- Cultural appropriation in western music
Cultural appropriation in western music as a cultural/economic phenomenon is inextricably linked with the invention of
sound recordingand the development of the international recording industry, but the background to its emergence covers the whole span of modern Western musical history, and what some analysts have deemed the digital revolution. This is particularly evident among indigenous peoples and their musical genres, such as the Urarinaof Peruvian Amazoniawho face many challenges in the face of globalizationand the forces propelling cultural appropriation. [Dean, Bartholomew. "digital vibes & radio waves in indigenous Peru." In "Latin Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights: Legal Obstacles and Innovative Solutions" M. Riley (ed.) 2004, [http://catalog.loc.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?v3=1&DB=local&CMD=010a+2003025783&CNT=10+records+per+page] ]
Since at least the
Renaissance, musicians, composers, music publishers (and, in the 20th century, radio stations and recording companies) have been part of a wide-ranging and continuous process of cultural appropriationthat developed in the wake of the European colonisation of America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. In this process, styles, forms and influences from non-Western music—especially novel melodies, rhythmic patterns or harmonic structures—were discovered, appropriated, adapted and incorporated into mainstream Western popular music.
This appropriation process has a long history in European art music, which bears numerous traces of the adoption of fashionable European popular and folk dances into the classical genre. Dance styles like the
allemande, the pavane, the galliardand the gavotte—often derived from popular folk dances—were just four among scores of "dance crazes" that swept the courts of Europe during the Renaissanceand early Baroque,
However, by the time Bach and Händel were writing their great instrumental works during the late Baroque, the
rhythms and timings of these dances had been already been appropriated, formalised and incorporated into the structure of elite European 'art' music. This trend continued in 18th and 19th century with folk-dance crazes like the mazurka, the waltzand the polka.
One well-known example of cultural appropriation into the European classical music genre arose from the 18th century
fadknown as " Orientalism", in which music, architecture, costumeand visual artsfrom "Oriental" cultures (including the Ottoman empire, India, Chinaand Japan) became highly fashionable. One of the most enduring artefacts of this fad is the third movement of Mozart's popular Piano Sonata No. 11 in A major, K. 331, known as the " Rondo alla turca" ("rondo in the Turkish style").
One of the earliest examples of
crossover musicis the music of French composer Claude Debussy. In 1889 the French government staged the great Paris Exposition, an event that was to have profound effects on many areas of western art and music. Debussy visited the exposition and it was here that he first heard gamelanmusic performed by Sundanese musicians. He was transfixed by the hypnotic, layered sound of the gamelan orchestra and reportedly returned to the Dutch East Indiespavilion over several days to listen to the Indonesian musicians perform and to study the structure and tuning of this novel musical form. His exposure to gamelan music had a direct influence on the composition of his famous " Nocturnes" for orchestra. [ [http://www.filomusica.com/filo48/java.html filomusica.com/filo48/java.html] ]
In the case of Debussy, some of this long process of appropriation also had an educative effect, and by the 1960s Western audiences were beginning to move beyond the confines of the Western musical tradition and explore traditional music from other countries and continents, and as
Eurocentriccultural and social biases began to be broken down during the 1960s, music from other cultures gained increasingly broad acceptance.
The key factor in this transition was the invention of sound recording, but it was also greatly influenced by the wide-ranging program of collection of European traditional folk music by 19th and early 20th century European classical composers and
musicologists. This process was, at first, simply one facet of the multifocal 19th century passion for collection and classification, but it was given greater impetus by the growing awareness that the devastating impact of Western urban-industrial culture was decimating traditional cultures.
This collection activity took on some aspects of a crusade, as musicologists raced to preserve vanishing musical artefacts before they were lost to history. This view was a key motivation for the
ethnologists who collected and preserved examples of Australian Aboriginal music, since it was widely believed at the time that the Aboriginal "race" and Aboriginal culture would eventually die out.
Musicologists and leading composers like
Antonín Dvořák, Zoltán Kodály, Béla Bartókand Percy Graingermade strenuous efforts to collect and record local forms of European folk music and folk song, and many folk music melodies and other musical features were absorbed into the mainstream classical tradition. A good example of this process was the enduringly popular suites of Hungarian dances by Dvořák and Johannes Brahms.
During the 19th century this collection program was necessarily restricted to the written notation of melodies, lyrics and arrangements, but it was transformed in the early 20th century by the invention of sound recording and the development of portable cylinder and disc recording equipment, enabling musicologists for the first time to capture this music in actual performance, and the new technology was eagerly adopted by musicologists in
This growing archive of "folkloric" recordings remained largely within the confines of academia until after
World War II. But in America, these collection programs -— notably those sponsored by the Library of Congress-— were to have an immense influence on the development of the international popular music industry.
Folk-music collectors like the great
Alan Lomaxworked assiduously for decades to find and record examples of almost every facet of native American, African-American and European-American folk music, and the work of these many scholars, enthusiasts and collectors preserved the sound of many legendary "folk" performers and thousands of hours of priceless song and music from the American folk music tradition.
This musicological program was again revolutionised in the early 1950s by the new technology of
magnetic taperecording, which for the first time allowed music collectors to make very stable, long-duration, high-fidelity studio and field recordings. The concurrent introduction of the LP audio disc format, which could hold as much as thirty minutes of continuous music per side, allowed many such "folk music" recordings to be released into the consumer market for the first time.
The availability of high-quality portable tape recorders was the key innovation that led to the inception of the two keystone labels in the world music genre.
Folkways Recordsextensive archive of folk and indigenous music was launched in the 1950s. It was followed in 1967 by Elektra Records' influential Nonesuch Explorer Series.
These "folk" LPs—notably those of early 20th century
bluesmusic—were to bring about a radical change in the style and direction of late 20th century popular music. This process is exemplified by the huge directional change in rock musicthat came about when young British and American musicians (like Eric Clapton) heard the now-legendary recordings of an obscure Mississippiblues musician called Robert Johnson.
Another fascinating aspect of the changes in the cultural appropriation process can be found on the music of Dvořák, which itself was greatly influenced by his collection and study of the folk music of his native
Bohemia. In the 1892 Dvořák was invited to become the director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York City; the period he spent in America, and especially his exposure to native American and African-American music, led to the creation of his most famous and popular symphonic work, the Symphony No. 9, subtitled "From the New World".
This is arguably another very early example of the so-called
crossover musicgenre, but interestingly, it also had an influence on the development of American popular music. Part of the symphony's enduring appeal is due to the nostalgic main melody in the second movement, which is said to have expressed Dvořák's homesickness for Bohemia. Remarkably, this melody was later appropriated into the formative bluegrass musicgenre as the basis for the song " Goin' Home" (attributed to William Arms Fisher); it soon became a bluegrass standard and was later adapted into a popular spiritual-style song.
Beginning around the turn of the 20th century, the invention of
sound recordingand motion picturesenabled American mass-entertainment culture to begin to develop into a major global economic and cultural force.
Simultaneous with this process, two emerging streams of non-Western music—
African-American musicand Latin music—were discovered by American and European audiences, and they were rapidly appropriated by the mainstream music industry. Over the next hundred years these two broad genres were to have a massive transformative effect on the structure of popular music and the direction of the music industry.
In the 1890s working-class dancers, composers and musicians in the
La Bocaarea of Buenos Airesin Argentinainvented a daring and sensual new dance style which was dubbed the tango. It took Argentina by storm and after reaching New York during World War Iit became an international sensation, aided by a plethora of tango recordings and crystallised by the famously steamy tango scene in Rudolph Valentino's legend-making 1921 film "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse".
More or less simultaneous with the tango craze, a novel African-American style known as
ragtimeemerged in the United States, epitomised by the music of virtuoso pianist-composers Scott Joplinand Eubie Blake. Ragtime introduced African-derived syncopated ("ragged") rhythms into Western music and enjoyed a tremendous international vogue over the next twenty years, as well as exerted a huge influence on the subsequent development of jazz.
Ragtime and then early jazz transformed American popular music—the work of songwriters like
George Gershwinand Irving Berlinwas crucially shaped by their appropriation of influences from African-American music—and these genres also strongly influenced many European classical composers, especially the French composers Erik Satie, Claude Debussyand Maurice Ravel.
In terms of their influence on almost every facet of 20th century popular music, the successive historical genres of
African-American musichave, as a group, been the most significant of all the "exotic" genres appropriated into Western music. Just as they influenced each other, gospel music, ragtime, blues, jazz, R&Band rock'n'rollwere also successively appropriated into mainstream Western popular music—usually almost as soon as each became known as a definable genre. It is undeniable that the various genres of African-American music have, collectively, exerted a greater influence over the development and direction of Western mass-market popular recorded music than any other force.
Alongside the emergence of jazz, beginning around 1915, Hawaiian music reached the mainstream pop market in the United States. The Hawaiian style (or, more often, western imitations of it) became a major music fad, retaining a signiicant audience following from the 1930s to the 1950s. Hawaiian music was itself a complex mixture of European, native Hawaiian and other
Polynesian influences. This is well demonstrated by the work of one of the founders of the genre, Queen Lili'uokalani(1838-1917), the last Queen of Hawaii before the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown. A musician and composer, she is credited as the composer of the unofficial Hawaiian anthem "Aloha 'Oe". Lili'uokalani indeed wrote the lyrics and "arranged" the music but in fact she appropriated the tune from a Croatian folk song called "Sidi Mara na kamen studencu".
Beginning in the late 1920s, a series of concerts under the aegis of the Pan-American Association of Composers, founded by
Henry Cowell, brought the African-influenced music of Cuban composers Alejandro García Caturla and Amadeo Roldánand the work of Carlos Chávez, much of it rooted in Mexican folk music, to the United States.
In the 1930s, the "Latin invasion" that had begun with the tango took off again when American jazz, dance music, and popular song were revolutionized by the "discovery" of other music forms of the
Caribbean, Central and South America, a process that was triggered by a significant influx of migrants to the United States from Cuba, Puerto Ricoand other Caribbean islands in the 1940s.
The blending of Latin rhythms and instrumental jazz was pioneered by established American musicians like
Duke Ellingtonand Dizzy Gillespieand by recently-arrived 'Latin' musicians like Machitoand others, some of whom soon became stars in their own right. Latin beats rapidly became an essential part of the rhythmical vocabulary of American popular music, providing composers and musicians with a vastly enhanced repertoire of beats and meters. During the 1930s and 1940s, newly appropriated Latin music genres created a series of music movements and dance crazes, including the merengue, the samba, and the rumba.
The Andrews Sistersappropriated the song " Rum and Coca-Cola", which had originally been recorded by Jamaican musician Lord Invaderin the 1930s. The Andrews Sisters' version sparked a new fad for this infectious new style, "calypso". The craze reached its apex of popularity in the mid-1950s with the release of the hugely successful Harry Belafontesingle "Banana Boat Song" and Belafonte's million-selling 1956 LP "Calypso". Calypso also had a strong influence on the mainstream folk music boom of the late Fifties and early Sixties, which in turn became one of the major springboards for the development of world music as a genre.
In the late 1950s, repeating the impact of the tango, a seductive new music style called "
bossa nova" emerged from Braziland it soon swept the world, exerting a huge effect over the course of Western pop and jazz over the next decade and beyond. Nothing better illustrates the lasting impact of this hugely popular genre than the archetypical bossa song, " The Girl From Ipanema", written in 1962 and best known via the languid bilingual crossover version recorded by Stan Getz, João Gilbertoand Astrud Gilbertoin 1963. Thanks largely to the enormous worldwide popularity of this single, "The Girl From Ipanema" now ranks as the second most-recorded song of all time, surpassed only by Paul McCartney's "Yesterday".
Bossa nova was also an important influence on two innovative streams of popular music in the early 1960s. One was the shortlived but very popular British-originated music craze known as Merseybeat, the pop style epitomised by the early songs of
The Beatles, which combined popular song structures and rock'n'roll instrumentation with rhythmic inflections taken from bossa nova.
New York was one of the epicentres of the Latin-jazz crossover, so it is not surprising that the other major pop style to show a strong influence from bossa nova was the so-called "
Brill BuildingSound", exemplified by the work of the New York-based songwriter teams like Jerry Lieberand Mike Stoller, Gerry Goffin& Carole King, Neil Sedaka& Howard Greenfield, Jeff Barry& Ellie Greenwichand especially Burt Bacharachand Hal David.
Influences from African music also began to appear in the 1950s. This process included one of the more controversial examples of cultural appropriation process, exemplified by the pop song "
The Lion Sleeps Tonight". A version of this song was an American #1 hit for pop band The Tokensin 1961, and it was credited to American writers, but in fact "The Lion Sleeps Tonight" was actually an unacknowledged rewrite of the song "Mbube", written and recorded by South African musician and composer, Solomon Linda, in 1939.
"Mbube" had been a major local hit for Linda and his band,
The Evening Birds, reputedly selling 100,000 copies there, but its success at the time was entirely confined to South Africa. Some years later, a copy of Linda's recording reached the renowned American musicologist Alan Lomax; he passed it on to his friend Pete Seeger, who fell in love with it, and it was Seeger who was mainly responsible for popularising the song in the West.
Seeger recorded a version of the song with his noted folk group
The Weaversin 1952, retitling it "Wimoweh" (an inaccurate transliteration of the song's original Zulurefrain, "uyimbube"), although at this point it should be noted that the politically-aware Seeger "did" give Linda a partial credit in the Weavers' arrangement of the song. The Weavers scored a US Top 20 hit with their studio version, and had further success with a live version of the song included on their influential 1957 live album, recorded at Carnegie Hall, which led to it being covered by The Kingston Trioin 1959.
The Weavers' Carnegie Hall version of "
Wimoweh" became a favourite song of The Tokens—they used it as their audition piece when they were offered a contract with RCA Records—and this led to them recording it as their first RCA single. However, it was at this point that the lyrics were re-written by the band's producers—who took full credit for the song—and it would be several decades more before the full story of the appropriation of Linda's work became widely known. Sadly, by then Linda had long since died in poverty. [ See http://www.bobshannon.com/stories/Lion.html and http://www.3rdearmusic.com/forum/mbube2.html for more information about Solomon Linda and the "Wimoweh" story]
After World War II a small but growing market developed for Western folk music and recordings of non-Western music, and this was supplied by specialist record labels such as
Folkways Records, Elektra Recordsand Nonesuch Recordsin the USA and, later, Disques Cellierin Switzerland. Such labels were typically small "boutique" operations or minor specialist imprints of large companies, which released albums of non-Western traditional classical music, folk songs and indigenous music.
This market was fostered by the co-called "folk boom" of the 1950s and early 1960s, in which artists and groups like
Pete Seegerand The Weaversexplored the traditional songs and sounds of English-language folk music and re-interpreted them for the mass audience. In America, this process was massively influenced by the "discovery" of the treasure-trove of recordings of African-American musicthat had been made over the previous decades. Another more overtly political factor, and one that should not be overlooked in this case, is that many folk musicians were deeply involved in the struggle for civil rights for black Americans, and their championing of black music to white audiences was an integral and hugely influential part of this campaign.
This exploratory process also led many musicians to begin investigating folk music from non-Western cultures—as in the case of
Solomon Linda's "Mbube". In each case, these processes of discovery and appropriation were made considerably easier by the increasing availability of LP recordings of "ethnic" music.
This process had a definite cumulative effect, but it is fair to say that, until the late 1960s, "ethnic"/"folkloric" music remained more or less a specialist interest. Some "exotic" influences inevitably filtered through to the
mass market—as in the case of " The Lion Sleeps Tonight"—but in general these were mostly Western re-interpretations, and very little original music produced outside of the mainstream Western popular music recording industry managed to break into the pop music market or achieve significant sales until the late 1960s.
As noted above, prior to the 60s, many classical musicians and composers had also written and/or performed music that experimented with combining western musical styles and influences from non-Western musical traditions, but this too was essentially an elite 'art' activity and gained little mass recognition.
Mass market acceptance of what we now call "world music" grew dramatically as a result of the
pop musicexplosion of the 1960s and early 1970s. During this period, adventurous pop, rock, progressive and jazz musicians and producers attempted, with varying degrees of success, to create fusions of conventional English-language popular music with instrumental and compositional influences from exotic musical genres. Their interest in these "ethnic" musics, combined with their enormous personal popularity, encouraged a growing number of record buyers to seek out recordings of non-Western music.
A prototype of this fusion of pop and world music in the late 60's can be seen in the
folk rockphenomenon of the mid-1960s. Underlying this development was the fact that many leading American and English pop-rock musicians of the period— Roger McGuinn, Bob Dylan, Jerry Garcia, Donovan—had begun their musical careers on the folk scene.
Intrerestingly, although the core of the "folk" genre at this time was traditional Anglo-American folk song, maintream folk music was still appropriating new "non-Anglo" influences like calypso, black South African popular music and even Arabic music. Another notable feature of the folk scene at this time was that it was also common to include African-American music as part of the broader folk genre, and as a result many legendary black American performers like
Leadbellywere able to perform side-by-side with white performers like Dylan and Pete Seegerat American folk scene's peak annual event, the Newport Folk Festival.
Folk rock was in part an attempt to broaden the language of mainstream pop by incorporating the more "serious" lyrical approach and political awareness of postwar folk. Folk rock as a genre effectively began in 1964 with the release of
The Byrds' electrified cover version of Bob Dylan's " Mr Tambourine Man", in which The Byrds cleverly combined the pop-rock instrumentation and close harmonies made popular by The Beatleswith elements of the Anglo-American folk genre. The huge commercial success of The Byrds' version of "Mr Tambourine Man" spawned scores of cash-in imitations, but folk rock continued to expand and diversify over the next few years.
English acts such as
Donovan, Fairport Conventionand Steeleye Spancombined pop-rockarrangements with songs, stylings and instruments drawn from traditional English and Celtic folk music, but all were also heavily influenced by Dylan. Alan Stivell(Brittany) began the same work in the mid 1960s.
Davey Grahamwas a notable figure on the British scene; his finger-picking style, his introduction of the so-called "Open D" tuning to British fol guitarists and his groundbreaking incorporations of Arabic and Indian inflexions into his playing influenced many of his contemporaries, including Bert Jansch, Jimmy Page, Donovanand Ray Davies.
Graham's mercurial American counterpart John Fahey also made many innovative solo guitar recordings during this period, which incorporated influences from traditional folk, Hawaiian music, Arabic and Indian music.
In America (and also in
Australasiaand Canada), pop-rock acts like The Grateful Dead, The Byrdsand The Flying Burrito Brothersmoved folk rock in a different direction. Drawing on their folk roots, and inspired by the hugely influential late 60's albums by Bob Dylanand The Band, they fused pop and rock with American country musicand bluegrass music, creating the genre known as country rock.
Although these trends in what might be termed "folk-pop-fusion" were all significant in their own way, and they were clearly part of the process of cultural appropriation, such experiments by popular musicians, and the availability of recorded collections of "authentic" performances of English and American folk music, began to lead many curious listeners to explore these genres. This in turn would pave the way for the development of the "world music" concept in later years.
Pop musicians first began to move outside the Western tradition in the mid-Sixties, when they started mixing Western electric pop with influences taken from the traditional music of India. Although the results were sometimes risible, this proved to be the most influential fusion of pop and "folk" music of the entire period, specifically because it was the first significant attempt to mix Western popular music with a completely non-Western musical tradition.
Although they were by no means the only people at that time who were following this course, much of the credit for the creation of the World Music genre, and for the rapid expansion of Western mass-audience interest in non-Western music, must be accorded to
The Beatles, and especially to their lead guitarist, George Harrison.
In early 1965, during a tour of America,
David Crosbyof The Byrdsintroduced Harrison to the sitar and the traditional classical music of India. Harrison was captivated by the sound of the instrument; he soon became profoundly interested in Indian music, culture and spirituality, and he began taking sitar lessons from renowned Indian sitar virtuoso Ravi Shankar, whom Harrison continued to regard as the "best musician on the planet" long after the 1960s.
Harrison's background in African-American music forms had given him a solid grounding in the techniques of
improvisationthat are central to the genre. Like jazz and blues, the largely improvised nature of Hindustani classical music, its strong reliance on rhythm and percussion, and the extended nature of the " raga" form were all features that Harrison was able to recognise, appreciate and begin to explore.
In October 1965 Harrison broke new musical ground when he played a
sitaron the Beatles' recording of the John Lennon song " Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)", from their 1965 LP " Rubber Soul". Other musicians were attempting similar fusions at the time—Brian Wilson, for example, used a koto on one of the songs on his classic " Pet Sounds" LP, recorded at around the same time—but no other single recording had the instant and worldwide impact of "Norwegian Wood".
It was the first time a western pop song had used a sitar in its arrangement, and for many Western listeners it was undoubtedly the first time they ever heard the instrument. In the wake of the song's release, the sitar became the new "in" sound for pop recordings, and an American guitar company even manufactured an
electric sitar-guitar designed to simulate the sound of the sitar.
More importantly, "Norwegian Wood" sparked a major craze for the classical music of
Indiain general and for the work of Ravi Shankar in particular, with the direct result that recordings by Shankar and other Indian classical musicians began to sell in large quantities outside India for the first time. The availability of tape recording and the LP were crucial to the popularisation of this particular genre of music, since a typical " raga" performance could last twenty minutes or more, and popular appreciation of this music would have been impossible without the longer duration and high fidelity provided by the LP format.
In 1966 Harrison took his "Indi-psych-pop" synthesis a step further with the highly original song "
Love You To" (from the seminal "Revolver" LP), which featured a sinuous Indian-influenced melody and an innovative arrangement consisting solely of Indian instruments, performed by expatriate Indian musicians living in London. The peak of Harrison's Indian synthesis project was the track " Within You Without You" (1967) from " Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", recorded at Studio Two, Abbey Road by Harrison and an ensemble of musicians from the Asian Music Circle in London.
Another obvious trace of Harrison's immersion in Indian music was the fact that "Within You, Without You" also broke new ground (at least in the pop scene) with its length, clocking in at over five minutes. Harrison also recorded in India with Indian instruments and musicians when producing the soundtrack music for the 1968 film "Wonderwall"; he was given a free rein by the film's director and the music he created was explicitly intended as a sort of "primer" of the styles of Indian instrumental music that Harrison was exploring, but the film did not have a wide release at the time and Harrison's soundtrack remains little known outside the realm of Beatles aficionados.
Although not quite as influential as "Norwegian Wood", the 1965 song "See My Friends" by
The Kinksis another significant Western pop song of the period that shows the unmistakable influence of Indian music. In this case, according to writer Ray Davies, the song's arrangement was inspired by a stopover in India during the band's first trip to Australiain 1965, when during an early-morning walk, he heard local fisherman singing a traditional chant, part of which he incorporated into the song's sinuous melody line; Davies' exposure to Hindustani raga music is also evident in the sitar-like quality of the guitar accompaniment.
1967 was a pivotal year for the development of the genre. In June the three-day
Monterey International Pop Festival, the world's first rock festival, was held in California, and it was attended by approximately 200,000 people. Alongside the legendary English and American pop and rock acts, the bill also featured black South African jazz trumpeter Hugh Masekelaas well as a performance by Ravi Shankar, who opened the climactic Sunday concert (and whose presence at the festival was almost entirely due to the influence of George Harrison). Shankar's performance at Monterey was without question the most important concert of his entire career in the West—it was seen by tens of thousands of people that day, and thanks to the fact that the entire festival was recorded and filmed, millions more around the world heard it on record and/or saw it on film in the years that followed.
The other major landmark that year was the launch of the hugely influential Nonesuch Explorer Series [ [http://www.nonesuch.com/Hi_Band/explorer_home.html nonesuch.com/Hi Band/explorer home.html] ] by the American
Elektra Recordslabel. This first Explorer LP, a collection of Balinese folk music entitled " Music From the Morning of the World", launched a growing catalogue of high-fidelity field recordings of the music of other cultures. The Nonesuch Explorer series is now recognised as one of the most important commercial collections of world music and several excerpts from Nonesuch recordings were included on the Voyager Golden Recordthat was sent into deep space aboard the Voyager 1and Voyager 2space probes in 1977.
Another very significant world/pop crossover style that emerged in the 1960s was
Jamaican ska(sometimes called bluebeat, rocksteadyand reggae. Little Millie Small scored what is probably the first bluebeat hit, "My Boy Lollipop" in 1964, and these styles gained a considerable following in the United Kingdom, especially in the mod and skinhead subcultures, thanks to artists such as Prince Buster, Desmond Dekkerand Laurel Aitken. In 1968, The Beatlesenjoyed a major crossover success with Paul McCartney's ska-influenced "Ob-la-di, Ob-la-da", while Desmond Dekker became the first Jamaican musician to score a #1 hit in the UK with the 1968 reggae song "The Israelites". In 1972, Johnny Nashscored a major international hit with the reggae-styled "I Can See Clearly Now" (with The Wailers as his backup band). His follow-up single "Stir It Up" was penned by Bob Marley. The style gained wider popularity that year with the cult success of the Jamaican movie " The Harder They Come", which starred reggae musician Jimmy Cliff, who also wrote and performed much of the soundtrack album.
Reggae was a distinctive local style that evolved in Jamaica, although its development had been strongly influenced by earlier American soul and R&B. Reggae became widely popular in the UK mostly thanks to Jamaican-born singer-songwriter Bob Marley, who was one of the genre's main founders and one of its most prolific and consistent songwriters. Reggae's popularity in Britain was greatly assisted by the fact that a large number of black immigrants from the
Caribbeanhad settled in Englandsince the end of World War II. Reggae also became very popular with the new generation of musicians in the punk rockand New Wave musicgenres of the late 1970s. Bands such as The Clashand The Slitsbecame enthusiastic champions of the style, as well as appropriating it for their own music.
Internationally, the most successful appropriators of reggae for mainstream pop audiences was the hugely successful British band The Police, who scored a string of hit singles and hit LPs in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with finely-crafted pop songs played in a reggae style, such as "
Walking on the Moon".
Rolling Stonesguitarist Brian Jonesrecorded the Master Musicians of Jajoukain the village of Jajoukain northern Morocco. Jones died the following year but the LP was released in 1971 on Rolling Stones Records. Although there was some criticism of the electronic treatments Jones applied to the recordings in post-production, the LP was one of the first recordings released in the pop market that showcased traditional Moroccan music.
electric folkmovement in which Western popular musicappropriated the English and Celtic traditional musicalso began in the late 1960s, with the work of groups like Fairport Convention. This movement continued well into the 1970s.
Another important landmark in the growth of the world music genre, and one which is often overlooked, came in 1970 with the popular
Simon & Garfunkelsingle "El Cóndor Pasa", taken from their multi-platinum selling " Bridge Over Troubled Waters" LP. The theme was endlessly copied and used all over the world, for instance in parody about downed F117a plane El kondor pada, and many other. Like Harrison's use of sitar, Paul Simon's use of Andean folk instruments (including the pan flute) was a pop music "first". His evocative English-language adaptation of a traditional 18th century Peruvian folk melody by Jorge Michelberg[notated in 1916 by Peruvian composer Daniel Alomía Robles] gave many listeners their first taste of the flavour of Peruvian folk music, and when the song was released as a single it became a hit in many countries, earning a Top Twenty placing (#18) on the American charts.
Also in 1970, Breton singer and musician
Alan Stivell(having already played the Celtic Breton harp on stage as a child, and toured since the mid-sixties) recorded his first professional album ( " Reflets" ("Reflections"), a fusion of Celtic musics with different new experiments and influences. The originality of this is also Alan Stivell's awareness, prefacing the record as a manifesto of what he called first "Ethno-modern" music, meaning exactly what "World Music" means for many people since it became fashionable. His instrumental album " Renaissance of the Celtic Harp" increased the popularity of that instrument, and promoted the fusion of Celtic music with other musics, as did the European best-selling live album recorded at the Paris Olympia (1972). His 1979 " Symphonie Celtique" mixed Celtic musics with different ethnic cultures, rock, jazz-rock, and especially with a symphonic orchestra and choirs. He continues to experiment with different combinations of these and more electronic elements, especially on " 1 Douar" ("One Earth") (1998) and "Explore" (2006).
Cameroonian jazz musician Manu Dibangoscored a surprise worldwide hit with the single " Soul Makossa", a piece considered one of the forerunners of disco. Although Dibango came from a jazz background, the single contained elements drawn from the Cameroonian folk music style known as makossa, and Dibango became one of the very first African musicians to achieve significant success in the mainstream western pop market. "Soul Makossa" also became a prominent example of cultural appropriation, when Michael Jackson"borrowed" 77 seconds of music from Dibango's single and incorporated it into his song "You Gotta Be Starting Something", from the "Thriller" album, forcing Dibango to take legal action against Jackson.
In 1975 there were several important "popular" releases that gained wide recognition and exposed pop audiences to new musical influences. In February,
Led Zeppelinreleased an ambitious "Arab-pop fusion" song, the ten-minute epic "Kashmir", from their " Physical Graffiti" LP. The song was strongly influenced by composer Jimmy Page's interest in Arabic music. Although its length made it an unlikely hit, the song became a firm favorite on American FM radiostations and was even played on Australian pop radio. Although Led Zeppelin has quite fairly been criticized for their repeated uncredited appropriations of the work of black American blues musicians like Willie Dixon, and while "Kashmir" is a clear example of cultural appropriation, like "El Cóndor Pasa" it did have the positive effect of opening the ears of many fans to a previously unknown realm of non-Western music.
In November that year
Joni Mitchellreleased her LP " The Hissing of Summer Lawns", featuring the innovative track "The Jungle Line", which mixed traditional African drumming and synthesiser. For this recording, Mitchell was accompanied by the musical group The Warrior Drums of Burundi, who were visiting America at the time.
Two other musical events in 1975 which had a significant impact on the development of World Music can both be largely credited to
Marcel Cellier, owner of the Swiss record label Disques Cellier.
That year Cellier released the dazzling "
Le Mystere Des Voix Bulgares", the first volume of an eventual three-album series of recordings of Bulgarian vocal folk music, performed by the Bulgarian State Radio Choirand Trio Bulgarka. In the years that followed, particularly after the album's re-release through the British 4AD Recordslabel, the Bulgarian Voices album became a significant cult hit in many countries and created a huge groundswell of interest in this thrilling form of eastern European folk music, leading to the 1980s collaboration between Trio Bulgarkaand acclaimed British singer-songwriter Kate Bushon her 1989 album " The Sensual World".
Cellier's other big hit of 1975 was "
Flutes De Pan et Orgue" ("Pan Flute and Organ"), a 1971 recording of traditional Romanian pan flutemusic, performed by virtuoso Romanian pan flautist Gheorge Zamfir, and accompanied by Cellier himself on organ. The international vogue for Zamfir's music is largely due to Australian film director Peter Weir. His 1975 film "Picnic at Hanging Rock", one of the most successful Australian feature films of the period, featured evocative music from the Cellier disc on the soundtrack, and the film's success created widespread interest in Zamfir and his music.
The popularization of the album was, ironically, the inadvertent outcome of a frustrated plan. Weir had been introduced to Zamfir's music a few years earlier, and when he began production on "Picnic" he decided to use pan flute music on the
soundtrack; he approached Zamfir to compose original music in the same style, but Zamfir declined, so Weir was obliged to return to the music he had originally heard and licence some of the tracks from the Cellier LP. The irony is that, although it made him internationally famous, Zamfir would have made far more money from the publishing rights if he had composed the original music Weir wanted—since all but one of the tracks on the Cellier LP were credited to the ubiquitous "trad. arr. ...".
Matthew Montfortformed Ancient Future, an ensemble of 28 members having musical masters of a song traditional to the master's country play the song along with them. Ancient Future blended rhythms, harmonies, and melodies from all across the world and mixed them together along with jazz, rock and other genres of music to combine what became world fusion music.
Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, the English film director,
Jeremy Marre, travelled the world for his "Beats of the Heart" series, shown first on the UK's national Channel 4, recording and interviewing so-called world music artists.
1980s to present
Paul Simonre-emerged as a catalytic figure when he revisited the world music / pop fusion concept he had first used on "El Cóndor Pasa" in 1970. His influential, multi-million-selling "Graceland" album bore the unmistakable stamp of Simon's recent discovery of South African "township" music, and he recorded the album with leading South African session musicians and the vocal group Ladysmith Black Mambazo. These musicians performed on the subsequent concert tours, as did two other special guests, exiled South African music legends Miriam Makebaand Hugh Masekela.
Simon received some criticism for his decision to record in South Africa (which was being economically boycotted by most Western nations for its Apartheid policies) but his championing of township music focussed enormous attention on South Africa and its indigenous musical traditions, as well as the struggle against Apartheid. The success of "Graceland" was likely directly responsible for a massive upsurge of western interest in the music of southern Africa, as well as making Ladysmith Black Mambazo (whom Simon had first seen on
Jeremy Marre's film, "Spirits of Resistance") into international stars.
Many other British and American artists contributed to the growing popular awareness of "world music" during this period. After establishing his solo career in the late 1970s and early 1980s, former Genesis lead singer
Peter Gabrielwas heavily influenced by African and Middle Eastern music; he became a key figure in the founding of the WOMADorganisation and later established his own "world music" label, Real World, which recorded and released successful albums by artists such as Nusrat Fateh Ali Kahn. Gabriel featured Senegalese " mbalax" singer Youssou N'Dourin a song on his hit album "So" in 1986, paving the way for N'Dour's success as one of the biggest "world music" stars in the West. The later music of American New Wave band Talking Headsdrew heavily on influences from African and Afro-Cuban music, notably on their album " Remain In Light". The album was among several experimental post-punkrecordings directly inspired by the Afrobeatof bandleader Fela Kuti. Kuti's style itself began as an appropriation—a merger between the traditional styles of Kuti's home Nigeria and the R&Band funk musicof African Americanartists like James Brown. Many other African musicians, as well as those from other regions of the world, also drew influence from African American music, Afro Cuban musicand other music from the West, ensuring that appropriation was continuous in many directions.
In the early 1980s, Talking Heads' main writer and lead singer David Byrne also recorded a significant album called "My Life in the Bush of Ghosts", in collaboration with the band's producer of the time,
Brian Eno. It was strongly influenced by musical styles outside the standard "rock" genre, employing African-style percussion and Afro-American funk rhythms. It is also notable as one of the first rock albums to make extensive use of the then novel technology of sampling, incorporating vocal and musical samples from a wide range of sources including Arabic music. Dub music, a more atmospheric offshoot of reggae, was also appropriated as a rhythmic and production influence by many electronic musicians and underground rock bands of the era, particularly in the United Kingdom, where reggae had achieved mainstream success.
Sampling came into wider use among
hip hopDJs, who appropriated rhythms, vocal parts or backing music from existing songs and pieces and combined and manipulated them, usually to serve as backing for rapvocals by an MC. Hip hop music began as an underground urban phenomenon in the 1970s, achieved mass popular success by the late 1980s and early 1990s, and by the end of the century it had become dominant over rock as the largest selling style of pop music and the primary musical export of the United States. The importance of musical appropriation to hip hop culturehas often been controversial, with many legal challenges to uncredited samples, and heavy criticism for instances where paid samples simply copied the sound of the original song (for example, Puff Daddy's sampling of a hit by The Police); however, many hip hop musicians and others have argued that sampling in hip hop is no different from the often uncredited appropriation white classical and rock musicians made of earlier black music styles such as jazz and blues, and that the DJ's creativity, as well as that of the rapper, allows the song to depart significantly from the original sources. Samples in hip hop are typically only brief snippets of the original, though they often utilize the most recognizeable riff or hook of the song. Many hip hop songs sample other forms of African American music, as well. Hank Shockleeof the influential hip hop group Public Enemy has publicly debated the practice with funk bandleader George Clinton, who sued Public Enemy for sampling one of his songs without permission. [ [http://www.stereogum.com/archives/george-clinton-pes-hank-shocklee-talk-sampling.html stereogum: George Clinton & PE's Hank Shocklee Talk Sampling ] ]
As of the 2000s, sampling has become a common form of appropriation in pop music, which has drawn increased influence from hip hop. For example, Barbadian
dancehall/pop singer Rihanna's 2006 hit "SOS" drew directly from the song "Tainted Love" by 1980s English synth popband Soft Cell. Although both were successful on the Western pop charts, the two acts may have been seen to reflect very different cultures before the appropriation.
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