- Beat music
Infobox Music genre
Skiffle, R&B, rock and roll, soul, doo wop, celtic music(merseybeat)
cultural_origins =late 1950s to early 1960s in
Guitar, Bass guitar, drums, Vocals, Keyboards, Harmonica
popularity =Early 1960s (see also "
Garage rock, power pop, pop punk, mod revival, Britpop, prog rock, proto-punk, pub rock, Ye-Ye, psychedelic rock
regional_scenes =Merseybeat (
Birmingham) Nederbeat( Netherlands)
British Invasion, Mod (lifestyle), Carnaby Street, Swinging London
Beat music, also known as "Merseybeat" (for bands from
Liverpoolbeside the River Mersey) or " Brumbeat" (for bands from Birmingham), etc., is a pop musicgenre that developed in the United Kingdomin the early 1960s.
Beat music is a fusion of
rock and roll, doo wop, skiffleand R&B/Soul. Beat groups characteristically had simple guitar-dominated line-ups, with vocal harmoniesand catchy tunes. Beat music has little to do with the Beat Generationliterary movement of the 1950s, and more to do with driving rhythms, which the bands had adopted from their rhythm and blues and soul music influences.
The most common instrumentation of beat groups featured lead, rhythm and bass guitars plus drums, as popularized by
The Beatles, The Searchers, Gerry and the Pacemakersand others. Beat groups - even those with a separate lead singer - often sang both verses and choruses in close harmony. The vocal harmony style often resembles doo wop, with nonsense syllables in the backing vocals. Unlike in doo-wop, falsetto and bass harmonies were rare. Unlike typical rock and roll, Merseybeat was more likely to incorporate secondary harmony, especially in the middle eight.
Merseybeat is typified by the synchronization of the bass guitar (usually playing only the root and fifth notes of the chords) and the bass drum, although often the bass guitar will play walking and boogie basslines. Although there are instrumental breaks, the focus is on the presentation of the song rather than instrumental prowess.
Beat bands were heavily influenced by American bands of the era, such as
Buddy Holly & the Crickets(whose name inspired The Beatles' name), as well as earlier British groups such as The Shadows. In turn, the beat bands influenced younger American and British musicians, especially the early garage rockbands of the late 1960s. Liverpool has a significant cultural heritage deriving from Irish and Welsh immigration in the 19th century, and hence Celtic folk musicalso influenced the Merseybeat groups.fact|date= October 2008 Other styles of music, including show tunes such as "You'll Never Walk Alone" and " Till There Was You", were also adapted.
In the late 1950s groups began to thrive in Liverpool in ballrooms and halls, and it is estimated that any one time there were around 350 different bands active in the Merseyside area. Many Liverpool beat groups were went to
Hamburg, Germanyto hone their skills. [http://www.triumphpc.com/mersey-beat/about/founders-story2.shtml Mersey Beat - the founders' story] ] The local scene was recorded in the magazine "Mersey Beat", started in 1961 by Bill Harry. Harry claims to have coined the term Mersey Beat "based on a policeman's beat and not that of the music".The Merseybeat sound remained popular only locally until the breakthrough success of The Beatles, Gerry and the Pacemakers, Cilla Blackand other artists.
In 1964, a "
British Invasion" of acts led by The Beatles swept across the Atlantic Oceanand stormed the charts in North America. By 1966, Merseybeat was considered passé, and had given way to the psychedelic rock of the mid- to late 1960s.
Gerry & The Pacemakers
Rory Storm and the Hurricanes
The Swinging Blue Jeans
*The Big Three
Billy J Kramer
Freddie and the Dreamers
Brian Poole and the Tremeloes
The Dave Clark Five
*Spencer Leigh: "Twist and Shout! - Merseybeat, The Cavern, The Star-Club and The Beatles" Nirvana Books (2004) ISBN 0950620157 (updated version of "Let's Go Down to the Cavern")
Popular beat combo
* [http://www.triumphpc.com/mersey-beat/ Mersey Beat magazine, including history of genre]
* [http://www.merseybeatnostalgia.co.uk/ Merseybeat Nostalgia]
* [http://www.merseybeatabd.co.uk/home.htm Merseybeat ABD]
* [http://www.britishpathe.com/product_display.php?Search.x=0&Search.y=0&searchword=fourmost Newsreel footage of The Fourmost]
* [http://www.britishpathe.com/product_display.php?Search.x=0&Search.y=0&searchword=cavern+mersey+sound Short news story on Mersey Sound]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.