Township (New Jersey)

Township (New Jersey)

A township, in the context of New Jersey local government, refers to one of five "types" and one of eleven "forms" of municipal government. It is a political entity as any typical town, city or municipality, collecting property taxes and providing services such as maintaining roads, garbage collection, water, sewer, schools, police and fire protection. The Township form of local government is used by 27% of New Jersey municipalities.

However, townships in New Jersey differ from townships elsewhere in the United States. In most states, townships are an intermediate form of government, between county government and municipalities that are subordinate parts of the township, with different government responsibilities allocated at each level. In New Jersey, there are no subordinate municipalities located within a township, as a New Jersey township is a form of municipal government within a county, equal in status to a village, town, borough, or city, all of which may coexist within a county.

Municipalities in New Jersey may be classified into one of five "types", of which townships are one. Townships may retain the township "form" of government, or adopt one of the modern forms of government, which are not restricted to a particular type of municipality. In New Jersey, a municipality's name (such as X Township) is not necessarily an indication of its form of government.

In New Jersey, a township is a form of government which consists of a three to five member township committee usually elected at-large in partisan elections. At its organization meeting, held after an election, the committee selects one of its elected members to serve as mayor and preside at meetings. The other members of the township committee serve as commissioners of various township departments, overseeing the work of those areas along with overall legislative issues. Some mayors in this form of government also oversee specific departments. The mayor in this form of government is primarily ceremonial and has the same power as other township committee members. The mayor does hold the powers vested in all mayors under state law. One township committee member is elected deputy mayor each year. Some towns with this form of government rotate the mayor's office each year, while others elect the same mayor for 2-3 years in a row.

On road signs, township is often abbreviated TWP or Twp.


Historically, a variety of legislation has been passed by the state legislature that has defined and refined the township "form" of municipal government:

The Township Act of 1798 was the first state legislation to incorporate municipalities. The government defined was a form of direct democracy, similar to the New England town meeting, in which the vote was available to all white males, at least 21 years old, who were citizens of New Jersey, and residents of the township for at least six months; and who paid taxes in the township, or who owned land, or rented a home in the township for a rent of at least five dollars a year. A group of five freeholders was elected to one-year terms on the Township Committee, which was responsible to oversee the expenditure of revenue in between town meetings.

The Township Act of 1899 abolished the town meeting and strengthened the role of the Township Committee, which was initially set at three and amended to allow for expansion to five members. Members were elected for staggered three-year terms.

The Home Rule Act of 1917 legally defined the term "municipality" and recognized five "types" of government: borough, township, city, town, and village and granted each equal legal standing.

The Township Act of 1989 simplified the much-amended Act of 1899. It retains a three or five member township committee serving staggered terms, whose members are generally elected at-large. The committee elects a mayor from among its members to serve a one-year term. Partisan elections are allowed under this law. Voters may initiate a referendum to change the membership to consist of either 3 or 5 members. While many township committees directly supervise the operation of their municipality, the revised act allows the committee to delegate all or a portion of its responsibilities to an appointed municipal administrator.

A number of municipalities changed to the Township form of government between 1979 and 1982.cite book|last=Karcher|first=Alan J.|authorlink=Alan Karcher|title=New Jersey's Multiple Municipal Madness|publisher=Rutgers University Press|location=New Brunswick, New Jersey|date=1998|pages=120|isbn=978-0813525662] A federal law, "The State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act of 1972" provided funding to the states to be divided between state and municipal governments. In 1981, states were removed from the program and the law was amended to provide direct grants to the most popular form of local government in the Unites States - townships. In Essex County alone, 11 municipal governments changed their form or name to take advantage of the program.

ee also

*Township (United States)

External links

* [ New Jersey State League of Municipalities ]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • New Hanover Township, New Jersey —   Township   New Hanover Township highlighted in Burlington C …   Wikipedia

  • New Brunswick Township, New Jersey — New Brunswick Township may refer to: *New Brunswick Township, New Jersey (pre 1798), split into North and South Brunswick Townships *New Brunswick Township, New Jersey (1860 1863), split from North Brunswick Township and merged into New Brunswick …   Wikipedia

  • New Barbadoes Township, New Jersey — New Barbadoes Township was a township that was formed in 1710 and existed in its largest extent in pre American Revolutionary War times in Bergen County, New Jersey. The Township was created from territories that had been part of Essex County… …   Wikipedia

  • Marlboro Township, New Jersey —   Township   Seal …   Wikipedia

  • Old Bridge Township, New Jersey —   Township   Map of Old Bridge Township in Middlesex County. Inset: Locati …   Wikipedia

  • Middletown Township, New Jersey —   Township   Map of Middletown Township in Monmouth County. Inset (left): Monmouth County highlighted within New Jersey …   Wikipedia

  • Chatham Township, New Jersey — This article is about the township. For the borough, see Chatham Borough, New Jersey. For two services common to both communities, see Chatham, New Jersey. Chatham Township, New Jersey   Township   …   Wikipedia

  • Buena Vista Township, New Jersey —   Township   Map of Buena Vista Township in Atlantic County. Inset: Location of Atlantic County highlighted in the State of New Jerse …   Wikipedia

  • Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey —   Township   Map of Egg Harbor Township in Atlantic County. Inset: Location of Atlantic County highlighted in the State of New Jersey …   Wikipedia

  • Chesterfield Township, New Jersey —   Township   Chesterfield Township highlighted in Burlingt …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”