Oliguria

Oliguria
Oliguria
ICD-10 R34
ICD-9 788.5
MeSH D009846

Oliguria is the low output of urine,[1] It is clinically classified as an output below 300-500ml/day [2]. The decreased output of urine may be a sign of dehydration, renal failure, hypovolemic shock, HHNS Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome,urinary obstruction/urinary retention, and Urinary tract infections.

It can be contrasted with anuria, which represents an absence of urine, clinically classified as below 50ml/day[3].

Contents

Definition

Oliguria is defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants,[4] less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children,[4] and less than 400 mL[4] or 500 mL[5] in adults. In adults, this equals 17 or 21 mL/hour. For example, in an adult weighing 70kg it equals 0.24 or 0.3 ml/hour/kg. Alternatively, however, the value of 0.5 mL/kg/h is commonly used to define oliguria in adults as well.[5]

< 500 mL in 24 h.

Olig- (or oligo-) is a Greek prefix meaning small or few.[6]

Anuria is defined as less than 50mL urine output per day.

Testing

Perform ultrasound examination of the kidney to rule out obstructive processes.

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiologic mechanisms causing oliguria can be categorized globally in three different categories[7]:

Postoperative oliguria

Patients usually have decrease in urine output after a major operation that may be a normal physiological response to:

  • fluid/ blood loss – decreased glomerular filtration rate secondary to hypovolemia and/or hypotension
  • response of adrenal cortex to stress -increase in aldosterone (Na and water retention) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release

Oliguria in infants

Oliguria, when defined as less than 1 mL/kg/h, in infants is not considered to be a reliable sign of renal failure.[8]

References

  1. ^ "oliguria" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Boon et al, Davidson's Principles & Practice of Medicine (20th Ed), p475
  3. ^ Boon et al, Davidson's Principles & Practice of Medicine (20th Ed), p475
  4. ^ a b c Klahr S, Miller S (1998). "Acute oliguria". N Engl J Med 338 (10): 671–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM199803053381007. PMID 9486997.  Free Full Text.
  5. ^ a b Merck manuals > Oliguria Last full review/revision March 2009 by Soumitra R. Eachempati
  6. ^ http://biology.about.com/od/prefixesandsuffixeso/g/blo3.htm
  7. ^ http://beavermedic.wordpress.com/2010/01/19/the-kidneys/
  8. ^ Arant B (1987). "Postnatal development of renal function during the first year of life". Pediatr Nephrol 1 (3): 308–13. doi:10.1007/BF00849229. PMID 3153294. 

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • oliguria — f. urol. Eliminación escasa de orina. Medical Dictionary. 2011. oliguria secreción deficiente de la orina …   Diccionario médico

  • oliguria — /oli gurja/ o /oligu ria/ s.f. [comp. di olig(o ) e uria ]. (med.) [ridotta eliminazione di urina] ◀▶ iperuresi, poliuria, pollachiuria …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • oliguria — (n.) 1843, from OLIGO (Cf. oligo ) small, little, + uria, from Gk. ouron urine (see URINE (Cf. urine)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • oligúria — s. f. Deficiência mórbida de ureia.   ‣ Etimologia: oligo + úria …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • oliguria — f. Med. Escasa producción de orina …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • oliguria — [äl΄i gyoor′ē ə] n. [ModL: see OLIGO & URIA] a condition characterized by the excretion of an abnormally small amount of urine …   English World dictionary

  • Oliguria — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • oliguria — (Del gr. oligo, carencia + uron, orina.) ► sustantivo femenino MEDICINA Disminución patológica en la secreción de orina en relación a los líquidos ingeridos. * * * oliguria (de «oligo » y « uria») f. Med. Escasez anormal de secreción de *orina. * …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • oliguria — {{#}}{{LM O28003}}{{〓}} {{[}}oliguria{{]}} ‹o·li·gu·ria› {{《}}▍ s.f.{{》}} {{♂}}En medicina,{{♀}} disminución anormal de la cantidad de orina expulsada. {{★}}{{\}}ETIMOLOGÍA:{{/}} De oligo (poco) y el griego ûron (orina) …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • oliguria — oliguretic /ol i gyoo ret ik/, adj. /ol i gyoor ee euh/, n. Pathol. scantiness of urine due to diminished secretion. Also, oliguresis /ol i gyoo ree sis/. [1895 1900; OLIG + URIA] * * * …   Universalium

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