List of birds of Taiwan

List of birds of Taiwan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Taiwan. The avifauna of Taiwan includes a total of 471 species, of which 15 are endemic, 1 has been introduced by humans, and 76 are rare or accidental. 27 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Taiwan.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Taiwan.
* (E) Endemic A species endemic to Taiwan.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Taiwan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.

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Loons

Order: GaviiformesFamily: Gaviidae

Loons, known as Divers in Europe, are group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Europe. They are the size of a large duck or small goose, which they somewhat resembles in shape when swimming, but they completely unrelated to these waterfowl. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Red-throated Loon "Gavia stellata" (A)
*Arctic Loon "Gavia arctica"

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"
*Great Crested Grebe "Podiceps cristatus"
*Horned Grebe "Podiceps auritus"
*Eared Grebe "Podiceps nigricollis"

Albatrosses

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 21 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Short-tailed Albatross "Phoebastria albatrus"
*Black-footed Albatross "Phoebastria nigripes"
*Yellow-nosed Albatross "Thalassarche chlororhynchos" (A)

hearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Tahiti Petrel "Pterodroma rostrata" (A)
*Bonin Petrel "Pterodroma hypoleuca"
*Bulwer's Petrel "Bulweria bulwerii" (A)
*Streaked Shearwater "Calonectris leucomelas"
*Flesh-footed Shearwater "Puffinus carneipes"
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater "Puffinus pacificus"
*Sooty Shearwater "Puffinus griseus"
*Short-tailed Shearwater "Puffinus tenuirostris"

torm-Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma monorhis"

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Red-tailed Tropicbird "Phaethon rubricauda" (A)
*White-tailed Tropicbird "Phaethon lepturus" (A)

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Spot-billed Pelican "Pelecanus philippensis"
*Dalmatian Pelican "Pelecanus crispus" (A)

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Great Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Japanese Cormorant "Phalacrocorax capillatus"
*Pelagic Cormorant "Phalacrocorax pelagicus" (A)
*Red-faced Cormorant "Phalacrocorax urile" (A)

Frigatebirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Great Frigatebird "Fregata minor" (A)
*Lesser Frigatebird "Fregata ariel" (A)

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Gray Heron "Ardea cinerea" (A)
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Pied Heron "Egretta picata"
*Intermediate Egret "Egretta intermedia"
*White-faced Heron "Egretta novaehollandiae"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Chinese Egret "Egretta eulophotes"
*Pacific Reef-Heron "Egretta sacra"
*Chinese Pond-Heron "Ardeola bacchus" (A)
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Japanese Night-Heron "Gorsachius goisagi"
*Malayan Night-Heron "Gorsachius melanolophus"
*Yellow Bittern "Ixobrychus sinensis"
*Schrenck's Bittern "Ixobrychus eurhythmus" (A)
*Cinnamon Bittern "Ixobrychus cinnamomeus"
*Black Bittern "Ixobrychus flavicollis"
*Great Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black Stork "Ciconia nigra"
*White Stork "Ciconia ciconia"
*Oriental Stork "Ciconia boyciana"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black-headed Ibis "Threskiornis melanocephalus"
*Crested Ibis "Nipponia nippon" (A)
*Eurasian Spoonbill "Platalea leucorodia" (A)
*Black-faced Spoonbill "Platalea minor"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 37 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Lesser Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna javanica" (A)
*Mute Swan "Cygnus olor" (A)
*Whooper Swan "Cygnus cygnus" (A)
*Tundra Swan "Cygnus columbianus"
*Swan Goose "Anser cygnoides"
*Bean Goose "Anser fabalis"
*Greater White-fronted Goose "Anser albifrons"
*Lesser White-fronted Goose "Anser erythropus"
*Greylag Goose "Anser anser"
*Brant "Branta bernicla"
*Ruddy Shelduck "Tadorna ferruginea" (A)
*Common Shelduck "Tadorna tadorna"
*Cotton Pygmy-goose "Nettapus coromandelianus" (A)
*Mandarin Duck "Aix galericulata"
*Eurasian Wigeon "Anas penelope"
*American Wigeon "Anas americana"
*Falcated Duck "Anas falcata"
*Gadwall "Anas strepera"
*Baikal Teal "Anas formosa" (A)
*Eurasian Teal "Anas crecca"
*Mallard "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Spot-billed Duck "Anas poecilorhyncha"
*Philippine Duck "Anas luzonica" (A)
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta"
*Garganey "Anas querquedula"
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Common Pochard "Aythya ferina" (A)
*Canvasback "Aythya valisineria"
*Ferruginous Pochard "Aythya nyroca"
*Baer's Pochard "Aythya baeri"
*Tufted Duck "Aythya fuligula"
*Greater Scaup "Aythya marila"
*Common Goldeneye "Bucephala clangula" (A)
*Smew "Mergellus albellus"
*Red-breasted Merganser "Mergus serrator"
*Common Merganser "Mergus merganser" (A)
*Scaly-sided Merganser "Mergus squamatus" (A)

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 23 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Oriental Honey-buzzard "Pernis ptilorhynchus"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*White-bellied Sea-Eagle "Haliaeetus leucogaster"
*White-tailed Eagle "Haliaeetus albicilla"
*Cinereous Vulture "Aegypius monachus" (A)
*Crested Serpent-Eagle "Spilornis cheela"
*Eastern Marsh-Harrier "Circus spilonotus"
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*Pied Harrier "Circus melanoleucos" (A)
*Crested Goshawk "Accipiter trivirgatus"
*Shikra "Accipiter badius" (A)
*Chinese Goshawk "Accipiter soloensis"
*Japanese Sparrowhawk "Accipiter gularis"
*Besra "Accipiter virgatus"
*Eurasian Sparrowhawk "Accipiter nisus"
*Northern Goshawk "Accipiter gentilis"
*Gray-faced Buzzard "Butastur indicus"
*Eurasian Buzzard "Buteo buteo"
*Rough-legged Hawk "Buteo lagopus"
*Black Eagle "Ictinaetus malayensis"
*Greater Spotted Eagle "Aquila clanga"
*Imperial Eagle "Aquila heliaca" (A)
*Mountain Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus nipalensis"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Eurasian Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Merlin "Falco columbarius"
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus" (A)

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Japanese Quail "Coturnix japonica"
*Blue-breasted Quail "Coturnix chinensis"
*Taiwan Partridge "Arborophila crudigularis" (E)
*Chinese Bamboo-Partridge "Bambusicola thoracica"
*Swinhoe's Pheasant "Lophura swinhoii" (E)
*Silver Pheasant "Lophura nycthemera"
*Mikado Pheasant "Syrmaticus mikado" (E)
*Ring-necked Pheasant "Phasianus colchicus"

Buttonquails

Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails.The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"
*Barred Buttonquail "Turnix suscitator"

Cranes

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*White-naped Crane "Grus vipio" (A)
*Common Crane "Grus grus"
*Hooded Crane "Grus monacha"
*Red-crowned Crane "Grus japonensis" (A)

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Red-legged Crake "Rallina fasciata" (A)
*Slaty-legged Crake "Rallina eurizonoides"
*Slaty-breasted Rail "Gallirallus striatus"
*Water Rail "Rallus aquaticus"
*White-breasted Waterhen "Amaurornis phoenicurus"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla" (A)
*Ruddy-breasted Crake "Porzana fusca"
*White-browed Crake "Porzana cinerea"
*Watercock "Gallicrex cinerea"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Eurasian Coot "Fulica atra"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Pheasant-tailed Jacana "Hydrophasianus chirurgus"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Greater Painted-snipe "Rostratula benghalensis"

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Eurasian Oystercatcher "Haematopus ostralegus"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*Pied Avocet "Recurvirostra avosetta" (A)

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Oriental Pratincole "Glareola maldivarum"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Northern Lapwing "Vanellus vanellus"
*Gray-headed Lapwing "Vanellus cinereus" (A)
*Pacific Golden-Plover "Pluvialis fulva"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Long-billed Plover "Charadrius placidus"
*Little Ringed Plover "Charadrius dubius"
*Snowy Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Lesser Sandplover "Charadrius mongolus"
*Greater Sandplover "Charadrius leschenaultii"
*Oriental Plover "Charadrius veredus"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 45 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Eurasian Woodcock "Scolopax rusticola"
*Jack Snipe "Lymnocryptes minimus" (A)
*Latham's Snipe "Gallinago hardwickii" (A)
*Pintail Snipe "Gallinago stenura"
*Swinhoe's Snipe "Gallinago megala"
*Common Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"
*Long-billed Dowitcher "Limnodromus scolopaceus"
*Asian Dowitcher "Limnodromus semipalmatus"
*Black-tailed Godwit "Limosa limosa"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
*Little Curlew "Numenius minutus"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Far Eastern Curlew "Numenius madagascariensis"
*Spotted Redshank "Tringa erythropus"
*Common Redshank "Tringa totanus"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Nordmann's Greenshank "Tringa guttifer" (A)
*Lesser Yellowlegs "Tringa flavipes"
*Green Sandpiper "Tringa ochropus"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Terek Sandpiper "Xenus cinereus"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Gray-tailed Tattler "Heterosceles brevipes"
*Wandering Tattler "Heterosceles incanus"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Great Knot "Calidris tenuirostris"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Western Sandpiper "Calidris mauri" (A)
*Red-necked Stint "Calidris ruficollis"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Temminck's Stint "Calidris temminckii"
*Long-toed Stint "Calidris subminuta"
*Sharp-tailed Sandpiper "Calidris acuminata"
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina"
*Stilt Sandpiper "Calidris himantopus" (A)
*Spoon-billed Sandpiper "Eurynorhynchus pygmeus"
*Broad-billed Sandpiper "Limicola falcinellus"
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"
*Red-necked Phalarope "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope "Phalaropus fulicarius" (A)

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*South Polar Skua "Stercorarius maccormicki" (A)
*Parasitic Jaeger "Stercorarius parasiticus" (A)

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black-tailed Gull "Larus crassirostris"
*Mew Gull "Larus canus"
*Glaucous Gull "Larus hyperboreus"
*Herring Gull "Larus argentatus"
*East Siberian Gull "Larus vegae"
*Slaty-backed Gull "Larus schistisagus" (A)
*Black-headed Gull "Larus ridibundus"
*Saunders's Gull "Larus saundersi"
*Black-legged Kittiwake "Rissa tridactyla"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Chinese Crested Tern "Sterna bernsteini"
*Great Crested Tern "Sterna bergii"
*Roseate Tern "Sterna dougallii"
*Black-naped Tern "Sterna sumatrana"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Little Tern "Sterna albifrons"
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata"
*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"
*Black Tern "Chlidonias niger"
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus"

Auks, Murres, and Puffins

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins bnd differ in being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Ancient Murrelet "Synthliboramphus antiquus" (A)
*Japanese Murrelet "Synthliboramphus wumizusume" (A)

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia" (I)
*Ashy Wood-Pigeon "Columba pulchricollis"
*Japanese Wood-Pigeon "Columba janthina"
*Oriental Turtle-Dove "Streptopelia orientalis"
*Red Collared-Dove "Streptopelia tranquebarica"
*Spotted Dove "Streptopelia chinensis"
*Philippine Cuckoo-Dove "Macropygia tenuirostris"
*Emerald Dove "Chalcophaps indica"
*Orange-breasted Pigeon "Treron bicincta" (A)
*White-bellied Pigeon "Treron sieboldii"
*Whistling Green-Pigeon "Treron formosae"
*Black-chinned Fruit-Dove "Ptilinopus leclancheri" (A)

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Chestnut-winged Cuckoo "Clamator coromandus" (A)
*Large Hawk-Cuckoo "Cuculus sparverioides"
*Common Cuckoo "Cuculus canorus" (A)
*Oriental Cuckoo "Cuculus saturatus"
*Lesser Cuckoo "Cuculus poliocephalus"
*Asian Koel "Eudynamys scolopacea" (A)
*Lesser Coucal "Centropus bengalensis"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Australasian Grass-Owl "Tyto longimembris"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Mountain Scops-Owl "Otus spilocephalus"
*Collared Scops-Owl "Otus lettia"
*Oriental Scops-Owl "Otus sunia"
*Ryukyu Scops-Owl "Otus elegans"
*Tawny Fish-Owl "Ketupa flavipes"
*Brown Wood-Owl "Strix leptogrammica"
*Tawny Owl "Strix aluco"
*Collared Owlet "Glaucidium brodiei"
*Brown Hawk-Owl "Ninox scutulata"
*Long-eared Owl "Asio otus"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Gray Nightjar "Caprimulgus indicus"
*Savanna Nightjar "Caprimulgus affinis"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*White-throated Needletail "Hirundapus caudacutus"
*Silver-backed Needletail "Hirundapus cochinchinensis"
*Fork-tailed Swift "Apus pacificus"
*House Swift "Apus nipalensis"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Common Kingfisher "Alcedo atthis"
*Ruddy Kingfisher "Halcyon coromanda"
*White-throated Kingfisher "Halcyon smyrnensis" (A)
*Black-capped Kingfisher "Halcyon pileata" (A)

Typical Rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Dollarbird "Eurystomus orientalis"

Hoopoes

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"

Barbets

Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Black-browed Barbet "Megalaima oorti"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Eurasian Wryneck "Jynx torquilla" (A)
*Gray-capped Woodpecker "Dendrocopos canicapillus"
*White-backed Woodpecker "Dendrocopos leucotos"
*Gray-faced Woodpecker "Picus canus"

Pittas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, and stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many, but not all, are brightly coloured. They are spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey which they find there. There are 32 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Fairy Pitta "Pitta nympha"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Oriental Skylark "Alauda gulgula"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Plain Martin "Riparia paludicola"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*Pacific Swallow "Hirundo tahitica"
*Striated Swallow "Cecropis striolata"
*Asian Martin "Delichon dasypus"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Forest Wagtail "Dendronanthus indicus" (A)
*White Wagtail "Motacilla alba"
*Black-backed Wagtail "Motacilla lugens"
*Japanese Wagtail "Motacilla grandis" (A)
*Citrine Wagtail "Motacilla citreola"
*Yellow Wagtail "Motacilla flava"
*Gray Wagtail "Motacilla cinerea"
*Olive-backed Pipit "Anthus hodgsoni"
*Pechora Pipit "Anthus gustavi"
*Red-throated Pipit "Anthus cervinus"
*American Pipit "Anthus rubescens"

Cuckoo-shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Large Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina macei"
*Black-winged Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina melaschistos"
*Ashy Minivet "Pericrocotus divaricatus"
*Gray-chinned Minivet "Pericrocotus solaris"

Bulbuls

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.There are 130 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Collared Finchbill "Spizixos semitorques"
*Styan's Bulbul "Pycnonotus taivanus" (E)
*Light-vented Bulbul "Pycnonotus sinensis"
*Brown-eared Bulbul "Ixos amaurotis"
*Black Bulbul "Hypsipetes leucocephalus"

Kinglets

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Regulidae

The kinglets or crests are a small group of birds often included in the Old World warblers, but frequently given family status because they also resemble the titmice. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Goldcrest "Regulus regulus" (A)
*Flamecrest "Regulus goodfellowi" (E)

Waxwings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterized by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Bohemian Waxwing "Bombycilla garrulus"
*Japanese Waxwing "Bombycilla japonica" (A)

Dippers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

Dippers are a group of perching birds whose habitat includes aquatic environments in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Brown Dipper "Cinclus pallasii"

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Winter Wren "Troglodytes troglodytes"

Accentors

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prunellidae

The accentors are in the only bird family, Prunellidae, which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. They are small, fairly drab species superficially similar to sparrows. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Alpine Accentor "Prunella collaris"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Blue Rock-Thrush "Monticola solitarius"
*Formosan Whistling-Thrush "Myophonus insularis" (E)
*Siberian Thrush "Zoothera sibirica"
*Scaly Thrush "Zoothera dauma"
*Gray-backed Thrush "Turdus hortulorum"
*Japanese Thrush "Turdus cardis"
*Eurasian Blackbird "Turdus merula"
*Island Thrush "Turdus poliocephalus"
*Eyebrowed Thrush "Turdus obscurus"
*Pale Thrush "Turdus pallidus"
*Brown-headed Thrush "Turdus chrysolaus"
*Dusky Thrush "Turdus naumanni"
*White-browed Shortwing "Brachypteryx montana"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Golden-headed Cisticola "Cisticola exilis"
*Striated Prinia "Prinia criniger"
*Yellow-bellied Prinia "Prinia flaviventris"
*Plain Prinia "Prinia inornata"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 19 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Asian Stubtail "Urosphena squameiceps"
*Manchurian Bush-Warbler "Cettia canturians"
*Brownish-flanked Bush-Warbler "Cettia fortipes"
*Yellowish-bellied Bush-Warbler "Cettia acanthizoides"
*Russet Bush-Warbler "Bradypterus seebohmi"
*Taiwan Bush-Warbler "Bradypterus alishanensis" (E)
*Lanceolated Warbler "Locustella lanceolata"
*Pallas's Warbler "Locustella certhiola"
*Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler "Locustella ochotensis" (A)
*Gray's Warbler "Locustella fasciolata" (A)
*Black-browed Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus bistrigiceps"
*Oriental Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus orientalis"
*Dusky Warbler "Phylloscopus fuscatus"
*Lemon-rumped Warbler "Phylloscopus proregulus"
*Yellow-browed Warbler "Phylloscopus inornatus"
*Arctic Warbler "Phylloscopus borealis"
*Pale-legged Leaf-Warbler "Phylloscopus tenellipes"
*Eastern Crowned Leaf-Warbler "Phylloscopus coronatus" (A)
*Rufous-faced Warbler "Abroscopus albogularis"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 26 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Gray-spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa griseisticta"
*Siberian Flycatcher "Muscicapa sibirica"
*Asian Brown Flycatcher "Muscicapa dauurica"
*Ferruginous Flycatcher "Muscicapa ferruginea"
*Korean Flycatcher "Ficedula zanthopygia"
*Narcissus Flycatcher "Ficedula narcissina" (A)
*Mugimaki Flycatcher "Ficedula mugimaki" (A)
*Red-breasted Flycatcher "Ficedula parva"
*Snowy-browed Flycatcher "Ficedula hyperythra"
*Blue-and-white Flycatcher "Cyanoptila cyanomelana"
*Vivid Niltava "Niltava vivida"
*Japanese Robin "Erithacus akahige" (A)
*Ryukyu Robin "Erithacus komadori"
*Siberian Rubythroat "Luscinia calliope"
*Bluethroat "Luscinia svecica" (A)
*Siberian Blue Robin "Luscinia cyane"
*Red-flanked Bluetail "Tarsiger cyanurus"
*White-browed Bush-Robin "Tarsiger indicus"
*Collared Bush-Robin "Tarsiger johnstoniae" (E)
*Black Redstart "Phoenicurus ochruros"
*Daurian Redstart "Phoenicurus auroreus"
*Plumbeous Redstart "Rhyacornis fuliginosus"
*White-tailed Robin "Cinclidium leucurum"
*Siberian Stonechat "Saxicola maura"
*Little Forktail "Enicurus scouleri"
*Gray Bushchat "Saxicola ferrea" (A)

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black-naped Monarch "Hypothymis azurea"
*Japanese Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone atrocaudata"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Taiwan.

*White-throated Laughingthrush "Garrulax albogularis"
*Rusty Laughingthrush "Garrulax poecilorhynchus"
*Hwamei "Garrulax canorus"
*White-whiskered Laughingthrush "Garrulax morrisonianus" (E)
*Steere's Liocichla "Liocichla steerii" (E)
*Spot-breasted Scimitar-Babbler "Pomatorhinus erythrocnemis"
*Streak-breasted Scimitar-Babbler "Pomatorhinus ruficollis"
*Scaly-breasted Wren-Babbler "Pnoepyga albiventer"
*Pygmy Wren-Babbler "Pnoepyga pusilla"
*Rufous-capped Babbler "Stachyris ruficeps"
*Taiwan Barwing "Actinodura morrisoniana" (E)
*Streak-throated Fulvetta "Alcippe cinereiceps"
*Dusky Fulvetta "Alcippe brunnea"
*Gray-cheeked Fulvetta "Alcippe morrisonia"
*White-eared Sibia "Heterophasia auricularis" (E)
*Taiwan Yuhina "Yuhina brunneiceps" (E)
*White-bellied Yuhina "Yuhina zantholeuca"

Parrotbills

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paradoxornithidae

The parrotbills are a group of birds native to East and Southeast Asia, though feral populations are known from elsewhere. They are generally small, long-tailed birds which inhabit reedbeds and similar habitats. There are 20 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Vinous-throated Parrotbill "Paradoxornis webbianus"
*Golden Parrotbill "Paradoxornis verreauxi"

Long-tailed tits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Aegithalidae

Long-tailed tits are a group of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They make woven bag nests in trees. Most eat a mixed diet that includes insects. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Black-throated Tit "Aegithalos concinnus"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 5 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Coal Tit "Periparus ater"
*Great Tit "Parus major" (A)
*Green-backed Tit "Parus monticolus"
*Yellow Tit "Macholophus holsti" (E)
*Varied Tit "Sittiparus varius"

Nuthatches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Eurasian Nuthatch "Sitta europaea"

Penduline tits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

The penduline tits are a group of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. They are insectivores. There are 13 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Taiwan.

*Chinese Penduline-Tit "Remiz consobrinus"

Flowerpeckers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicaeidae

The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues. There are 44 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Plain Flowerpecker "Dicaeum concolor"
*Fire-breasted Flowerpecker "Dicaeum ignipectus"

White-eyes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Japanese White-eye "Zosterops japonicus"
*Lowland White-eye "Zosterops meyeni"

Old World Orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black-naped Oriole "Oriolus chinensis"
*Maroon Oriole "Oriolus traillii"

hrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Tiger Shrike "Lanius tigrinus" (A)
*Bull-headed Shrike "Lanius bucephalus"
*Brown Shrike "Lanius cristatus"
*Long-tailed Shrike "Lanius schach"
*Chinese Gray Shrike "Lanius sphenocercus"

Drongos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Black Drongo "Dicrurus macrocercus"
*Ashy Drongo "Dicrurus leucophaeus"
*Bronzed Drongo "Dicrurus aeneus"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Eurasian Jay "Garrulus glandarius"
*Formosan Magpie "Urocissa caerulea" (E)
*Gray Treepie "Dendrocitta formosae"
*Eurasian Magpie "Pica pica"
*Eurasian Nutcracker "Nucifraga caryocatactes"
*Daurian Jackdaw "Corvus dauuricus" (A)
*Rook "Corvus frugilegus"
*Large-billed Crow "Corvus macrorhynchos"
*Collared Crow "Corvus torquatus" (A)

tarlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Crested Myna "Acridotheres cristatellus"
*Daurian Starling "Sturnia sturnina"
*Chestnut-cheeked Starling "Sturnia philippensis"
*White-shouldered Starling "Sturnia sinensis"
*Red-billed Starling "Sturnus sericeus"
*White-cheeked Starling "Sturnus cineraceus"
*European Starling "Sturnus vulgaris"

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Taiwan.

*White-rumped Munia "Lonchura striata"
*Nutmeg Mannikin "Lonchura punctulata"
*Chestnut Munia "Lonchura atricapilla"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 15 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Crested Bunting "Melophus lathami" (A)
*Meadow Bunting "Emberiza cioides"
*Tristram's Bunting "Emberiza tristrami"
*Chestnut-eared Bunting "Emberiza fucata"
*Little Bunting "Emberiza pusilla"
*Yellow-browed Bunting "Emberiza chrysophrys"
*Rustic Bunting "Emberiza rustica"
*Yellow-throated Bunting "Emberiza elegans"
*Yellow-breasted Bunting "Emberiza aureola"
*Chestnut Bunting "Emberiza rutila" (A)
*Red-headed Bunting "Emberiza bruniceps"
*Yellow Bunting "Emberiza sulphurata"
*Black-faced Bunting "Emberiza spodocephala"
*Pallas's Bunting "Emberiza pallasi"
*Reed Bunting "Emberiza schoeniclus"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Brambling "Fringilla montifringilla"
*Common Rosefinch "Carpodacus erythrinus"
*Vinaceous Rosefinch "Carpodacus vinaceus"
*Common Redpoll "Carduelis flammea"
*Eurasian Siskin "Carduelis spinus"
*Oriental Greenfinch "Carduelis sinica"
*Brown Bullfinch "Pyrrhula nipalensis"
*Gray-headed Bullfinch "Pyrrhula erythaca"
*Hawfinch "Coccothraustes coccothraustes"
*Yellow-billed Grosbeak "Eophona migratoria"
*Japanese Grosbeak "Eophona personata" (A)

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Taiwan.

*Russet Sparrow "Passer rutilans"
*Eurasian Tree Sparrow "Passer montanus"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=tw&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Taiwan
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 27 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880


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