- History of breastfeeding
Breastfeedingis the feeding of breastmilk to a child directly from mouth to breast contact.
Various substitutes for
breast milkhave been introduced around the world, most notably infant formula.
In the Egyptian, Greek and
Roman empires, women usually fed only their own children. However, breastfeeding began to be seen as something too common to be done by royalty, and wet nurses were employed to breastfeed the children of the royal families. This was extended over the ages, particularly in western Europe, where noble women often made use of wet nurses.
Shared breastfeeding is still practised in many
developing countrieswhen mothers need help in feeding their children.
Traditionally, Japanese women gave birth at home and breastfed with the help of breast
massage. Weaning was often late, with breastfeeding in rare cases continuing until early adolescence. After World War II Western medicinewas taken to Japan and the women began giving birth in hospitals, where the baby was usually taken to the nursery and fed formula. In 1974 a new breastfeeding promotion by the government helped to boost the awareness of its benefits and the uptake has sharply increased. Japan became the first developed country to have a baby-friendly hospital, and as of 2006 has another 24 such facilities.Payne, Cynthia, IBCLC. "Japanese Culture and Breastfeeding." New Beginnings, Vol. 20 No. 5, September-October 2003, pp. 181]
A 1994 Canadian government health survey found that 73% of Canadian mothers initiated breastfeeding, up from 38% in 1963. It has been speculated that the gap between breastfeeding generations in Canada contributes to lack of success of those who do attempt it: new parents cannot look to older family members for help with breastfeeding since they are also ignorant on the topic.cite web | title=Rates of Breastfeeding | work=Canadian Perinatal Health Report 2003 | url=http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cphr-rspc03/pdf/cphr-rspc03_e.pdf (PDF) | accessdate=2007-01-26] Western Canadians are more likely to breastfeed; just 53% of Atlantic province mothers breastfeed, compared to 87% in British Columbia. More than 90% of women surveyed said they breastfeed because it provides more benefits for the baby than does formula. Of women who did not breastfeed, 40% said formula feeding was easier (the most prevalent answer). Women who were older, more educated, had higher income, and were married were the most likely to breastfeed. Immigrant women were also more likely to breastfeed. About 40% of mothers who breastfeed do so for less than three months. Women were most likely to discontinue breastfeeding if they perceived themselves to have insufficient milk. However, among women who breastfed for more than three months, returning to work or a previous decision to stop at that time were the top reasons.
La Leche League Internationalstudy found that 72% of Canadian mothers initiate breastfeeding and that 31% continue to do so past four to five months.cite web | title=Breastfeeding Statistics | date=2003-09-15 | work=LLLI Center for Breastfeeding Information | url=http://www.lalecheleague.org/cbi/bfstats03.html | accessdate=2007-01-26]
A 1996 article in the Canadian Journal of Public Health found that, in Vancouver, 82.9% of mothers initiated breastfeeding, but that this differed by Caucasian (91.6%) and non-Caucasian (56.8%) women.cite journal |author=Williams P, Innis S, Vogel A |title=Breastfeeding and weaning practices in Vancouver |journal=Can J Public Health |volume=87 |issue=4 |pages=231–6 |year=1996 |pmid=8870300] Just 18.2% of mothers breastfeed at nine months; breastfeeding practices were significantly associated with the mothers' marital status, education and family income.
Cuba's constitution has contained a provision officially recognising and supporting breastfeeding. Article 68 of the 1975 constitution reads, in part:"During the six weeks immediately preceding childbirth and the six weeks following, a woman shall enjoy obligatory vacation from work on pay at the same rate, retaining her employment and all the rights pertaining to such employment and to her labour contract. During the nursing period, two extraordinary daily rest periods of a half hour each shall be allowed her to feed her child".
In many countries, particularly those with a generally poor level of health,
malnutritionis the majority cause of death in children under 5, with 50% of all those cases being within the first year of life.cite journal |author=Shrimpton R |title=Preventing low birthweight and reduction of child mortality |journal=Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg |volume=97 |issue=1 |pages=39–42 |year=2003 |pmid=12886803 |doi=10.1016/S0035-9203(03)90015-0] International organisations such as Plan Internationaland La Leche Leaguehave helped to promote breastfeeding around the world, educating new mothers and helping the governments to develop strategies to increase the number of women exclusively breastfeeding.
Traditional beliefs in many developing countries give different advice to women raising their newborn child. In
Ghanababies are still frequently fed with teaalongside breastfeeding, reducing the benefits of breastfeeding and inhibiting the absorption of iron, important in the prevention of anaemia.cite web | author=Elliott, Jane| title=Breastfeeding could save lives |publisher=BBC News | date= 2003-04-25 | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2973845.stm | accessdate=2007-01-26]
Publicity, promotion and law
In response to public pressure, the health departments of various governments have recognised the importance of encouraging mothers to breastfeed. The required provision of
baby changing facilitieswas a large step towards making public places more accessible for parents and in many countries there are now laws in place to protect the rights of a breastfeeding mother when feeding her child in public.
World Health Organization(WHO), along with grassroots non-governmental organisationslike the International Baby Food Action Network(IBFAN) have played a large role in encouraging these governmental departments to promote breastfeeding. Under this advice they have developed national breastfeeding strategies, including the promotion of its benefits and attempts to encourage mothers, particularly those under the age of 25, to choose to feed their child with breast milk.
Government campaigns and strategies around the world include:
* [http://www.breastfeeding.nhs.uk/nb_nbaw.asp National Breastfeeding Week] in the
*The [http://www.health.gov.au/pubhlth/strateg/brfeed/index.htm Department of Health and Ageing Breastfeeding Strategy] in
*The [http://www.4women.gov/ National Women's Health Information Center] in the
* [http://www.waba.org.my/ World Breastfeeding Week]
However, there has been a long, ongoing struggle between corporations promoting artificial substitutes and grassroots organisations and WHO promoting breastfeeding. The
International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substituteswas developed in 1981 by WHO, but violations have been reported by organisations, including those networked in IBFAN. In particular, Nestlétook three years before it initially implemented the code, and in the late 1990s and early 2000s was again found in violation. Nestlé had previously faced a boycott, beginning in the U.S. but soon spreading through the rest of the world, for marketing practices in the third world (see Nestlé boycott).
Breastfeeding in public
A breastfeeding mother in public with her baby will often need to breastfeed her child. A baby's need to feed cannot be determined by a set schedule, so legal and social rules about
indecent exposureand dress codeare often adapted to meet this need.cite journal | author = | title = Breastfeeding Legislation in the United States: A General Overview and Implications for Helping Mothers | journal = LEAVEN | year = 2005 | volume = 41 | issue = 3 | pages = 51–4 | url=http://www.llli.org/llleaderweb/LV/LVJunJul05p51.html ] Many laws around the world make public breastfeeding legal and disallow companies from prohibiting it in the workplace, but the reaction of some people to the sight of breastfeeding can make things uncomfortable for those involved.cite book | last=Jordan | first=Tim | coauthors=Pile, Steve (eds.) | title = Social Change | pages=p. 233 | publisher = Blackwell | year = 2002 | id = ISBN 0-631-23311-1 ] Some breastfeeding mothers feel reluctant to breastfeed in public.
United States House of Representativesappropriations bill (HR 2490) with a [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d106:HZ00295: breastfeeding amendment] was signed into law on September 29, 1999. It stipulated that no government funds may be used to enforce any prohibition on women breastfeeding their children in Federal buildings or on Federal property. Further, [http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=106_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ058.106 U.S. Public Law 106-58 Sec. 647] enacted in 1999, specifically provides that "a woman may breastfeed her child at any location in a Federal building or on Federal property, if the woman and her child are otherwise authorized to be present at the location." A majority of states have enacted state statutes specifically permitting the exposure of the female breast by women breastfeeding infants, or exempting such women from prosecution under applicable statutes,cite web | title="50 State Summary of Breastfeeding Laws" | url=http://www.ncsl.org/programs/health/breast50.htm | publisher=National Conference of State Legislatures | accessdate=2007-04-14] such as those regarding indecent exposure.
Most, but not all,
state laws have affirmed the same right in their public places. By June 2006, 36 states had enacted legislation to protect breastfeeding mothers and their children. Laws protecting the right to nurse aim to change attitudes and promote increased incidence and duration of breastfeeding.cite web | title=Current Summary of Breastfeeding Legislation in the US | author=Baldwin EN | coauthors= Harvey S, Vance MR | url=http://www.llli.org/Law/LawBills.html | publisher= La Leche League International | accessdate=2007-01-23] Recent attempts to codify a child's right to nurse were unsuccessful in West Virginiaand other states.cite web | author=White A | title=West Virginia Legislative Setback | url=http://www.breastfeeding123.com/west-virginia-legislative-setback/ | accessdate=2007-04-14] Nowhere is breastfeeding in public illegal.
In November 2006, Emily Gillette, a 27-year-old from
Santa Fe, New Mexicowas refused service in Burlington, Vermontafter being asked to leave a Freedom Airlinesflight by a flight attendant after Gillette refused to breastfeed her child under a blanket.cite web | last= Barsch | first= Sky |title=Woman alleges she was kicked off Burlington flight for breast-feeding | date=2006-11-14 |publisher=Burlington Free Press | url=http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,229390,00.html | accessdate=2007-01-24]
A UK Department of Health survey found that 84% (about 5 out of 6 people) find breastfeeding in public acceptable if done discreetly, however 67% (2 out of 3) mothers are worried about general opinion being against public breastfeeding.cite press release | title = Myths stop women giving babies the best start in life | publisher = UK Department of Health | date = 2004-05-10 | url = http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PressReleases/PressReleasesNotices/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4081944&chk=b8wDo%2B | accessdate = 2007-02-16 ] To combat these fears in
Scotland, a bill safeguarding the freedom of women to breastfeed in public was passed in 2005 by the Scottish Parliament.cite web | title= Breastfeeding etc. (Scotland) Act 2005 | publisher=Queen's Printer for Scotland | date=2005-02-10 | url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/acts2005/20050001.htm | accessdate=2007-01-24] The legislation allows for fines of up to £2500 for preventing breastfeeding in legally permitted places.cite web | title=MSPs approve breastfeeding move | date=2004-09-23 | publisher= BBC News | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/3682824.stm | accessdate=2007-01-24]
Canada, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedomsgives some protection under sex equality. Although Canadian human rights protection does not explicitly include breastfeeding, a 1989 Supreme Court of Canadadecision ( Brooks v. Safeway Canada) set the precedent for pregnancyas a condition unique to women and that thus discrimination on the basis of pregnancy is a form of sex discrimination. Canadian legal precedent also allows women the right to bare their breasts, just as men may. In British Columbia, the British Columbia Human Rights Commission Policy and Procedures Manual protects the rights of female workers who wish to breastfeed.
When a Peruvian immigrant in the USA had a photograph taken of the act of breastfeeding, American police forces alerted by a photo lab technician briefly considered it to be sexual abuse and production of
child pornography, resulting in the mother's arrest and the seizure of her children:
: "Victor Jaeger...says he was prepared to testify on the couple's behalf and explain what appears to him to have been a cultural misunderstanding. Jaeger, who grew up in Peru, says breast-feeding is culturally important in his native country and considered acceptable to do in public, particularly in the country's jungle regions. "My cousin sent me a picture of her newborn, and it was of the baby being breast-fed," he says. "As someone who has lived here for 20 years, I asked myself, 'Why did she send me "that" picture?' To her, it was nothing."
: [http://www.dallasobserver.com/issues/2003-04-17/feature2_full.html 1-Hour Arrest] , Thomas Korosec, Dallas Observer, Apr 17, 2003
Recent global uptake
The following table shows the uptake of exclusive breastfeeding. [ [http://www.who.int/nutrition/databases/infantfeeding/en/index.html WHO Global Data Bank on Breastfeeding] and [http://www.childinfo.org/eddb/brfeed/test/database.htm UNICEF Global Database Breastfeeding Indicators] ]
Alternatives first became popular in the late 15th century with many mothers substituting cow or
goat's milkfor their own breast milk. This was particularly necessary for those families working the land where time could not easily be taken to breastfeed the child. Such trends soon faded when the problems associated with these milks started to show, and by the mid to late 16th century breastfeeding once again became the preferred feeding method for most families.Fact|date=February 2007 In 1582, the Italian physician Geronimo Mercurialiwrote in "De morbis mulieribus" ("On the diseases of women") that women generally finished breastfeeding an infant exclusively after the third month and entirely around 13 months of age. [cite book | last = Mercuriali | first = Geronimo | title = De morbis mulieribus "(On the diseases of women)" | year = 1582 ]
The feeding of
flouror cerealmixed with brothor water became the next alternative in the 19th century, but once again quickly faded. Around this time there became an obvious disparity in the feeding habits of those living in rural areas and those in urban areas. Most likely due to the availability of alternative foods, babies in urban areas were breastfed for a much shorter length of time, supplementing the feeds earlier than those in rural areas.
Though first developed by
Henri Nestléin the 1860s, infant formulareceived a huge boost during the post World War IIBaby Boom. When business and births decreased, and government strategies in industrialised countriesattempted to highlight the benefits of breastfeeding, Nestléand other such companies focused their aggressive marketing campaigns on developing countries. In 1979 the International Baby Food Action Network(IBFAN) was formed to help raise awareness of such practices as supplementary feeding of new babies with formula and the inappropriate promotion of baby formula, and to help change attitudes that discourage or inhibit mothers from breastfeeding their babies.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.