NeuroSky, Inc.
Type Private
Founded San Jose, California
  • Stanly Yang
  • KooHyoung Lee
No. of locations
Area served Worldwide
Key people
  • Stanly Yang (CEO)
  • David Westendorf
  • Jake Chuang
  • Jim Sullivan
Current status Active

NeuroSky, Inc. is a manufacturer of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technologies for consumer product applications.[1][2][3][4] It was founded in 2004 and is a Silicon Valley based company.[1][2][4] The company claims that their mission is to make BCI technology available to any industry. NeuroSky adapts electroencephalography (EEG) and (since the release of blink in 2010) electromyography (EMG) technology to fit a consumer market within a number of fields such as entertainment (toys and games), education, automotive, health and wellness.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Through the development of inexpensive dry sensors (traditional EEGs require the application of a conductive gel between the sensors and the head), built in electrical “noise” reduction software/hardware,[2][6][11] and a focus on providing an embedded (chip level) solution for signal processing and output, NeuroSky technology allows for research and products that would have been impossible with traditional EEGs.[12][13][14]

While NeuroSky develops some products independently, such as the MindSet and the MindWave, it primarily works with industry partners, developers, and research institutions to assist them in taking advantage of the NeuroSky chip and incorporate it into their own technology/products.[1][2] The company compares its style of business to Intel Inside’s which “sells the ingredients for a cool technology but doesn’t sell the final product to consumers. When NeuroSky has released direct to consumer products they tend to be designed for maximum flexibility of use through third party and open source content".[15][16]

The Chief Executive of NeuroSky, Stanley Yang, said that he saw the significance of the company as being “a transition in everyday life from humans conforming to machines, to machines conforming to humans”.[5]


Company Timeline

1999: The work behind NeuroSky technology began [4][17]

2004: NeuroSky inc. was incorporated in Silicon Valley [4][17][18]

2006: Received early first funding from angel investors [4]

2007: First round of Venture funding from San Francisco-based WR Hambrecht + Co., Japan-based Marubeni Corp. and Taiwan-based TUVC. So far, the company says it has received nearly $19 million in backing from investors.[4]

2009: Mattel launches the Mindflex toy

2009: Uncle Milton launches the Star Wars Force Trainer

2009: NeuroSky launches the MindSet, research and developer multimedia headset and free SDK/developer tools [19]

2009: In NeuroSky’s first two years it raised 6.8 million [1]

2010: the company has raised 11.8 million in its third round of venture funding [1][5]

2011: NeuroSky launches the MindWave, a headset catering directly to the consumer market

2011: neurowear demonstrates necomimi, a headband with motorized cat ears based on a MindWave headset.[20]

The Science

Diagram of a basic NeuroSky headset.

The human brain is made up of billions of interconnected neurons; the patterns of interaction between these neurons are represented as thoughts and emotional states. Every interaction between neurons creates a minuscule electrical discharge; alone these charges are impossible to measure from outside the skull. However, the activity created by hundreds of thousands concurrent discharges aggregates into waves which can be measured.

Different brain states are the result of different patterns of neural interaction. These patterns lead to waves characterized by different amplitudes and frequencies; for example waves between 12 and 30 hertz, Beta Waves, are associated with concentration while waves between 8 and 12 hertz, Alpha Waves, are associated with relaxation and a state of mental calm. (The contraction of muscles is also associated with unique wave patterns, isolating these patterns is how some NeuroSky devices detect blinks.)

Unfortunately all electrical activity produces these waves (even light bulbs), thus all electrical devices create some level of ambient “noise”; this “noise” interferes with the waves emanating from the brain, this is why most EEG devices will pick up readings even if they are not on a person’s head. Reading mental activity through these waves is like trying to eavesdrop on a conversation at a loud concert. In the past, traditional EEG devices have circumvented this problem by measuring these signals in environments where electrical activity is strictly controlled and increasing the signal strength of the data coming from the brain through the application of a conductive solution.

Raw Brainwaves and Power Spectrum

However, most people don’t have rooms in their house devoid of electronic devices nor do they want to apply a conductive liquid to their head every time they use a BCI device. NeuroSky has developed complex algorithms built into our[who?] products which filter out this “noise”. (,[11] only in reference to the noise bit)

NeuroSky’s white paper claims the ThinkGear technology has been tested at 96% as accurate as that within research grade EEGs.[14][21]

NeuroSky is also selling non-contact sensors to research instructions. These are dry electrodes that can measure brainwaves millimeters from the scalp and thus can easily be worn over hair.[22] These sensors are a significant technological breakthrough in that they are the only non-contact EEG sensors ever developed.[citation needed]

Neurosky Partnerships

While NeuroSky produces its own direct to consumer products, it is primarily a chip developer and manufacturer.[1] NeuroSky assists other companies in incorporating BCI technology into their products and supplies them with the specialized hardware required to do so. Because of this, who NeuroSky partners with and has partnered with shapes the public’s adoption of BCI technology.

US Archery team: The first use of NeuroSky’s technology was by the USA Olympic Archery team to improve their game. The coaches and archers testimony to the effectiveness of NeuroSky technology as a training tool played a large part in spurring the future development of early NeuroSky tech. It was found that Elite archers had a state of both mental calm and concentration when they released while mid-level archers lacked a state of mental calm yet had a high concentration.[23][24] This finding allowed coaches like Kisik Lee, Guy Krueger, and Mel Nichols to train mid-level archers to reach that mind state (of being able to concentrate on what they need to do while staying relaxed).[2][23][25] NeuroSky has hinted on numerous occasions that it is either producing or interested in producing publicly available products that allow one to train in a similar way for other sports, with golf mentioned specifically.[26]

Toshiba: [1][4][15][27]

Square Enix: [4][28] Square Enix was the developer of games such as Final Fantasy. In 2008 it announced that it was working on, Judeka, a game with NeuroSky.

InteraXon: InteraXon develops custom software to be used with Neurosky’s hardware specializing in large publicity events like the Olympic light show.[2] InteraXon’s CEO Ariel Garten stated: “The NeuroSky technology has expanded the possibilities for our company we are taking thought controlled computing to the next level and in the case of the Bright Ideas display, to a massive scale. The NeuroSky MindSet provided us with reliable, low cost, and easy to use headset that allowed us to focus on what we think is really important – creating compelling user experiences that allow people to use this technology in new and exciting ways.” - Neurosky’s CEO, Stanley Yang stated: “InteraXon is able to take what was once limited to only an exciting idea, and make it into a reality - they possess a unique and creative vision for thought-controlled technology. It is exciting for us to see a partner like InteraXon take the MindSet and develop it into applications that are well designed, easy to use and compelling to engage with,” says NeuroSky[citation needed]

Uncle Milton Industries: Uncle Milton is a leading manufacturer of science and nature exploration toys most famous for the “Ant Farm”.[3] On 07/13/2009 Uncle Milton Industries and NeuroSky Inc. announce an exclusive partnership to develop science toys and games utilizing NeuroSky's technology.[29] The first of these toys was the Star Wars Force Trainer released during the Christmas season of 2009.[4][29] It was a very successful toy with [4] stating that it, “flew off the shelves”.

Matell inc.: Matell is “the worldwide leader in the design, manufacture and marketing of toys and family products. The Mattel family includes such best-selling brands as Barbie, the most popular fashion doll ever introduced, Hot Wheels, Matchbox, American Girl, Radica and Tyco R/C, as well as Fisher-Price brands, including Little People, Power Wheels".[30] On 04/28/2009 Mattel Inc. formed an exclusive multi-year partnership with NeuroSky Inc.[29][30][31] The first product, the MindFlex, was released for the 2009 Christmas season and was one of the best selling toys of the season.[1][2][4]

Sega Toys: [4][32][33] Talks began in early 2007 and an official announcement was made on 10/10/2008.[18][34]

Musinaut: Musinaut is a Paris based music company that plans to use the device to create interactive music technology that controls a user’s music based on their thoughts and moods.[33]

Titan Commerce: In 3/9/2010 NeuroSky announced an agreement (signed 03/12/2010) with Titan Commerce for distribution and support operations of the NeuroSky MindSet and ThinkGear technology components to the EU.[29][35]

Mind Games: MindGames is an Iceland-based developer of games that utilize EEG technology.[4] MindGames is best known for Tug of Mind, a game set to be released for future NeuroSky products. MindGames long term goal is to develop games that teach people how to control negative emotions.[23] (It is not clear whether or not MindGames simply produces games for NeuroSky products or whether they have an official partnership.)

Universities and Research Institutions: Because NeuroSky also produces research grade EEG technology it has partnerships with a number of universities and research intuitions including: John Hopkins, Brown University, Duke University, University of San Diego, San Jose State University, Dongguk University, University of Glasgow, The Hong Kong PolyTechnic University, and Trinity College Dublin.[35][36]

NeuroSky Products

MindWave: The MindWave is a NeuroSky product released in 2010 in China and 2011 in the US and the EU. It costs 99$ US making it the least expensive EEG device to ever be produced.[37][38] The MindWave has been marketed as both an education and entertainment device.[39] The MindWave won the Guinness Book of World Records award for “Heaviest machine moved using a brain control interface”.[40]

Research Products: Neurosky has produced a number of research products (generally very similar to their direct to consumer products [35] ).[18] These products have been widely adopted due to positive reviews by early adopters with Richard Reilly Ph.D., professor at Trinity College in Dublin stating that, “We have been impressed with the quality of data from the MindKit Pro, compared to our gold-standard EEG acquisitions system. It has opened new possibilities for the remote monitoring patients’ activity a great benefit in patient care.” [35]

Mind Kit & Mind Set: The Mind Set (referred to as the Mind Kit in early press releases) was NeuroSky’s first direct to consumer product. With a number of prototypes sold in 2007.[1] The Mind Set was the first direct to consumer BCI product under 1000$ ever made. The MindSet consisted of headphones with three sensors on one ear piece and another on a flexible arm coming off of the headphones that sat on the forehead. The headphones had a wireless Bluetooth connection and came with a small Bluetooth dongle. The first non-prototype models where sold for 199$.[15][27][41]

Non-Contact Sensors: NeuroSky is currently selling a Non-Contact system to research institutions. This system is based on seven dry electrodes that can measure brainwaves millimeters from the scalp and thus can easily be worn over hair.[22] These sensors are a significant technological breakthrough in that they are the only non-contact EEG sensors ever developed. These sensors have been effectively used with SSEVP allowing a device incorporating them to tell which object, out of a set group of objects, the wearer is looking at.[22][42] NeuroSky has not released any consumer products using these sensors nor has it announced that it is intending to.

Pre MindKit: In early press releases at least four different pre-MindKit devices can be seen, none of these were sold to the public and none of the articles mention names for the models.[43][44][45]

Products produced in conjunction with NeuroSky using NeuroSky technology

Mindflex: The MindFlex was produced in conjunction with Mattel and released for the 2009 Christmas season. It is a game in which players lift a ball by concentrating and move it through a maze. The concentration levels are measured by a headset using NeuroSky technology which wirelessly interfaces with a platform that floats the ball through the use of a fan which was moved around the course in a circle by a dial;[31][46] (this platform was based on a previous Mattel toy, the “Harry Potter Sorcerer's Stone Electronic Levitating Challenge Board Game”).The MindFlex allowed the player to modify the course by sticking plastic obstacles in peg holes at different locations and was preprogrammed with 5 games as well as multiplayer options.[31] The game was a “phenomenal success” [2] and one of the best sellers of the Christmas season;[4] in fact, Mattel sold out its entire stock five weeks after launch.[1]

Star Wars Force Trainer: The Star Wars Force Trainer was produced in conjunction with Uncle Milton inc. and released for the 2009 Christmas season (it was released for pre-sale midnight July 23, 2009).[3][29] It is a game in which players lift a ball by concentrating. The ball is levitated by a fan and concentration is measured using NeuroSky technology. The ball is designed to look like the ball Luke trained with to learn how to control the Force in the first Star Wars.[3][29][47] The toy was a commercial success.[4]


  • Emotiv Systems The Emotiv Epoc device is sold for $299. While it uses more electrodes, the EPOC does not use a dry electrode system and requires a saline solution to be applied to pads attached to the electrodes before use[citation needed]. The EPOC only has a few products/software associated with it and has not reached mainstream adoption.
  • Mindball (2005) the table can be rented for approximately $20,000 to groups.

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Takahashi, Dean. "NeuroSky raises $11.8M for brainwave-controlled games (exclusive)". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Brain Control Technology - A New Olympic Sport?". Enhanced Online News. 2010-02-23. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Uncle Milton and NeuroSky Announce Exclusive Partnership for Science Toys.". Journal of Technology. 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Li, Shan (2010-08-08). "Mind reading is on the market". (Los Angeles Times).,0,5714163.story?page=1. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  5. ^ a b c Austin, Scott (2010-06-24). "The Daily Start-Up: NeuroSky Uses The Force". Venture capital Dispatch (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  6. ^ a b Eller, Evan (2007-12-13). "NeuroSky ThinkGear Mind-Controlled Toys With Sega". Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  7. ^ "NeuroSky Education". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  8. ^ "NeuroSky Sports". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  9. ^ "NeuroSky Medical". NeuroSky. 
  10. ^ "NeuroSky Research". NeuroSky. 
  11. ^ a b Monica, Sierra (2008-02-16). "NeuroSky to Present Project Millennia". Tech Pin. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  12. ^ Yasui, Yoshitsugu. "A Brainwave Signal Measurment and Data Processing Technique for Daily Life Applications". Advanced Technology Research, NTT DoCoMo. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  13. ^ Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro. "Assessing NeuroSky’s Usability to Detect Attention Levels in an Assessment Exercise". Human Computer Interaction. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  14. ^ a b Lin Lu, Zhong. "Comparison of Mindflex Toy to EEG Research System". University of Southern California. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  15. ^ a b c Covert, Adrian (2009-03-25). "Neurosky Mindset Hands-on: Brainwave Gameplay!". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  16. ^ "NeuroSky OEM". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  17. ^ a b "NeuroSky CTIA 2007". 2010-03-16. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  18. ^ a b c "NeuroSky and SEGA Join Forces". Aware Geek. 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  19. ^ "NeuroSky Developers". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  20. ^ Dickinson, Boonsri (18 July 2011), "Robotic cat ears for humans, an ears-on test", Crave (CNET),, retrieved 24 August 2011 
  21. ^ "NeuroSky's Brain Computer Interface - Bridging the Gap Between Research, Academia, and the Consumer". Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  22. ^ a b c Luo, An. "A user-friendly SSVEP-based brain–computer interface using a time-domain classifier". J. Neural. Eng. Journal of Neural Enjoining. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  23. ^ a b c Gee, Alastair (2010-08-11). "The many uses of mind control". Bit-Tech. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  24. ^ Nijholt Anton, Anton. "Turning shortcomings into challenges: Brain–computer interfaces for games". Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment. Entertainment Computing. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  25. ^ "How the mind can move objects". The Situation Room (CNN). 2010-02-05. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  26. ^ "NeuroSky - Games for Health". 2010-03-16. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  27. ^ a b Greenberg, Andy (2009-03-25). "Mind-Over-Matter Meets Reality". (Forbes). Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  28. ^ Fruhlinger, Joshua (2008-10-09). "Brains-on with NeuroSky and Square Enix's Judecca mind-control game". Engadget. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f "Neurosky, Inc.". Bloomberg Businessweek. 2010-08-31. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  30. ^ a b "Mattel and NeuroSky Ink Alliance for 'Next Generation' Games and Toys". IGN. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  31. ^ a b c "Mattel and NeuroSky Ink Alliance for 'Next Generation' Games and Toys". 2010-03-23. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  32. ^ Christensen, Bill (2007-12-13). "NeuroSky ThinkGear Mind-Controlled Toys With Sega". Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  33. ^ a b Mick, Jason (2008-02-25). "Neurosky Launches MindSet Neural Input Device". Daily Tech. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  34. ^ "NeuroSky Business". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  35. ^ a b c d "Titan Commerce to distribute NeuroSky MindSet and ThinkGear technology components in the EU". THE MEDICAL NEWS. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  36. ^ "NeuroSky Academics". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  37. ^ Daily, Alexis. "NeuroSky MindWave Headset". Electronic Gadget News. 
  38. ^ Miller, Paul. "NeuroSky shows off upcoming Mindwave headset, other new chip applications". Engadget. 
  39. ^ Fiolet, Eliane. "NeuroSky MindWave Brings Brain-Computer Interface to Education". Ubergizmo. 
  40. ^ "NeuroSky MindWave Sets Guinness World Record for "Largest Object Moved Using a Brain-Computer Interface"". NeuroGadget. 
  41. ^ Ayala, David (2010-03-16). "NeuroSky's Headset Lets you Control Games With Your Mind". PC World. Network World. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  42. ^ "NeuroSky Future". NeuroSky. Retrieved 2010-08-31. 
  43. ^ Parekh, Alan (2010-05-09). "Controlling Electronics with Your Mind". Hacked Gadgets. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  44. ^ "'Mind-Reading' Device Could Revolutionize Video Games". (Fox News). 2007-04-30.,2933,269155,00.html. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  45. ^ Murph, Darren (2007-04-30). "Brain-reading biofeedback caps on the rise, NeuroSky returns". Engadget. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  46. ^ Miller, Ross (2009-01 05). "Mind-Mattel's Mindflex teaches kids fake telekinesis". Engadget. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  47. ^ Chen, Jason (2009-01-07). "Star Wars Force Trainer Uses Mind Bullets To Move Ball Through Chute". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 

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