- Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters,
poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, Frederic George Stephens, Thomas Woolnerand William Holman Hunt.
The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded
Raphaeland Michelangelo. They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art. Hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, they objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, the founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts. They called him "Sir Sloshua", believing that his broad technique was a sloppy and formulaic form of academic Mannerism. In contrast, they wanted to return to the abundant detail, intense colours, and complex compositions of QuattrocentoItalian and Flemish art.
The Pre-Raphaelites have been considered the first
avant-gardemovement in art, though they have also been denied that status, because they continued to accept both the concepts of history paintingand of mimesis, or imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art. However, the Pre-Raphaelites undoubtedly defined themselves as a reform-movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, and published a periodical, "The Germ", to promote their ideas. Their debates were recorded in the "Pre-Raphaelite Journal".
Beginnings of the Brotherhood
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street,
Londonin 1848. At the initial meeting, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Huntwere present. Hunt and Millais were students at the Royal Academy of Arts. They had previously met in another loose association, a sketching-society called the Cyclographic Club. Rossetti was a pupil of Ford Madox Brown. He had met Hunt after seeing his painting " The Eve of St. Agnes", which is based on Keats's poem. As an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links between Romantic poetry and art. By autumn, four more members had also joined, to form a seven-member-strong Brotherhood. These were William Michael Rossetti(Dante Gabriel Rossetti's brother), Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, and Frederic George Stephens. Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but preferred to remain independent. He nevertheless remained close to the group. Some other young painters and sculptors were also close associates, including Charles Allston Collins, Thomas Tupper, and Alexander Munro. They kept the existence of the Brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy.
The Brotherhood's early doctrines were expressed in four declarations:
# To have genuine ideas to express;
# To study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them;
# To sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parodying and learned by rote;
# And, most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues.
These principles are deliberately non-dogmatic, since the Brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and methods of depiction. Influenced by Romanticism, they thought that freedom and responsibility were inseparable. Nevertheless, they were particularly fascinated by
medievalculture, believing it to possess a spiritual and creative integrity that had been lost in later eras. This emphasis on medieval culture was to clash with certain principles of realism, which stress the independent observation of nature. In its early stages, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood believed that their two interests were consistent with one another, but in later years the movement divided and began to move in two directions. The realist-side was led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalist-side was led by Rossetti and his followers, Edward Burne-Jonesand William Morris. This split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was essentially spiritual in character, opposing their idealismto the materialist realism associated with Courbetand Impressionism.
In their attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in Quattrocento art, Hunt and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground. They hoped that in this way their colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity. This emphasis on brilliance of colour was in reaction to the excessive use of
bitumenby earlier British artists, such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and Benjamin Robert Haydon. Bitumen produces unstable areas of muddy darkness, an effect that the Pre-Raphaelies despised.
The first exhibition of Pre-Raphaelite work occurred in 1849. Both Millais's "Isabella" (1848–1849) and Holman Hunt's "Rienzi" (1848–1849) were exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Rossetti's "Girlhood of Mary Virgin" was shown at the Free Exhibition on Hyde Park Corner. As agreed, all members of the Brotherhood signed works with their name and the initials "PRB". Between January and April 1850, the group published a literary magazine, "The Germ". William Rossetti edited the magazine, which published poetry by the Rossettis, Woolner, and Collinson, together with essays on art and literature by associates of the Brotherhood, such as
Coventry Patmore. As the short run-time implies, the magazine did not manage to achieve a sustained momentum. (Daly 1989)
In 1850 the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood became controversial after the exhibition of Millais's painting "
Christ In The House Of His Parents", considered to be blasphemous by many reviewers, notably Charles Dickens. Their medievalism was attacked as backward-looking and their extreme devotion to detail was condemned as ugly and jarring to the eye. According to Dickens, Millais made the Holy Family look like alcoholics and slum-dwellers, adopting contorted and absurd "medieval" poses. A rival group of older artists, The Clique, also used their influence against the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Their principles were publicly attacked by the President of the Academy, Sir Charles Lock Eastlake.
However, the Brotherhood found support from the critic
John Ruskin, who praised their devotion to nature and rejection of conventional methods of composition. He continued to support their work both financially and in his writings.
Following the controversy, Collinson left the Brotherhood. They met to discuss whether he should be replaced by Charles Allston Collins or
Walter Howell Deverell, but were unable to make a decision. From that point on the group disbanded, though their influence continued to be felt. Artists who had worked in the style still followed these techniques (initially anyway) but they no longer signed works "PRB".
Later developments and influence
Artists who were influenced by the Brotherhood include
John Brett, Philip Calderon, Arthur Hughes, Evelyn De Morganand Frederic Sandys. Ford Madox Brown, who was associated with them from the beginning, is often seen as most closely adopting the Pre-Raphaelite principles.
After 1856, Rossetti became an inspiration for the medievalising strand of the movement. His work influenced his friend
William Morris, in whose firm Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. he became a partner, and with whose wife Jane he may have had an affair. Ford Madox Brown and Edward Burne-Jonesalso became partners in the firm. Through Morris's company the ideals of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood influenced many interior designers and architects, arousing interest in medievaldesigns, as well as other crafts. This led directly to the Arts and Crafts movementheaded by William Morris. Holman Hunt was also involved with this movement to reform design through the Della Robbia Potterycompany.
After 1850, both Hunt and Millais moved away from direct imitation of medieval art. Both stressed the realist and scientific aspects of the movement, though Hunt continued to emphasise the spiritual significance of art, seeking to reconcile religion and science by making accurate observations and studies of locations in
Egyptand Palestinefor his paintings on biblical subjects. In contrast, Millais abandoned Pre-Raphaelitism after 1860, adopting a much broader and looser style influenced by Reynolds. William Morris and others condemned this reversal of principles.
The movement influenced the work of many later British artists well into the twentieth century. Rossetti later came to be seen as a precursor of the wider European Symbolist movement. In the late twentieth century the
Brotherhood of Ruralistsbased its aims on Pre-Raphaelitism, while the Stuckists have also have derived inspiration from it.
The Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has a world-renowned collection of works by Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelites that, some claim, strongly influenced the young
J.R.R. Tolkienwhile he was growing up in the city. [See, for example, Bucher (2004) for a brief discussion on the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites on Tolkien.]
In the twentieth century artistic ideals changed and art moved away from representing reality. Since the Pre-Raphaelites were fixed on portraying things with near-photographic precision, though with a distinctive attention to detailed surface-patterns, their work was devalued by many critics. Since the 1970s there has been a resurgence in interest in the movement.
List of artists
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
William Holman Hunt(painter)
John Everett Millais(painter)
Dante Gabriel Rossetti(painter, poet)
William Michael Rossetti(critic)
Frederic George Stephens(critic)
Thomas Woolner(sculptor, poet)
Associated artists and figures
Ford Madox Brown(painter, designer)
Richard Burchett(painter, educator)
Edward Burne-Jones(painter, designer)
Charles Allston Collins(painter)
Frank Cadogan Cowper(painter)
Walter Howell Deverell(painter)
*Arthur Hughes (painter, book illustrator)
Jane Morris(artist's model)
May Morris(embroiderer and designer)
William Morris(designer, writer)
Anthony Frederick Augustus Sandys(painter)
Elizabeth Siddal(painter, poet and artist's model)
Marie Spartali Stillman(painter)
William Lindsay Windus(painter)
Loosely associated artists
Sophie Gengembre Anderson(painter)
George Price Boyce(painter)
Julia Margaret Cameron(photographer)
*James Campbell (painter)
*John Collier (painter)
*William Davis (painter)
Evelyn De Morgan(painter)
Frank Bernard Dicksee(painter)
John William Godward(painter)
Thomas Cooper Gotch(painter)
Edward Robert Hughes(painter)
*John Lee (painter)
Charles William Mitchell(painter)
*Frederic, Lord Leighton (painter)
Joseph Noel Paton(painter)
John William Waterhouse(painter)
Daniel Alexander Williamson(painter)
Marie Spartali Stillman
There are major collections of Pre-Raphaelite work in the
Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum, Manchester Art Gallery, Lady Lever Art Galleryon Merseyside and Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery. The Delaware Art Museumhas the most significant collection of Pre-Raphaelite art outside of the United Kingdom. Andrew Lloyd Webberis an avid collector of Pre-Raphaelite works and a selection of 300 items from his collection were shown at a major exhibition at the Royal Academyin 2003.
* Bate, P.H.  (1972) "The English Pre-Raphaelite painters : their associates and successors", New York : AMS Press, ISBN 0-404-00691-4
* des Cars, L. (2000) "The pre-Raphaelites : romance and realism", New York : Harry N. Abrams, ISBN 0-81092-891-4
* Mancoff, D.N. (2003) "Flora symbolica : flowers in Pre-Raphaelite art", Munich ; London ; New York : Prestel, ISBN 3-7913-2851-4
* Marsh, J. and Nunn, P.G. (1998) "Pre-Raphaelite women artists", London : Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-28104-1
* Staley, A. and Newall, C. (2004) "Pre-Raphaelite vision : truth to nature", London : Tate, ISBN 1-85437-499-0
* Townsend, J., Ridge, J. and Hackney, S. (2004) "Pre-Raphaelite painting techniques : 1848-56", London : Tate, ISBN 1-85437-498-2
* Watson, M.F. (1997) "Collecting the Pre-Raphaelites : the Anglo-American enchantment", Aldershot : Ashgate, ISBN 1-85928-399-3
List of Pre-Raphaelite paintings
Early Renaissance painting
English school of painting
Middle Ages in history
John Wharlton Bunney
The Light of the World"
*cite book | last = Barringer | first = Tim | year = 1998 | title = Reading the Pre-Raphaelites | publisher = Yale University Press | location = New Haven, Conn. | id = ISBN 0-300-07787-4
* Bucher, Gregory (2004). " [http://moses.creighton.edu/JRS/2004/2004-r3.html Review of Matthew Dickerson. 'Following Gandalf. Epic Battles and Moral Victory in The Lord of the Rings'] ", "Journal of Religion & Society", 6, ISSN 1522-5658, webpage accessed 13 October 2007
*cite book | last = Daly | first = Gay | year = 1989 | title = Pre-Raphaelites in Love | publisher = Ticknor & Fields | location = New York | id = ISBN 0-89919-450-8
* Dickerson, Matthew (2003). "Following Gandalf : epic battles and moral victory in the Lord of the rings", Grand Rapids, Mich. : Brazos Press, ISBN 1-58743-085-1
*cite book | last = Gaunt | first = William | year = 1975 | title = The Pre-Raphaelite Tragedy | edition = rev. ed. | publisher = Cape | location = London | id = ISBN 0-224-01106-5
*cite book | last = Hawksley | first = Lucinda | year = 1999 | title = Essential Pre-Raphaelites | publisher = Dempsey Parr | location = Bath | id = ISBN 1-84084-524-4
*cite book | last = Prettejohn | first = Elizabeth | year = 2000 | title = The Art of the Pre-Raphaelites | publisher = Princeton University Press | location = Princeton, N.J. | id = ISBN 0-691-07057-1
*Ramm, John (2003). "The Forgotten Pre-Raphaelite: Henry Wallis", "Antique Dealer & Collectors Guide", 56 (Mar/April) , p. 8–9
* [http://www.dlc.fi/~hurmari/preraph.htm Collection of links]
* [http://www.bmagic.org.uk/results?s=pre-raphaelite+ Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery online collection]
* [http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/pre-Raphaelites/index.asp Liverpool Walker Art Gallery's Pre-Raphaelite collection]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/wy2/preraph/page2.html Pre-Raphaelite People and Principles]
* [http://www.andrewlloydwebber.com/sections/art/art_thecollection.php?section=art Andrew Lloyd Webber's Pre-Raphaelite Collection]
* [http://www.studio-international.co.uk/painting/pre-raph.asp Pre-Raphaelite and other Masters: the Andrew Lloyd Webber Collection]
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/23593/23593-h/23593-h.htm#LECTURE_IV "Pre-Raphaelitism"] Lecture by
* [http://www.studio-international.co.uk/painting/love_revealed.asp Love Revealed: Simeon Solomon and the Pre-Raphaelites]
* [http://www.victorianweb.org/painting/prb/4.html Pre Raphaelitism in Poetry]
* [http://www.bartleby.com/223/0501.html Literary Aspects of Pre Raphaelitism: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature]
* [http://www.all-art.org/history392-5.html The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in the "History of Art"]
* [http://www.achome.co.uk/chronology/chronology.htm Pre-Raphaelite Chronology]
* [http://www.lizziesiddal.com Lizzie Siddal website]
* [http://www.engl.duq.edu/servus/PR_Critic/ The Pre-Raphaelite Critic] is a collection of full-text and excerpted 19th century reviews of the movement and its individual members.
* [http://berkeleyheritage.com/essays/wilde-worcester.html Oscar Wilde, Joseph Worcester, and the English Arts & Crafts Movement] an article describing Worcester's desire to establish a brotherhood similar to the Pre-Raphaelites in the SF Bay Area
* [http://www.pre-raphaelitesociety.org/ The Pre-Raphaelite Society]
* [http://preraph.org/ The Samuel and Mary R. Bancroft Collection of Pre-Raphaelite Art]
* [http://www.preraphaelitesisterhood.com Pre-Raphaelite Sisterhood, an homage to the women featured in Pre-Raphaelite art]
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