Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid

Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid

Olympic bid|2016|Summer

winner =
runner-up =
shortlisted1 = Chicago
shortlisted2 = Madrid
shortlisted3 = Rio de Janeiro
shortlisted4 = Tokyo
fullname = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
committee = Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC)
history = None Bid for: 1936 ! 1940 ! 2004 ! 2012
(South America never hosted the competition)

result =
score = 6.4

Rio de Janeiro is submiting a bid to host the 2016 Summer Olympics.cite press release | title = All seven 2016 Applicant Cities return responses | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2008-01-14 | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/media_centre/press_release_uk.asp?id=2454 | accessdate = 2008-07-03] The Committee shortlisted four of the seven applicant cities—Chicago (United States), Madrid (Spain), Tokyo (Japan), and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); over Baku (Azerbaijan), Doha (Qatar), and Prague (Czech Republic)—on June 4, 2008 during the announcement in Athens, Greece.cite press release | title = Four cities to compete to host the 2016 Olympic Games | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2008-06-04 | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/media_centre/press_release_uk.asp?release=2593 | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] This is followed by a lengthy and intensive bidding process which will finish with the election of the 2016 Games host city at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009.cite web | title = 2016 Bid Timeline | work = 2016 Summer Olympic bids | publisher = GamesBids.com | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/english/bids/2016.shtml | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ]

Rio de Janeiro was chosen over São Paulo by the Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC) as the national applicant city for the XXXI Olympiad on September 1, 2006, starting a process of ten years prior to the Olympics.cite press release | title = Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid | publisher = Brazilian Olympic Committee | date = 2006-09-01 | url = http://www.cob.org.br/site/news_room/press_release.asp?id=1339 | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] This is the first time that the city has proceeded to the Candidature phase, after three failed attempts in 1936, 2004 and 2012.cite web | title = Rio de Janeiro, Brazil | work = Bid city profile and Fact sheet | publisher = GamesBids.com | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/english/bids/rio2016.shtml | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] Rio would become the first Brazilian and South American city to host the gamescite news | last = Wilson | first = Stephen | title = IOC picks Chicago among 4 finalists for 2016 Games | publisher = The Associated Press | date = 2008-06-04 | url = http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gCXx3AcQIf0F9QkvGABKYylcGhpAD913GI0O0 | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] and the second South American city to be in the Candidate City round (after Buenos Aires in 2004). Brazil will host the 2014 World Cup and could make the fourth double hosting in history, after Mexico in 1968 and 1970, Germany in 1972 and 1974, and the United States in 1994 and 1996.

Rio de Janeiro is planning to stage all the competitions inside the city, bringing dynamics to the games and facilitating the athlete's interaction.cite web | title = Project | work = Rio 2016 | publisher = Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics bid official website | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/en/Rio2016/Projeto.aspx | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] There will be seven competition centers in four Olympic regions—Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro, and Maracanã. [cite web | title = Sites | work = Rio 2016 | publisher = Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics bid official website | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/en/Rio2016/Locais.aspx | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] Football matches will be held in the cities of Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Salvador and São Paulo.cite book | title = Candidature Acceptance Application | publisher = Brazilian Olympic Committee | date = 2008-01-14 | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/util/pdf/rio2016.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] The proposed dates range from August 5 to August 21 for the Olympic Games, and September 7 (which is also the Brazilian National Holiday) to September 18 for the Paralympic Games.

Bidding process

The Rio de Janeiro Olympic bidding process began with the election of the city by the Brazilian Olympic Committee (BOC) during the Brazilian Olympic Committee Assembly held in Rio de Janeiro, on September 1, 2006. The city defeated its traditional rival, São Paulo. Rio was chosen as the national applicant city to the 2016 Summer Olympics considering that the 2007 Pan American Games paved the way for the candidacy. "Rio de Janeiro will be the only city in Brazil and in Latin America that will rely on modern Olympic level facilities already in place during the bidding to become candidate, such as equestrian, athletics, aquatics, and shooting," said Carlos Arthur Nuzman, president of the Brazilian Olympic Committee and president of the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Organising Committee, who is also a member of the International Olympic Committee.

The process continued with the submission of the city's application to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by its National Olympic Committee (NOC), on September 13, 2007.cite press release | title = Seven Applicant NOCs/ Cities for the 2016 Games | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2007-09-14 | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/media_centre/press_release_uk.asp?id=2317 | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] During the first of two phases, the "applicant city" was required to answer a questionnaire covering themes of importance to a successful Olympic Games. In September 2007, the IOC announced that seven cities put forward bids by their respective NOCs—Baku, Chicago, Doha, Madrid, Prague, Tokyo and Rio de Janeiro. These cities also met the January 14, 2008, deadline for submission of the first phase questionnaire.cite book | url = http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_1318.pdf | title = 2016 Candidature Procedure and Questinnaire | publisher = International Olympic Committee |accessdate = 2008-06-04 | date = 2007-05-16 | format = PDF ] The information released in the questionnaire was then used to analyse Rio's hosting capacities and the strengths and weaknesses of its plans.

Following a detailed study of the submitted questionnaires and ensuing reports, the IOC Executive Board shortlisted four applicant cities—Chicago, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo—which qualified to proceed to the next phase, during a meeting in Athens, Greece, on June 4, 2008. [cite press release | title = IOC EB meeting in Athens - 4, 5 and 6 June 2008 - Information for the media | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2008-05-15 | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/media_centre/press_release_uk.asp?id=2566 | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] During the 2008 Summer Olympics in August 2008, [cite web | title = Games of the XXIX Olympiad | work = Olympic Games | publisher = International Olympic Committee | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/games/beijing/index_uk.asp | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] the 2016 Organizing Committees participated in the Olympic Games Observer Program while in Beijing.cite press release | title = IOC selects Candidate Cities for the 2016 Summer Games | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2008-05-30 | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/olympic_news/full_story_uk.asp?id=2583 | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] The second phase is the true candidature stage: the accepted applicant cities, from now on referred to as "candidate cities", are required to submit a second questionnaire on February 12, 2009, in the form of an extended, more detailed, candidature file.cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/missions/cities_uk.asp | title = Host City Election Procedure | publisher = International Olympic Committee | accessdate = 2008-06-04 ] These files are carefully studied by the IOC Evaluation Commission, a group composed of IOC members, representatives of international sport federations, NOCs, athletes, the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), and international experts in various fields.cite web | url = http://www.olympic.org/uk/news/events/117_session/commission_uk.asp | title = Role and composition of the Evaluation Commission | work = 117th IOC Session | publisher = International Olympic Committee | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ] The members of the Evaluation Commission then make a four-day inspection visit to Rio de Janeiro in 2009 to check the proposed venues and are briefed about details of the themes covered in the candidature file. The Evaluation Commission communicates the results of its inspections in a report sent to the IOC members up to one month before the electing 121st IOC Session, on September 2, 2009.

The process ends with the election of the host city by the members of the IOC during the 121st IOC Session to be held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on October 2, 2009. The process is governed by the Olympic Charter, as stated in Chapter 5, Rule 34.cite book | url = http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_122.pdf | title = Olympic Charter | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2004-09-01 | format = PDF | accessdate = 2008-07-03 ]

Bid details

Rio de Janeiro would become the first Brazilian and South American city to host the Olympic and Paralympic Games, motivated by the benefits the Games can yield for Brazil as well as the legacy Rio can provide for the Olympic Movement. [cite web | title = Why Rio? | publisher = Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics bid official website | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/en/PorqueRio/ | accessdate = 2008-06-30 ]

The city submitted bids for the 1936, 2004 and 2012 Summer Olympics, but failed to qualify for the short-list three times. On January 14, 2008, Rio de Janeiro tried again submitting the first phase questionnaire for the 2016 Summer Olympics to the IOC, in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Through analysis of the questionnaires, the IOC gave a weighted-average score to each city—Tokyo scored 8.3, Madrid 8.1, Chicago 7.0, Doha 6.9, Rio de Janeiro 6.4, Prague 5.3, and Baku 4.3—based on the scores obtained in each of the questionnaire's eleven themes: political and social support, general infrastructure, sports venues, Olympic Village, environment, accommodation, transport, security, past experience, finance, and legacy. If a bid's score was higher than six (IOC's predefined benchmark score), the city was considered highly capable of hosting the Games; otherwise, its chances were very slim.cite book | url = http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_809.pdf | title = Report by the IOC candidature acceptance working group to the IOC Executive Board | publisher = International Olympic Committee | date = 2004-03-12 | accessdate = 2008-07-16 | format = PDF | pages = 97 ] Four of the five highest-rated applicants progressed to the next phase as official candidate cities. The International Olympic Committee went against precedent when it selected Rio de Janeiro over Doha—a city which scored higher yet was eliminated from the field. Doha's weaknesses of a small population, lack of facilities, and Games dates outside of the IOC's desired window may have been too large an obstacle for the committee to accept.

Rio de Janeiro failed in the previous applications mainly by lack of infrastructure, security and experience in organization of international sporting events. Brazil hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup, where Rio was one of the host cities and place of the final match, but the structures have been deteriorating over time despite several reforms. However, the XV Pan American Games, held in Rio de Janeiro between July 13 and July 29, 2007, changed the idea of failure of the city. [cite web | title = Pan Am Games Could Make Rio Strong Olympic Games Candidate – Rogge | work = 2016 Summer Olympic bids | publisher = GamesBids.com | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1184345120 | accessdate = 2008-07-16 ] The event was considered the best in history by the president of the Pan American Sports Organisation (PASO), Mario Vazquez Raña, during his speech at the closing ceremony,cite news | title = Rio stages gala ending for Pan American Games | publisher = The International Herald Tribune | date = 2007-07-29 | url = http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/07/29/sports/LA-SPT-Pan-Ams-Closing-Ceremonies.php | accessdate = 2008-07-01 ] even better than the XIII Pan American Games held in Winnipeg, Canada in 1999, which was previously considered the best competition ever organized. Vazquez later tempered his enthusiasm in an interview where he described the games as "Good but not perfect," but had "open [ed] a door". [ [http://www.usatoday.com/sports/olympics/2007-07-29-panam-roundup_N.htm Good marks for Pan Am Games host city Rio] ] Fact|date=August 2008 Brazil will again organise the FIFA World Cup in 2014, adding more experience to Rio which will host the final match for the second time. [cite web | title = Brazil Submits 2014 World Cup Bid Ahead Of 2016 Olympic Bid | work = 2016 Summer Olympic bids | publisher = GamesBids.com | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1185898110 | accessdate = 2008-07-16 ]

Although the IOC has no official continental rotation policy, American candidates have an advantage because the most recent Summer Games will have been held in Asia with the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, and in Europe with the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. (A lesser factor is the location of the Winter Games, which will have been held in North America and Europe.) All of the Games in the Americas have been held in North America, and as stated before, IOC president, Jacques Rogge has encouraged Africa and Latin America city bids to host in the near future. [cite web | title = Continents May Be Rotated To Host Olympics | work = 2016 Summer Olympic bids | publisher = GamesBids.com | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1186417801 | accessdate = 2008-07-16 ] Rio de Janeiro has a great political and popular support, from Brazil and other countries in the region, with 78% local and 60% national support.cite web | title = Rio 2016 Questionnaire Response Released | work = 2016 Summer Olympic bids | publisher = GamesBids.com | url = http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1200409568 | accessdate = 2008-07-16 ]

Choice of dates

Rio de Janeiro plans open-air competitions during the proposed 16 days to be held between Friday, August 5, to Sunday, August 21, 2016. The Paralympic Games would commence seventeen days after the Closing Ceremony, opening on Wednesday, September 7 and being conducted to Sunday, September 18, 2016. After an extensive study by the Organising Committee, this period was identified as ideal for hosting the Olympic and Paralympic Games because of favorable weather, clear international sports calendar, and scheduled school and university vacations. The city will have optimal weather conditions during its tropical winter for peak performances by athletes, with average midday temperature of convert|24.2|°C|°F|abbr=on|lk=on and humidity levels at approximately 66.4%; pleasant temperatures and low levels of rainfall.cite book | title = Candidature Acceptance Application | quote = Motivation, Concept & Legacy | publisher = Brazilian Olympic Committee | date = 2008-01-14 | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/util/pdf/rio2016.pdf | pages = 6-8 | format = PDF | accessdate = 2008-07-20 ] The dates also fall within the timeframe specified by the International Olympic Committee.

The commencement of the Paralympic Games period will benefit from the coincidence of Independence Day on Wednesday, September 7, a national public holiday. The proposed dates are scheduled during school and university vacations, enabling a reduction in the base load demand for road and public transport infrastructure, and increased availability of schools and universities sports facilities for utilization as training venues; and others.

Government support

The city's application is presented jointly by the Brazilian Olympic Committee and the Government in Brazil; all levels of Government have been directly involved in the planning process and have given their backing and commitment in partnership with Brazilian sport.cite book | title = Candidature Acceptance Application | quote = Political support | publisher = Brazilian Olympic Committee | date = 2008-01-14 | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/util/pdf/rio2016.pdf | pages = 9-11 | format = PDF | accessdate = 2008-07-20 ] The President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva; the Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Sérgio Cabral Filho; and the Mayor of the City of Rio de Janeiro, César Maia, have signed comprehensive letters of guarantee addressing the covenants required by the IOC.

Funding

When revealing details for the 2016 bid, Mayor Cesar Maia described the bid as "more modest" than the 2012 bid. "Our bid four years ago was competitive but it was based on possibilities.” With experience and resources from the Pan Am Games, this time the bid is more concrete. Currently, 56% of the planned sports facilities already exist. The venues budget is set at $508 million. Public and private funding of USD $42 million will cover the applicant and candidate stages of the bid. This is in line with other cities' budgets. The federal government has guaranteed to cover any cost overruns and all levels of government support the capital infrastructure upgrades required. Revenue of US$750 million is expected.

Infrastructure

In past evaluations, Rio de Janeiro scored poorly on general infrastructure aspect. The public transport in the city needs considerable expansion to accelerate the movement of people and avoid incidents during the Games.

For the Pan American Games, the city was committed to building a new metro line and using alternative transports, such as rafts and ferries, but there were no attempts to built the metro lines or to develop a program with other alternative transports. Several new bus lines were offered during the Games, resulting in few incidents with transport, even when about 100,000 people attended to the closing ceremony. BOC President Carlos Nuzman is optimistic about solving the public transport question. [cite web | title = Após vestibular, Nuzman minimiza vilões do passado para 2016 (Portuguese) | url=http://pan.uol.com.br/pan/2007/ultnot/2007/07/30/ult4343u1244.jhtm | accessdate = 2007-07-31 | publisher=UOL.com.br]

In its bid for 2016, Rio has currently abandoned any plans to develop a metro system. Instead, they will use a high-capacity network of bus lanes. The Olympic vehicles would be powered by natural gas or biofuels. [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1199814514 Rio Unveils “More Modest” 2016 Bid Plans] ]

Venues

Following the model developed to host the Pan-American Games, the Olympic competitions could be carried through in a ray of 25 km, spread for four polar regions in the city. [cite web | title = Venues | url=http://www.rio2007.org.br/data/pages/8A488A8F12D856280112D87711306EC7.htm | accessdate = 2007-07-29 | publisher=Rio 2007 Games official website ] The regions are: Copacabana beach, Deodoro on the city’s north side, the modern Barra da Tijuca beach district, and the Maracanã Stadium complex. Beach Volleyball, for example will be held on iconic Copacabana beach.

At the heart of the concept is the Barra de Tijuca zone, where the government is looking to fund a new Olympic Park where several Pan Am venues were located. Framed by mountains, beaches and lagoons,cite book | title = Candidature Acceptance Application | quote = Venues | publisher = Brazilian Olympic Committee | date = 2008-01-14 | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/util/pdf/rio2016.pdf | pages = 15-17 | format = PDF | accessdate = 2008-07-20 ] it will accommodate twenty sports in fourteen venues housed in two precincts—Olympic Park and Riocentro Sports Complex. Rio Olympic Park currently houses three existing venues, and will be supplemented by seven new permanent venues; six of the new venues will be co-located in the National Olympic Training Center. The Copacabana zone, featuring beaches, lagoons and parklands, will be home to eight sports in five venues, including Copacabana Beach. Four venues are located in the Maracanã zone in the center of the city, including the historic Maracanã Stadium which will be upgraded for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and where the Opening and Closing ceremonies of the Olympic Games will take place. The Deodoro zone, in the northwestern region of the city, will house seven sports in seven venues, including the world class Shooting and Equestrian venues and the proposed legacy project, the X Park, which will accommodate a range of adventure sports in post-Games mode.

João Havelange Stadium would be enlarged and would be used to stage the athletic events. Jacarepagua racetrack, once used for Formula One, will be demolished to make way for an Olympic park. The 8,000 capacity Pan Am Village will host the athletes and officials.

The following is a list of venues and sports from the 2007 Pan American Games, of which many of the venues will be the same:

Logo

The logo was revealed in December 2007 and was selected by a jury from among four finalists. The logo suggests the natural rich landscapes of Rio de Janeiro, with a yellow sun rising behind the green hills and valleys of Rio (highlighting the Sugar Loaf (Portuguese: "Pão de Açucar"), the city's best known icon), and blue sea.cite web | title = Look of the Bid | work = Rio 2016 | publisher = Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympics bid official website | url = http://www.rio2016.org.br/en/Rio2016/Visual.aspx | accessdate = 2008-07-16 ] Overall, the logo has a heart shape which represents the Brazilian’s passion and enthusiasm for sports. Through its repetition, a stylized clover is formed, associated with the luck for everyone seeking to surpass limits, without any artifices other than the strength and heartiness of the person who brings along his people's dreams.The logo was designed by Ana Soter. An exclamation mark is incorporated into the number "1" to suggest the expectation and excitement for the opportunity to host.

Past experience and outlook

In the past, Brazil organized and hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup, and São Paulo city organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963 in addition to Rio's hosting in 2007. FIFA established a continental rotation policy that placed the 2014 FIFA World Cup in South America. After other candidates dropped out, CONMEBOL nominated Brazil, which won the bid to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup event. [ [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1185898110 Brazil Submits 2014 World Cup Bid Ahead Of 2016 Olympic Bid] ] [ [http://www.topix.net/soccer-fifa/2007/07/beautiful-game-rivals-the-games Beautiful Game Rivals the Games] ] .

The double hosting of both the Olympics and World Cup, much like Germany (1972 and 1974), Mexico (1968 and 1970) and the United States (1994 and 1996) may affect Rio's bid for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. One IOC member stated that Rio is unlikely to be awarded the Olympics because, "IOC members don't like feeling they are the pudding, i.e. coming after another major sporting occasion". This possible conflict was avoided in Mexico and Germany because the World Cup was held after the Olympics. Although the World Cup was staged in the US prior to the Atlanta Games in 1996, the nation avoided staging any World Cup games in the Atlanta region. Rio's stadia are currently in the plans for the World Cup.

However, IOC president Jacques Rogge has since stated that it will help rather than hinder Rio's 2016 bid. He stated that Rio 2016 would be able to tap into better roads, new stadiums, more facilities, more infrastructure, and a bigger pool of volunteers should they be given the right to organize the Games. [http://www.gamesbids.com/cgi-bin/news/viewnews.cgi?category=1&id=1197564643 Soccer Will Help Rio 2016 – IOC President] ]

Rio was promoted to the Candidate city shortlist in June 2008, an improvement over its last bid for the 2012 Games. It received a score of 6.4, which indicates that the IOC believes the city could successfully host the Games. As discussed earlier, Rio has the largest geographical advantage if the IOC maintains its plan to give the Games to "new regions".

References

See also

* [http://www.rio2016.org.br/en/Default.aspx Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid official website]
* [http://candidaturario2016.blogspot.com/ Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic bid official blog]
* [http://www.facebook.com/pages/Rio-2016/22532419110 Rio 2016 Facebook page]
* [http://www.rio2016.org.br/util/pdf/rio2016.pdf Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic application mini-book]
* [http://www.cob.org.br/home/home.asp Brazilian Olympic Committee official website]


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