II, annexation of Former eastern territories of Germany
* Partition of Korea in 1945
* 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine (region); this partition was abortive, as the proposed Palestinian state was never formed; Israel took most of the territory, with some going to Transjordan and Egypt.
* Partition of India (colonial British India) in 1947 into the independent dominions (later republics) of India and Pakistan (which included modern day Bangladesh)
* Partition of Korea in 1953
* Partition of Punjab in 1966 into the states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh
* Partition of Pakistan in 1971, when East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War
* Partition of Vietnam in 1954
* The hypothetical partition of the Canadian province of Quebec

ee also

* Separatism
* Secession



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