Manual therapy

Manual therapy

Manual therapy, manipulative therapy, or manual & manipulative therapy is a physical treatment primarily used by physiotherapists, chiropractors, osteopaths to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it most commonly includes massage therapy, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.[1]



Manual therapy may be defined differently (according to the profession describing it for legal purposes) to state what is permitted within a practitioners scope of practice. Within the physical therapy profession, manual therapy is defined as a clinical approach utilizing skilled, specific hands-on techniques, including but not limited to manipulation/mobilization, used by the physical therapist to diagnose and treat soft tissues and joint structures for the purpose of modulating pain; increasing range of motion (ROM); reducing or eliminating soft tissue inflammation; inducing relaxation; improving contractile and non-contractile tissue repair, extensibility, and/or stability; facilitating movement; and improving function.

A consensus study of US chiropractors [2] defined manual therapy as "Procedures by which the hands directly contact the body to treat the articulations and/or soft tissues."

Alternatively, Korr (1978) described manual therapy as the "Application of an accurately determined and specifically directed manual force to the body, in order to improve mobility in areas that are restricted; in joints, in connective tissues or in skeletal muscles."


In Western Europe, North America and Australasia, manual therapy is usually practiced by members of specific health care professions (e.g. Chiropractors, Osteopaths, Osteopathic Physicians, Physiotherapists/Physical Therapists, and Physiatrists).[1] However, some lay practitioners (not members of a structured profession), such as bonesetters also provide some forms of manual therapy.

A survey released in May 2004 by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine focused on who used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), what was used, and why it was used in the United States by adults age 18 years and over during 2002. According to this recent survey, manipulative therapy was the 3rd most commonly used NCCAM classification of CAM categories (10.9%) in the United States during 2002 ([1] table 4 on page 10) when all use of prayer was excluded. Consistent with previous studies, this study found that the majority of individuals (i.e., 54.9%) used CAM in conjunction with conventional medicine (page 6)


A number of professional peer-reviewed journals specialize in the dissemination of information associated with manual therapy. The Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy, Manual Therapy, and the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics are PubMed indexed journals that have provided readers with useful research on manual therapy for over 15 years. Peer reviewed information has improved the quality of information that is provided to practicing clinicians and has dispelled a number of myths commonly associated with manual therapy.

Styles of manual therapy

There are many different styles of manual therapy. It is a fundamental feature of ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and some forms of New Age alternative medicine as well as being used by mainstream medical practitioners. In one form or another it is probably as old as human culture itself and is a feature to some degree of therapeutic interactions in traditional cultures around the world.

See also


  1. ^ a b French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T (2010). "Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee - a systematic review". Manual Therapy 16 (2): 109-17. PMID 21146444. 
  2. ^ Gatterman MI, Hansen DT. (1994). "Development of chiropractic nomenclature through consensus". J Manipulative Physiological Therapeutics 17 (5): 302–309. 

Further reading

  • Karel Lewit (1999). Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of the locomotor system. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-2964-9. 
  • Weiselfish-Giammatteo, S., J. B. Kain, et al. (2005). Integrative manual therapy for the connective tissue system: myofascial release. Berkeley, Calif: North Atlantic Books. 
  • Kimberly Burnham, PhD (2007). Integrative Manual Therapy. West Hartford, CT: The Burnham Review. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • manual therapy — physical therapy or chiropractic techniques done by hand …   Medical dictionary

  • Therapy — For other uses, see Therapy (disambiguation). Therapy Intervention MeSH D013812 Therapy (in Greek: θεραπεία), or treatment, is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually fo …   Wikipedia

  • Therapy interfering behavior — Therapy Interfering Behaviors or TIB are tendencies that are tracked on diary cards as part of a Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program, and distract or hinder patient progress. TIB are often issues tracked specific to the issue(s) the… …   Wikipedia

  • manual lymphatic drainage — noun A massage therapy involving rhythmic manual techniques which improve drainage throughout the lymphatic system, used esp to reduce oedema (abbrev MLD) • • • Main Entry: ↑manual …   Useful english dictionary

  • Manual lymphatic drainage — Manipulative and body based methods edit Acupressure Body work Chiropractic Manipulative therapy Massage therapy Manual lymphatic drainage Naprapathy Postural Integration (PI) Structural Integration Shiatsu …   Wikipedia

  • Manual de Merck — Este artículo o sección sobre literatura necesita ser wikificado con un formato acorde a las convenciones de estilo. Por favor, edítalo para que las cumpla. Mientras tanto, no elimines este aviso puesto el 17 de mayo de 2010. También puedes… …   Wikipedia Español

  • The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy — Infobox Journal title = The Journal of Manual Manipulative Therapy editor = Chad Cook discipline = Chiropractic language = English abbreviation = J Man Manip Ther publisher = country = USA frequency = Quarterly history = started in 1993… …   Wikipedia

  • Physical therapy — Infobox Disease Name = Physical therapy Caption = This physical therapist is assisting two children with polio holding on to a rail whilst they exercise their lower limbs. Physical therapy, also known as Physiotherapy in many English speaking… …   Wikipedia

  • Soft tissue therapy — (STT) is the assessment, treatment and management of soft tissue injury, pain and dysfunction primarily of the neuromusculoskeletal system. Licensed health care professionals who typically provide soft tissue manual therapy include chiropractors …   Wikipedia

  • Fisioterapia Manual — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Especialidad de la fisioterapia en el ámbito de la ortopedia, que clásicamente se ha definido como el arte y la ciencia del tratamiento de las condiciones neuro músculo esqueléticas disfuncionales del ser humano,… …   Wikipedia Español

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”