2016 Summer Olympics bids

2016 Summer Olympics bids

Olympic bid|2016|Summer|



winner =
votes1 =
runner-up =
votes2 =
shortlisted1 = Chicago
shortlisted2 = Madrid
shortlisted3 = Rio de Janeiro
shortlisted4 = Tokyo
1stBid = 13 September 2007
2ndBid = 14 January 2008
shortlist = 4 June 2008
decision = 2 October 2009
Seven cities submitted bids to host the 2016 Summer Olympics, formally known as "Games of the XXXI Olympiad", which were recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The Games are to be held in mid-2016 as part of the Olympic Sports movement. After a technical evaluation of the seven original bids, the top four were shortlisted on June 4, 2008, becoming official candidates—Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro, and Tokyo.cite press release | title = Four cities to compete to host the 2016 Olympic Games | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2008-06-04 | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/media_centre/press_release_uk.asp?release=2593 | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] The remaining applicant cities—Baku, Doha, and Prague—were eliminated.

Tokyo and Madrid earned the top technical scores during the application phase and are highly recognised national capitals, which lends an increased competitive interest to the final bidding phase. However, recent games held in Asia and Europe could hinder their applications. If the Summer Games return to the Americas (for the first time in 20 years), Chicago and Rio de Janeiro have an edge, with Rio becoming the first South American city to host the Olympics.cite news | last = Wilson | first = Stephen | title = IOC picks Chicago among 4 finalists for 2016 Games | publisher = The Associated Press | date = 2008-06-04 | url = http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gCXx3AcQIf0F9QkvGABKYylcGhpAD913GI0O0 | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ]

The lengthy and intensive bidding process will finish with the election of the 2016 Games host city at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009.

Bidding process

The Olympic bidding process begins with the submission of a city's application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by its National Olympic Committee (NOC) and ends with the election of the host city by the members of the IOC during an ordinary session. The process is governed by the Olympic Charter, as stated in Chapter 5, Rule 34.cite book | url = http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_122.pdf | title = Olympic Charter | publisher = International Olympic Committee |accessdate = 2008-06-04 | date = 2004-09-01 | format = PDF ]

Since 1999, the process has consisted of two phases. During the first phase, which begins immediately after the bid submission deadline, the "applicant cities" are required to answer a questionnaire covering themes of importance to a successful Games organisation. This information allows the IOC to analyse the cities' hosting capacities and the strengths and weaknesses of their plans. Following a detailed study of the submitted questionnaires and ensuing reports, the IOC Executive Board selects the cities that are qualified to proceed to the next phase. The second phase is the true candidature stage: the accepted applicant cities (from now on referred to as "candidate cities") are required to submit a second questionnaire in the form of an extended, more detailed, candidature file.cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/missions/cities_uk.asp | title = Host City Election Procedure | publisher = International Olympic Committee | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] These files are carefully studied by the IOC Evaluation Commission, a group composed of IOC members, representatives of international sport federations, NOCs, athletes, the International Paralympic Committee, and international experts in various fields.cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/events/117_session/commission_uk.asp | title = Role and composition of the Evaluation Commission | work = 117th IOC Session | publisher = International Olympic Committee | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] The members of the Evaluation Commission then make four-day inspection visits to each of the candidate cities, where they check the proposed venues and are briefed about details of the themes covered in the candidature file. The Evaluation Commission communicates the results of its inspections in a report sent to the IOC members up to one month before the electing IOC Session.

The IOC Session in which a host city is elected takes place in a country that did not submit an application to stage the Olympics. The election is made by the assembled active IOC members (excluding honorary and honour members), each possessing one vote. Members from countries that have a city taking part in the election cannot vote while the city is in the running. The voting is conducted in a succession of rounds until one bid achieves an absolute majority of votes; if this does not happen in the first round, the bid with the fewest votes is eliminated and another voting round begins. In the case of a tie for the lowest number of votes, a special runoff vote is carried out, with the winner proceeding to the next round. After each round, the eliminated bid is announced.cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/utilities/faq_detail_uk.asp?rdo_cat=24_55_0 | title = FAQ - ELECTION OF AN OLYMPIC GAMES HOST CITY - Host city election | publisher = International Olympic Committee | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/events/117_session/election_uk.asp | title = Election procedure | work = 117th IOC Session | publisher = International Olympic Committee | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] Following the announcement of the host city, the successful bid delegation signs the "Host City Contract" with the IOC, which delegates the responsibilities of the Games organisation to the city and respective NOC.cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/ocog/index_uk.asp | title = The Organising Committees of the Olympic Games | work = The Movement | publisher = International Olympic Committee |accessdate = 2008-06-04 ]

Evaluation of applicant cities

The deadline to submit applications for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games was September 13, 2007. The seven cities that submitted bids before that date also met the January 14, 2008 deadline for submission of the first phase questionnaire.cite book | url = http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_1318.pdf | title = 2016 Candidature Procedure and Questinnaire | publisher = International Olympic Committee |accessdate = 2008-06-04 | date = 2007-05-16 | format = PDF ] Through analysis of the questionnaires, the IOC gave a weighted-average score to each city based on the scores obtained in each of the questionnaire's eleven themes: political and social support, general infrastructure, sports venues, Olympic Village, environment, accommodation, transport, security, past experience, finance, and legacy. If a bid's score was higher than six (IOC's predefined benchmark score), the city was considered highly capable of hosting the Games; otherwise, its chances were very slim.cite book | url = http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_809.pdf | title = Report by the IOC candidature acceptance working group to the IOC Executive Board | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2004-03-12 | accessdate = 2008-06-04 | format = PDF | pages = 97 ] On June 4, 2008, the IOC announced the cities accepted as candidates:

*flagicon|Japan Tokyo — scored 8.3 (bid details)
*flagicon|Spain Madrid — scored 8.1 (bid details)
*flagicon|USA Chicago — scored 7.0 (bid details)
*flagicon|Brazil Rio de Janeiro — scored 6.4 (bid details)
*flagicon|Qatar Doha — scored 6.9 (bid details)
*flagicon|Czech Republic Prague — scored 5.3 (bid details)
*flagicon|Azerbaijan Baku — scored 4.3 (bid details)

Four of the five highest-rated applicants progressed to the next phase as official candidate cities. As stipulated, the IOC granted them the right to use the Olympic rings on their candidature emblem, together with a label identifying each as a Candidate City. The International Olympic Committee went against precedent when it selected Rio de Janeiro over Doha—a city which scored higher yet was eliminated from the field. Doha's weaknesses of a small population, lack of facilities, and Games dates outside of the IOC's desired window may have been too large an obstacle for the IOC to accept. [cite news | title = IOC Bends Rules When Selecting 2016 Olympic Bid Shortlist | work = 2016 Summer Olympic Games | publisher = GamesBids.com | date = 2008-06-04 | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1212598324 | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] Typically, the IOC selects all the top scoring bids which reach the established minimum benchmark.

Evaluation commission

Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco will head the Evaluation Commission. She also chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids. Other members include Olympic Games Executive Director Gilbert Felli, IOC Member Ching-Kuo Wu from Chinese Taipei, IOC Member Craig Reedie from Great Britain, IOC Member Guy Drut from France, IOC Member Mounir Sabet from Egypt, IOC Member and Athletes' Commission Representative Alexander Popov from Russia, IOC Member and ASOIF Representative Els van Breda Vriesman from The Netherlands and IPC Representative Gregory Hartung from Australia.

On-site inspections will be made by the Commission in the second quarter of 2009. They will issue a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members one month before elections in October 2009. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/olympic_bids/1216133733.html IOC Announces 2016 Summer Games Evaluation Commission] ]

Candidate cities overview

Chicago

Rio de Janeiro was named by the Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC) as Brazil's applicant for the 2016 Games on September 1, 2006. Its natural beauty and its time zone convenient to North American broadcasting (see Chicago, above) are two positive factors, although it has been noted that many of the key facilities are far from the iconic Ipanema beach area.

Recently, Rio hosted the XV Pan American Games, an event considered to be "the key proving ground for an Olympic bid", because its logistical success at organizing the event could improve the city's bidding campaign for the 2016 Olympic Games. These Games were named by the Pan American Sports Organisation (PASO) president, Mario Vázquez Raña, as the "best Pan American Games in history". [cite web |title=Closing ceremony brings together all American nations |url=http://www.rio2007.org.br/data/pages/8CA3C784140661DB011415020FD92531.htm |accessdate=2007-07-29 |publisher=XV Pan American Games official website] Vazquez later tempered his enthusiasm in an interview where he described the games as "Good but not perfect", but had "open [ed] a door". [http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/2007-07-29-panam-roundup_N.htm Good marks for Pan Am Games host city Rio] ] Public concern over security issues remains in Rio de Janeiro, as well as transportation issues, which had some difficulties during the Pan Am Games. Since the Games, the Brazilian government approved a 70 km double highway which should help smooth traffic in the greater region. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1195337261 Traffic Construction Project Boosts Rio 2016 Bid] ] Brazil was awarded the 2014 FIFA World Cup in October, 2007; critics hypothesize this may hurt Rio's chances for 2016 because both festivals would be too large a draw on Brazil's resources. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/2008-01-08-3793226295_x.htm Brazil says upcoming World Cup raises Rio's chances to host Olympics] ]

International Olympic Committee head Jacques Rogge is eager to have either South America or Africa hosting the Games, as these are locations that have never held them. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1186417801 Continents May Be Rotated To Host Olympics – IOC President] ] As with Chicago, the Summer Games have not been held in the Americas for twenty years, and to date, the Olympic Games in the Americas have only been held in North America.
Carlos Arthur Nuzman, BOC president and chairman of the XV Pan American Games Organizing Committee, is personally working to produce the best possible bid. [cite web |title=Após vestibular, Nuzman minimiza vilões do passado para 2016 (Portuguese) |url=http://pan.uol.com.br/pan/2007/ultnot/2007/07/30/ult4343u1244.jhtm |accessdate=2007-07-31 |publisher=UOL.com.br] Nuzman, popular in the IOC, has been cited as a positive force to be reckoned with. [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1199568691 IOC Member Assesses Olympic Bids] ] Football (soccer) great Pelé has also been promoting the bid. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/olympic_bids/rio_2016/1216133652.html Pele To Promote Rio 2016 In Beijing] ]

Rio's logo is a heart shaped figure suggesting the Sugar Loaf and surrounding areas in verdant green, with a yellow rising sun and blue waters. The "1" in 2016 is an exclamation mark underlining the excitement of the games. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1197932561 Rio 2016 Launches Bid Logo] ]

Tokyo

Doha submitted its bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/front_page/6174007.stm Qatar will bid for 2016 Olympics] ] after its hosting of the 2006 Asian Games, spending US$2.8 billion on infrastructure and venues. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/12/12/sports/ME_SPT_Asian_Games_Paying_Dividends.php Qatar will gain much more than the money it spent on Asian Games] ] The Doha 2016 bid won much regional support, for example from the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) president [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1165422389 Qatar 2016 Bid Gets Support From OCA President] ] and the Gulf Cooperation Council. The Aspire Zone Sports City was to be the centerpiece of the bid, much as it served in the 2006 Asian Games. Qatar is in a growth period due to its petroleum reserves, and like Baku, is well situated to finance a large event. Doha is the only city in the Arab World other than Cairo to mount a serious bid, with pundits speculating the IOC may reward it by promoting it to the final shortlist. Although in a troubled area, Qatar is known as an open-minded country which is promoting acceptance and change and promoted a strong message of peace and acceptance for the region. In July and August, the average temperature in Doha can easily reach 40° C (104°F), thus they proposed mounting the Games in October. It is not without precedent (eg Mexico City), but is technically outside the requirements. As Doha and Qatar in general (500,000 and 1,400,000 inhabitants, respectively) is among the smallest cities to bid to host the modern games, the Qataris would have to be innovative in bringing in spectators from neighboring countries to raise ticket sales. A side consideration is that like Azerbaijan, Qatar also has a short Olympic legacy, and has been criticised for its practice of giving "passports of convenience" to foreign athletes to pad their record. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,901030908-480231,00.html A Run For the Money] ]

Only two new venues were to have been built, a velodrome and a baseball stadium, although a new Athletes' village was to be designed. Khalifa International Stadium currently seats 50,000, under the 60,000 to meet the IOC standards. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1193332597 Doha Launches 2016 Bid, Unveils Logo, Tagline, Website] ] Also, Qatar has plans to build the world's most advanced Paralympics stadium and the world's first underground stadium for matches during the 2011 AFC Asian Cup in Qatar.

The Doha logo for the 2016 bid is the al dahma, the flower of the spring. The design uses motifs from traditional henna decorations and Doha is written in Arabic in the design. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1193330958 Doha 2016 Reveals Olympic Bid Logo] ]

Prague

Notes

  1. Note_label|A|a|noneReleased on May 28, 2008.
  2. Note_label|B|b|noneReleased on May 30, 2008.

References

External links

Official bid sites:
* [http://www.baku2016.org.az/ Baku 2016]
* [http://www.chicago2016.org Chicago 2016]
* [http://www.doha2016.org.qa Doha 2016]
* [http://www.madrid2016.es/ Madrid 2016]
* [http://www.praha2016.org Prague 2016]
* [http://www.rio2016.org.br Rio 2016]
* [http://www.tokyo2016.or.jp Tokyo 2016]

Official IOC documents

* [http://video.olympic.org/http/cap_2016_uk.pdf Candidature Acceptance Procedure]


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