- Vocal pedagogy
Vocal pedagogy, or voice pedagogy, is the study of the teaching of
singing. Vocal pedagogists are people who study the teaching of singing. To some extent all voice teachersare vocal pedagogists because vocal pedagogy informs them about not only how to teach singing but also is responsible for defining what singing is, how singing works, and how proper singing is done. Professions that practice the art and science of vocal pedagogy include vocal coaches, choral directors, vocal music educators, opera directors, and other teachers of singing.Infobox Anatomy
Name = The anatomy of the Vocal folds is an important topic the field of Vocal Pedagogy.
Latin = plica vocalis
GraySubject = 236
GrayPage = 1079
Caption = Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds.
Caption2 = Abduction and
Precursor = |Sixth pharyngeal arch System =
Nerve = |N. laryngeus recurrens and N. laryngeus superior Lymph =
MeshName = Vocal+Cords
MeshNumber = A04.329.364.737
DorlandsPre = p_24
DorlandsSuf = 12649423
Typical areas of study include:cite book
title= The Diagnosis and Correction of Vocal Faults
publisher= Genovex Music Group
isbn= 978-1565939400] :
Human anatomyand physiology as it relates to the physical process of singing.
* Breathing and air support for singing
* Posture for singing
Vocal resonationor Voice projection
* Diction, vowels and articulation
Sostenutoand Legatofor singing
* Other singing elements, such as range extension, tone quality,
* Vocal health and
voice disordersrelated to singing
* Vocal styles, such as learning to sing
opera, belt, or Art song
All of these different concepts are a part of developing proper vocal technique. Not all vocal pedagogists have the same opinions within every topic of study which causes variations in pedagogical approaches and vocal technique.
Within Western culture, the study of vocal pedagogy began in
Ancient Greece. Scholars such as Alypius and Pythagorasstudied and made observations on the art of singing. It is unclear, however, whether the Greeks ever developed a systematic approach to teaching singing as little writings on the subject survive today.The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians. Edited by Stanley Sadie, Volume 6. Edmund to Fryklund. ISBN 1-56159-174-2, Copyright Macmillan 1980.]
The first surviving record of a systematized approach to teaching singing was developed in the
medieval monasteriesof the Roman Catholic Churchsometime near the beginning of the 13th century. As with other fields of study, the monasteries were the center of musical intellectual life during the medieval period and many men within the monasteries devoted their time to the study of music and the art of singing. Highly influential in the development of a vocal pedagogical system were monks Johannes de Garlandia and Jerome of Moraviawho were the first to develop a concept of vocal registers. These men identified three registers: chest voice, throat voice , and head voice(pectoris , guttoris, and capitis). Their concept of head voice, however, is much more similar to the modern pedagogists understanding of the falsetto register. Other concepts discussed in the monastic system included vocal resonance, voice classification, breath support, diction, and tone quality to name a few. The ideas developed within the monastic system highly influenced the development of vocal pedagogy over the next several centuries including the Bel Cantostyle of singing.
With the onset of the Renaissance in the 15th century, the study of singing began to move outside of the church. The courts of rich partons, such as the Dukes of
Burgundywho supported the Burgundian Schooland the Franco-Flemish School, became secular centers of study for singing and all other areas of musical study. The vocal pedagogical methods taught in these schools, however, were based on the concepts developed within the monastic system. Many of the teachers within these schools had their initial musical training from singing in church choirs as children. The church also remained at the forefront of musical composition at this time and remained highly influential in shaping musical tastes and practices both in and outside the church. It was the Catholic Church that first popularized the use of castratosingers in the 16th century, which ultimately led to the popularity of castrato voices in Baroque and Classical operas.cite book
title= Bel Canto: A History of Vocal Pedagogy
publisher= University of Toronto Press
It wasn't until the development of opera in the 17th century that vocal pedagogy began to break away from some of the established thinking of the monastic writers and develop deeper understandings of the physical process of singing and its relation to key concepts like
vocal registrationand vocal resonation. It was also during this time, that noted voice teachers began to emerge. Giulio Cacciniis an example of an important early Italian voice teacher.
In the late 17th century, the
bel cantomethod of singing began to develop in Italy. This style of singing had a huge impact on the development of opera and the development of vocal pedagogy during the Classicaland Romantic periods. It was during this time, that teachers and composers first began to identify singers by and write roles for more specific voice types. However, it wasn't until the 19th century that more clearly defined voice classification systems like the German Fachsystem emerged. Within these systems, more descriptive terms were used in classifying voices such as coloratura sopranoand lyric soprano. Voice teachers in the 19th century continued to train singers for careers in opera. Manuel Patricio Rodríguez Garcíais often considered one of the most important voice teachers of the 19th century, and is credited with the development of the larygoscope and the beginning of modern voice pedagogy.The field of voice pedagogy became more fully developed in the middle of the 20th century. A few American voice teachers began to study the science, anatomy, and physiology of singing, especially Ralph Appelmanat Indiana Universityand William Vennardat the University of Southern California. This shift in approach to the study of singing led to the rejection of many of the assertions of the bel cantosinging method, most particularly in the areas of vocal registrationand vocal resonation.cite book
title= In Memoriam: William D. Vennard
first= Robert T.
publisher= The NATS Bulletin] As a result, there are currently two predominating schools of thought among vocal pedagogists today, those who maintain the historical positions of the
bel cantomethod and those who choose to embrace more contemporary understandings based in current knowledge of human anatomy and physiology. There are also those teachers who borrow ideas from both perspectives, creating a hybrid of the two.cite book
title= Singing: the mechanism and the technic
isbn=978-0825800559] cite book
title= The Science of Vocal Pedagogy: Theory and Application
first= D. Ralph
publisher= Indiana University Press
Appelman and Vennard were also part of a group of pedagogists who developed courses of study for beginning voice teachers, adding these scientific ideas to the standard exercises and empirical ways to improve vocal technique, and by 1980 the subject of voice pedagogy was beginning to be included in many college music degree programs for singers and music educators.
More recent works by authors such as Richard Miller and Johan Sundberg have increased the general knowledge of voice teachers, and scientific and practical aspects of voice pedagogy continue to be studied and discussed by professionals. In addition, the creation of the
National Association of Teachers of Singing(now an international organization of vocal pedagogists) enabled voice teachers to establish more of a consensus about their work, and has expanded the understanding of what singing teachers do. cite book
last = Miller
first = Richard
authorlink = Richard Miller (singer)
title = The Structure of Singing
publisher = Schirmer Books
date = 1986
isbn = 002872660X ]
Topics of study
There are basically three major approaches to vocal pedagogy, all related to how the mechanistic and psychological controls are employed within the act of singing. Some pedagogists advocate an extreme mechanistic approach that believes that singing is largely a matter of getting the right physical parts in the right places at the right time, and that correcting vocal faults is accomplished by calling direct attention to the parts which are not working well. On the other extreme, is the school of thought that believes that attention should never be directed to any part of the vocal mechanism--that singing is a matter of producing the right mental images of the desired tone, and that correcting vocal faults is achieved by learning to think the right thoughts and by releasing the emotions through interpretation of the music. Most pedagogists, however, believe that the truth lies somewhere in between the two extremes and adopt a composite of those two approaches.cite book
title= The voice and its disorders
author= Greene Margaret, Mathieson Lesley
publisher= John Wiley & Sons
The nature of vocal sounds
Physiology of vocal sound production
There are four physical processes involved in producing vocal sound: respiration,
phonation, resonation, and articulation. These processes occur in the following sequence:
* 1. Breath is taken
* 2. Sound is initiated in the
* 3. The vocal resonators receive the sound and influence it
* 4. The articulators shape the sound into recognizable unitsAlthough these four processes are to be considered separately, in actual practice they merge into one coordinated function. With an effective singer or speaker, one should rarely be reminded of the process involved as their mind and body are so coordinated that one only perceives the resulting unified function. Many vocal problems result from a lack of coordination within this process.
In its most basic sense, respiration is the process of moving air in and out of the body--inhalation and exhalation. Breathing for singing and speaking is a more controlled process than is the ordinary breathing used for sustaining life. The controls applied to exhalation are particularly important in good vocal technique.
Phonation is the process of producing vocal sound by the vibration of the
vocal foldsthat is in turn modified by the resonance of the vocal tract[Titze, I. R. (2008). The human instrument. Sci.Am. 298 (1):94-101. PM 18225701] [Titze, I.R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall (currently published by NCVS.org), ISBN 978-0137178933.] . It takes place in the larynxwhen the vocal foldsare brought together and breath pressure is applied to them in such a way that vibration ensues causing an audible source of acoustic energy, i.e., sound, which can then be modified by the articulatory actions of the rest of the vocal apparatus. The vocal folds are brought together primarily by the action of the interarytenoid muscles, which pull the arytenoid cartilagestogether.cite book
title= The Diagnosis and Correction of Vocal Faults
publisher= Genovex Music Group
Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air-filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air. Various terms related to the resonation process include amplification, enrichment, enlargement, improvement, intensification, and prolongation, although in strictly scientific usage acoustic authorities would question most of them. The main point to be drawn from these terms by a singer or speaker is that the end result of resonation is, or should be, to make a better sound.
There are seven areas that may be listed as possible vocal resonators. In sequence from the lowest within the body to the highest, these areas are the
chest, the tracheal tree, the larynxitself, the pharynx, the oral cavity, the nasal cavity, and the sinuses.cite book
title= The voice and its disorders
author= Greene Margaret, Mathieson Lesley
publisher= John Wiley & Sons
Articulation is the process by which the joint product of the vibrator and the resonators is shaped into recognizable speech sounds through the muscular adjustments and movements of the speech organs. These adjustments and movements of the articulators result in verbal communication and thus form the essential difference between the human voice and other musical instruments. Singing without understandable words limits the voice to nonverbal communication. In relation to the physical process of singing, vocal pedagogists tend to focus more on active articulation as opposed to passive articulation. There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("
labial consonants"), the flexible front of the tongue (" coronal consonants"), the middle/back of the tongue (" dorsal consonants"), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis(" radical consonants"), and the larynx("laryngeal consonants"). These articulators can act independently of each other, and two or more may work together in what is called "coarticulation".
Unlike active articulation, passive articulation is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. The places linguolabial and interdental, interdental and dental, dental and alveolar, alveolar and palatal, palatal and velar, velar and uvular merge into one another, and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places.
In addition, when the front of the tongue is used, it may be the upper surface or "blade" of the tongue that makes contact ("
laminal consonants"), the tip of the tongue (" apical consonants"), or the under surface (" sub-apical consonants"). These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries.
Interpretation is sometimes listed by vocal pedagogists as a fifth physical process even though strictly speaking it is not a physical process. The reason for this is that interpretation does influence the kind of sound a singer makes which is ultimately achieved through a physical action the singer is doing. Although teachers may acquaint their students with musical styles and performance practices and suggest certain interpretive effects, most pedagogist agree that interpretation can not be taught. Students who lack a natural creative imagination and aesthetic sensibility can not learn it from someone else. Failure to interpret well is not a vocal fault even though it may affect vocal sound significantly.
Classification of vocal sounds
Vocal sounds are divided into two basic categories-
vowelsand consonants-with a wide variety of sub-classifications. Vocal pedagogists and serious voice students spend a great deal of time studying how the voice forms vowels and consonants, and studying the problems that certain consonants or vowels may cause while singing. The International Phonetic Alphabetis used frequently by vocal pedagogists and their students.
Problems in describing vocal sounds
Describing vocal sound is an inexact science largely because the
human voiceis a self-contained instrument. Since the vocal instrument is internal, the singer's ability to monitor the sound produced is complicated by the vibrations carried to the ear through the Eustachean (auditory) tube and the bony structures of the head and neck. In other words, most singers hear something different in their ears/head than what a person listening to them hears. As a result, vocal pedagogists often focus less on how it "sounds" but on how it "feels". Vibratory sensations resulting from the closely-related processes of phonation and resonation, and kinesthetic ones arising from muscle tension, movement, body position, and weight serve as a guide to the singer on correct vocal production.
Another problem in describing vocal sound lies in the vocal vocabulary itself. There are many schools of thought within vocal pedagogy and different schools have adopted different terms, sometimes from other artistic disciplines. This has led to the use of a plethera of descriptive terms applied to the voice which are not always understood to mean the same thing. Some terms sometimes used to describe a quality of a voice's sound are: warm, white, dark, light, round, reedy, spread, focused, covered, swallowed, forward, ringing, hooty, bleaty, plummy, mellow, pear-shaped, and so forth.
The singing process functions best when certain physical conditions of the body exist. The ability to move air in and out of the body freely and to obtain the needed quantity of air can be seriously affected by the posture of the various parts of the breathing mechanism. A sunken chest position will limit the capacity of the lungs, and a tense abdominal wall will inhibit the downward travel of the diaphragm. Good posture allows the breathing mechanism to fulfill its basic function efficiently without any undue expenditure of energy. Good posture also makes it easier to initiate phonation and to tune the resonators as proper alignment prevents unnecessary tension in the body. Vocal pedagogists have also noted that when singer's assume good posture it often provides them with a greater sense of self assurance and poise while performing. Audiences also tend to respond better to singers with good posture. Habitual good posture also ultimately improves the overall health of the body by enabling better blood circulation and preventing fatigue and stress on the body.
Breathing and breath support
All singing begins with
breath. All vocal sounds are created by vibrationsin the larynxcaused by air from the lungs. Breathingin everyday life is a subconsciousbodily function which occurs naturally, however the singermust have control of the intake and exhalation of breath to achieve maximum results from their voice.
Natural breathing has three stages: a breathing-in period, a breathing out period, and a resting or recovery period; these stages are not usually consciously controlled. Within singing their are four stages of breathing:
*1. a breathing-in period (inhalation)
*2. a setting up controls period (suspension)
*3. a controlled exhalation period (phonation)
*4. a recovery periodThese stages must be under conscious control by the singer until they becomed conditioned reflexes. Many singers abandon conscious controls before their reflexes are fully conditioned which ultimately leads to chronic vocal problems.cite journal
title= Breathing Behavior During Singing
journal= The NATS Journal
pages= 2-9, 49–51]
European classical musicand opera, voices are treated like musical instruments. Composerswho write vocal music must have an understanding of the skills, talents, and vocal properties of singers. Voice classification is the process by which human singing voices are evaluated and are thereby designated into voice types. These qualities include but are not limited to: vocal range, vocal weight, vocal tessitura, vocal timbre, and vocal transition pointssuch as breaks and lifts within the voice. Other considerations are physical characteristics, speech level, scientific testing, and vocal registration.cite journal
title= Voice classification: An examination of methodology
journal= The NATS Bulletin
pages= 17–27] The science behind voice classification developed within European
classical musicand has been slow in adapting to more modern forms of singing. Voice classification is often used within operato associate possible roles with potential voices. There are currently several different systems in use within classical music including: the German " Fach" system and the choral music system among many others. No system is universally applied or accepted.cite book
title= Bel Canto: A history of vocal pedagogy
publisher= University of Toronto Press
However, most classical music systems acknowledge seven different major voice categories. Women are typically divided into three groups:
soprano, mezzo-soprano, and contralto. Men are usually divided into four groups: countertenor, tenor, baritone, and bass. When considering children's voices, an eighth term, treble, can be applied. Within each of these major categories there are several sub-categories that identify specific vocal qualities like coloraturafacility and vocal weightto differentiate between voices.
It should be noted that within
choral music, singers voices are divided solely on the basis of vocal range. Choral music most commonly divides vocal parts into high and low voices within each sex (SATB). As a result, the typical choral situation affords many opportunities for misclassification to occur. Since most people have medium voices, they must be assigned to a part that is either too high or too low for them; the mezzo-soprano must sing soprano or alto and the baritone must sing tenor or bass. Either option can present problems for the singer, but for most singers there are fewer dangers in singing too low than in singing too high.cite book
title= Choral pedagogy
publisher= Plural Publishing
Within comtemporary forms of music (sometimes referred to as
Contemporary Commercial Music), singers are classified by the style of music they sing, such as jazz, pop, blues, soul, country, folk, and rock styles. There is currently no authoritative voice classification system within non-classical music. [cite book
title=Vocal workouts for the contemporary singer
isbn=0876390475] Attempts have been made to adopt classical voice type terms to other forms of singing but such attempts have been met with controversy. The development of voice categorizations were made with the understanding that the singer would be using classical vocal technique within a specified range using unamplified (no microphones) vocal production. Since contemporary musicians use different vocal techniques, microphones, and are not forced to fit into a specific vocal role, applying such terms as soprano, tenor, baritone, etc. can be misleading or even inaccurate.cite book
title= The science of vocal pedagogy: theory and application
first= Dudley Ralph
publisher= Indiana University Press
Dangers of quick identification
Many vocal pedagogists warn of the dangers of quick identification. Premature concern with classification can result in misclassification, with all its attendant dangers. Vennard says:
"I never feel any urgency about classifying a beginning student. So many premature diagnoses have been proved wrong, and it can be harmful to the student and embarrassing to the teacher to keep striving for an ill-chosen goal. It is best to begin in the middle part of the voice and work upward and downward until the voice classifies itself."cite book
title= Singing: The Mechanism and the Technic
publisher= Carl Fischer
Most vocal pedagogists believe that it is essential to establish good vocal habits within a limited and comfortable range before attempting to classify the voice. When techniques of posture, breathing,
phonation, resonation, and articulation have become established in this comfortable area, the true quality of the voice will emerge and the upper and lower limits of the range can be explored safely. Only then can a tentative classification be arrived at, and it may be adjusted as the voice continues to develop. Many vocal pedagogists suggest that teachers begin by assuming that a voice is of a medium classification until it proves otherwise. The reason for this is that the majority of individuals possess medium voices and therefore this approach is less likely to misclassify or damage the voice.
Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the human voice. A register in the human voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the
vocal folds, and possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function. They occur because the vocal folds are capable of producing several different vibratory patterns. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds.cite journal
title= Towards an integrated physiologic-acoustic theory of vocal registers
journal= The NATS Bulletin
pages= 30–35] The term register can be somewhat confusing at it encompasses several aspects of the human voice. The term register can be used to refer to any of the followingcite book
title= The diagnosis and correction of vocal faults
publisher= Genovex Music Group
* A particular part of the
vocal rangesuch as the upper, middle, or lower registers.
resonancearea such as chest voiceor head voice.
* A phonatory process
* A certain vocal
* A region of the voice which is defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
* A subset of a
languageused for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonationinto a single phonological system.
speech pathologythe term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, and a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, and the whistle register. This view is also adopted by many vocal pedagogists.
Some vocal pedagogists, however, organize registers differently. There are over a dozen different constructs of vocal registers in use within the field. The confusion which exists concerning what a register is, and how many registers there are, is due in part to what takes place in the modal register when a person sings from the lowest pitches of that register to the highest pitches. The frequency of vibration of the vocal folds is determined by their length, tension, and mass. As pitch rises, the
vocal folds are lengthened, tension increases, and their thickness decreases. In other words, all three of these factors are in a state of flux in the transition from the lowest to the highest tones.
If a singer holds any of these factors constant and interferes with their progressive state of change, his laryngeal function tends to become static and eventually breaks occur, with obvious changes of tone quality. These break are often identified as register boundaries or as transition areas between registers. The distinct change or break between registers is called a
passaggioor a ponticello.The OXFORD DICTIONARY OF OPERA. JOHN WARRACK AND EWAN WEST, ISBN 0-19-869164-5] Vocal pedagogists teach that with study a singer can move effortlessly from one register to the other with ease and consistent tone. Registers can even overlap while singing. Teachers who like to use this theory of "blending registers" usually help students through the "passage" from one register to another by hiding their "lift" (where the voice changes).
However, many pedagogists disagree with this distinction of boundaries blaming such breaks on vocal problems which have been created by a static laryngeal adjustment that does not permit the necessary changes to take place. This difference of opinion has effected the different views on vocal registration.
Singing is an integrated and coordinated act and it is difficult to discuss any of the individual technical areas and processes without relating them to the others. For example, phonation only comes into perspective when it is connected with respiration; the articulators affect resonance; the resonators affect the vocal folds; the vocal folds affect breath control; and so forth. Vocal problems are often a result of a breakdown in one part of this coordinated process which causes voice teachers to frequently focus in intensively on one area of the process with their student until that issue is resolved. However, some areas of the art of singing are so much the result of coordinated functions that it is hard to discuss them under a traditional heading like phonation, resonation, articulation, or respiration.
Once the voice student has become aware of the physical processes that make up the act of singing and of how those processes function, the student begins the task of trying to coordinate them. Inevitably, students and teachers, will become more concerned with one area of the technique than another. The various processes may progress at different rates, with a resulting imbalance or lack of coordination. The areas of vocal technique which seem to depend most strongly on the student's ability to coordinate various functions are.:
* 1. Extending the
vocal rangeto its maximum potential
* 2. Developing consistent vocal production with a consistent tone quality
* 3. Developing flexibility and agility
* 4. Achieving a balanced
Developing the singing voice
Singing is not a natural process but is a skill that requires highly developed muscle reflexes. Singing does not require much muscle strength but it does require a high degree of muscle coordination. Individuals can develop their voices further through the careful and systematic practice of both songs and vocal exercises. Vocal pedagogists instruct their students to exercise their voices in an intelligent manner. Singers should be thinking constantly about the kind of sound they are making and the kind of sensations they are feeling while they are singing.
Exercising the singing voice
There are several purposes for vocal exercises, including:
* 1. Warming up the voice
* 2. Extending the vocal range
* 3. "Lining up" the voice horizontally and vertically
* 4. Acquiring vocal techniques such as legato, staccato, control of dynamics, rapid figurations, learning to comfortably sing wide intervals, and correcting vocal faults.
Extending the vocal range
An important goal of vocal development is to learn to sing to the natural limits of ones vocal range without any obvious or distracting changes of quality or technique. Vocal pedagogists teach that a singer can only achieve this goal when all of the physical processes involved in singing (such as laryngeal action, breath support, resonance adjustment, and articulatory movement) are effectively working together. Most vocal pedagogist believe that the first step in coordinating these processes is by establishing good vocal habits in the most comfortable tessitura of the voice first before slowly expanding the range beyond that.
There are three factors which significantly affect the ability to sing higher or lower:
1. The Energy Factor- In this usage the word energy has several connotations. It refers to the total response of the body to the making of sound. It refers to a dynamic relationship between the breathing-in muscles and the breathing-out muscles known as the breath support mechanism. It also refers to the amount of breath pressure delivered to the vocal folds and their resistance that pressure, and it refers to the dynamic level of the sound.
2. The Space Factor- Space refers to the amount of space createdby the moving of the mouth and the position of the palate and larynx. Generally speaking, a singer's mouth should be opened wider the higher they sing. The internal space or position of the soft palate and larynx can be widened by the relaxing of the throat. Vocal pedagogists often describe this as feeling like the "beginning of a yawn".
3. The Depth Factor- In this usage the word depth has two connotations. It refers to the actual physical sensations of depth in the body and vocal mechanism and it refers to mental concepts of depth as related to tone quality.
McKinney says, "These three factors can be expressed in three basic rules: (1) As you sing higher, you must use more energy; as you sing lower, you must use less. (2) As you sing higher, you must use more space; as you sing lower, you must use less. (3) As you sing higher, you must use more depth; as you sing lower, you must use less."
General music studies
Vocal pedagogists usually spend some of their time working with their students on general music knowledge and skills, particularly
music theory, music history, and musical styles and practices as it relates to the vocal literature being studied. Vocal pedagogists will also usually spend time helping their students become better sight readers, often adopting Solfegewhich assigns certain syllables to the notes of the scale.
Performance skills and practices
Since singing is a performing art, voice teachers spend some of their time preparing their students for performance. This includes teaching their students etiquette of behavior on stage such as bowing, addressing problems like stage fright or nervous tics, and the use of equipment such as microphones. Some students may also be preparing for careers in the fields of
operaor musical theaterwhere acting skills are required. Many vocal pedagogists will spend time on acting techniques and audience communication with students in these fields of interest. Students of opera also spend a great deal of time with their voice teachers learning foreign language pronunciations.
* [http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~jcoe/vocalped_timeline.htm Historical vocal pedagogy]
* [http://www.nats.org National Association of Teachers of Singing]
title=Bodymind & voice: Foundations of voice education
publisher=The VoiceCare Network et al.
isbn = 0874141230
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