- Tropical Asia
Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. cite web|url=http://www.bydesign.com/fossilfuels/choice/html/ipccc6_tropical_asia.html|title=Tropical Asia needs to try something new|accessdate=2007-03-13 ] cite web|url=http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/regional/282.htm|title=Ecologically diverse, Urbanly worse|accessdate=2007-03-13] There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India). Its population, is dominantly rural --however, in 1995, a census showed that a region with 6 out of 25 of the large cities . The population is 1.6 billion, likely to reach 2.4 billion in 2025. Climate in Tropical Asia is subject to seasonal weather patterns with the two monsoons and the amount of tropical cyclones in the three core areas of
cyclogenesis(the Bay of Bengal, north Pacific Ocean and South China Sea). The climate varies over several environmental factors such as: growing urbanization, land industrialization and economic development or the opposite land degradation, environmental issues, and increased pollution.
In Tropical Asia, momentous elevational lifts on the ecosystems on the mountains show change in distribution and behavior of the rainforest. In Thailand, for instance, the area of tropical forests could increase from 45% to 80% of the total forest cover, while in Sri Lanka, a substantial change in dry forest and decrease in wet forest might occur. With predictable increases in
evapotranspirationand rainfall changeability, likely a negative impact on the viability of freshwater wetlands will occur, resulting in contraction and desiccation. Sea level and temperature rises are the most likely major climate change-related stresses on ecosystems. Coral reefs might be capable of surviving this intensification, but suffer bleaching from high temperatures. Landward migration of mangroves and tidal wetlands is likely to be inhibited by human infrastructure and human activities.
Coastal lands, in particular, are very vulnerable to major climate changes especially on seas. Particularly, heavily settled and intensified used low-level coastal plains, deltas, and islands are particularly susceptible to coastal erosion and land loss, sea flooding and barrage, especially vulnerable to coastal erosion and land loss, inundation and sea flooding, upstream movement of the saline/freshwater front and seawater incursion into freshwater lenses. Mainly at risk are large delta regions of
Bangladesh, Myanmar, Viet Namand Thailand] , and the low-lying areas of Indonesia, the Philippinesand Malaysia. Socio-economic effects may be noticeable to major cities and ports, tourist resorts, artisinal and commercial fishing and coastal agriculture, and infra-structure development. Global studies have expected the dislodgment of several millions of people from the region's coastal zone, probably a 1 metre rise in sea level.
In Tropical Asia, the Himalayas are crucial to the provision of water of the continental monsoon. Augmented temperatures and seasonal variability could cause a backdrop of glaciers and increasing danger from glacial lake outburst floods. Then, a diminution of average flow of snow-fed rivers, mixed with an increase in peak flows and sediment yield, could have major effects on hydropower generation, urban water supply and agriculture. Supply of hydropower generation from snow-fed rivers can occur in the short term, though not in the long term--run off snow-fed rivers might change as well. As stated before, an increased amount economic, agriculture, and industrial resources, can affect climate, but it can put an extra stress on water. Lower level basins are expected to be most affected. Hydrological changes on island and drainage basins will be relatively low to Tropical Asia, despite those relate to sea rise.
The sensitivity of major cereal and tree crops, changes in temperature, moisture and CO2 concentration of the magnitudes estimated for the region has been done in many studies. One instance is the influences on rice fields, wheat yield and sorghum yield imply that any increase in production associated with CO2 fertilization will most likely be offset by reductions in yield from temperature or moisture changes. Even though climate impression may result huge changes in crop yields, storage, and distribution., the continuing effect of the region-wide changes is tentative because of varietal disparity; local disparity in emergent season, crop management, etc.( the lack of inclusion of possible diseases, pests, and microorganisms in crop model simulations); and the vulnerability of agricultural (especially low-income rural population) areas to periodic environmental hazards, such as floods, droughts and cyclones.
The occurrence and level of some vector-borne diseases are anticipated to rise with global warming.
Malaria, schistosomiasisand dengue, that are significant causes of humanity and morbidity in Tropical Asia, are very sensitive to climate and are likely to spread into new regions on the margins of currently widespread areas as a result of climate change. Lately affected populations initially would go through higher fatality rates. According to one study, specifically focused on climate influences on infectious disease in present vulnerable regions, a growth in epidemic potential of 12-27 per cent for malaria and 31 to 47 per cent for dengue and a decrease of schistosomiasis of 11-17 per cent are expected under a range of GCM scenarios through climate change. Waterborne and water related infectious diseases, already accounting for the majority of epidemic emergencies in the area, are also expected to increase when higher temperatures and higher humidity are placed over on existing conditions and estimated upsurge in population, urbanization, deduction of water quality and other trends.
Tropical rainforest resources
Tropical Asia has an abundance of edible resources. cite web|url=http://www.folklife.si.edu/resources/maroon/foodways/tropical_rainforest_edible_plant.htm|title=Tropical Asian Edible Rainforest plants|accessdate=2007-03-13 ] The following section involves various edible resource plants.
In Tropical Asia, berries are shaped like
peppercorns, having an ingenious flavor a mixture of clove, cinnamon, and nutmeg, therefore the name "allspice." Bananas are the most famous Musa with 21 species and edible subspecies. Especially in the Mayan area, it is probably native to Southeast Asia and widely refined in the tropics. Black pepper is vine to the East Indies—made by drying the whole fruit (peppercorn); white pepper is made by first hulling the fruit, then grinding. The majority of production is in India and Indonesia; outside the region, America is a chief importer. Four of the main cultivators of this plant are capsicum annuum: cayenne pepper, sweet pepper, paprika, and jalapenosgrown in temperate regions.
Native to India,
saffron, vanilla, and cardamomare the most expensive spice. Cashews, originally from tropical America, are a rich nut full of vitamins. Further on, cocoa/chocolate as well as the soft drink cola, is native to lowland tropical America, but is confined through the west African tropics. Citrus fruits are of the most valued fruits in tropical Asia. More than 55 million tons are sold annually, including orange (fruit)s, lemons, limes, grapefruits, tangerines, and more. The largest citrus is the pummelo. The scented flower buds of cloves come from a tropical evergreen tree native to southeast Asian Mollucas, also in Zanzibar, Madagascar, and Indonesia. Coconuts are originally native to the Indo-Pacific areaand are around every tropical area except rainforests. They can be used for oil, fruit, and fibers. Coffee, probably native to North East Africa, is grown throughout the tropics.
In addition, grown throughout the tropics is Mango, native to India (valuable in many parts) and from Southeast Asia (includes root tubers used as spice and perfumes).
Mung beanis also native to India, is a potentially prosperous food. Nutmeg comes from the trees of an island in Southeast Asian Mollucas islands. Mace is formed of nutmeg, and is used as spice. The peanut, native to South America, is commercially spread in tropical, subtropical, and temperateregions—it is used as a chief source of oils and protein. Another important tropical and subtropical plant is pineapple, likely domestic by the Guaraniof Brazil and Paraguayduring the Pre-Columbian Era. Continuing on, Sesame is an early African oil seed plant-- grown primarily in Southeast Asia. Squash is native to many American tropics and is cultivated tropical and subtropical America and temperate zones. Native to Southeast Asia and cultivated in India, turmericis dried, ground rhizomes, and produce the spice. Then of the legumefamily, tamarind, is thought to be originally from India. It is grown throughout the tropics and used as a table fruit, drink, preserves, and medicinal properties. Vanilla is indigenous to tropical America, it is most commercially important of all the 35,000 species of orchid. It is made from the dried seeds of the rainforest orchid tree. It is widely grown, especially in Madagascar.
"This is not an advertisement for these medicines, but a discussion of these plants."
Anisemanages the upper respiratory problems like bronchitis, coughs, and stuffy noses. Moreover, it relieves digestion and upset stomachs. cite web|url=http://www.folklife.si.edu/resources/maroon/foodways/medicinals_and_tonics.htm|title=Human Health plantics|accessdate=2007-03-13 ] It is useful to curb flatulence and aids asthma. It also alleviates female organs and conditions. Castor oilis cathartic reliever. The practice is poultice of warm oil soaks in to wool flannel and applied with a heating pad (1 hour, 3 times a week) causes relief arthritis, calluses and corns, colds, colitis, cysts, gallstones, gout, headaches, hepatitisand warts, ichthyoids, indigestion, moles, seborrhea, nervous tics, varicose veins, even vertigo. Cocoa Butterand Coconutoil are good for the complexion. Tropical vines such as yamsand Sweet potatoesalso have these abilities and are good for eyes and intestines. Cinnamonand Tumeric help regulate blood-sugar (triples the capability of insulin to metabolism glucose in the laboratory). It is taken in small numbers on cereal: 1/2 teaspoon or so. Cloves also provide short-term pain relief, cures mild depression, is a sedativeand sleep tonic, and helps digestion. Then Corn silkcures kidney problems, also cleanses them, and diuretic. Next, Cumin has anti-cancer properties (known to increase a chemical in the body that protects against cancer It blocks 83% of the chromosome damage usually caused by a caner-causing chemical. Its cook with beansand lentils. The Seminole Maroons, also, use cumin seed tea to relieve labor pains.
Dandelion Greens works to purify the system, especially during leisure. Garlic is supposedly a life span enhancer . Its abilities include: lowering blood pressure, cold and flu prevention,, internal vermin, diarrhea, blood sugar problems such as diabetes, pains in the muscles and joints, food poisoning, high cholesterol, urinary tract infections, heals wounds and yeast infections. Ginger, also has a medical use for controlling colds, helps digestion, enhances circulation, helps pain relief and
nausea, relieves slight arthritis pain, heart problems, high blood pressure, cholesterol problems, etc. Onions also possess several of those abilities. Lemon and Lines and Mace and nutmeg also prevents flus and viruses, the latter also helps clear thinking and helps circulation.
Mint helps/aids/controls: headaches, female conditions,
indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, asthma and dryness of breath, toothaches, digestion; poultices for headaches, trouble in muscles and joints. Peanuts, then serve as tension preventatives. It is an oil for massage gout, arthritis, bursitis, and more. Black Pepper is also a cancer pre-emptive, in many occasions a lifespan enhancer. It helps heart problems such as disease and high cholesterol. Hot peppers, a capsaicinmain ingredient, is a pain reliever that prevents colds, flus, and those above. In addition, Plantains keeps the heart healthy by containing high potassium. Poppy seeds are cancer presenters (blocking 80% of the chromosomal damage in carcinogen).
Spices have a high amount of biological activity and enhances life. Next,
Thymehelps with/does: helps digestion., breaks fever, relieves the following: headaches, sore throats, uterine problems, phlegm, shortness of breath, flatulence, colic, stale breath, etc. Tomatoes aid colds and flus. Seeds of Watermelon are good for kidneys; relieves hypertension, cystitis, insomnia.
BoracayIsland of the Philippines is a vivid island noted by long white sand beaches among the popular beach destinations such as Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. cite web|url=http://www.tropicaldestinations.info/asia/boracay-island-philippines/#more-21|title=Boracay is not Boring, okay|accessdate=2007-06-02] Boracay can only be reached by ferry from Caticlan. SEAir serves up to 28 flights a day, each flight about as 35 minutes, from Manila to Caticlan Airport. Another way is through the Kalibo Airporton the other side of Aklan Island. From Kalibo, visitors take a two-hour (2-hour) ride to Caticlan. Three transportations get tourists from Kalibo to Catlican: Mini-vans, buses and other rental vehicles.
"Prehentian Islands, Malaysia"
Perhentian Islands is a group of two small islands in Northeastern Malaysia: Perhentian Besar(or ”Big Perhentian”) and Perhentian Kecil ( or” Small Perhentian”). cite web|url=http://www.tropicaldestinations.info/asia/perhentian-islands-malaysia/#more-17|title=Preview the Prehentians|accessdate=2007-03-13] Small abandoned of Susu Dara, Seringgiand Rawa lie off Kecil. The area belongs to Pulau Redang National Marine Park, which is a marinal site especially for fishing. In Malay, the word “Perhentian” means “point to stop”, referring to their hoary role as a waypoint for traders between Bangkokand Malaysia. The islands were sparingly inhabited by fishermen for centuries, although tourism accounts now for most economic activity.
In the Perhentian, the most common activities are scuba diving, sunbathing, and snorkeling. The Perhentian offers detailed diving and draw diving skills. Competition for dives is competitive, though quite cheap, averaging out to RM60-80 per dive depending on how many dives done and a person brings their own gear. There are 5 dive centers on Kecil’s Long Beach: Spice Divers, Coral Sky Divers, Sea dragon Divers, Turtle Bay Divers and Sunlight Divers. For Snorkeling, all resorts rent out snorkeling gear (RM30 a day for mask, snorkel and fins) and organize snorkeling tours throughout the islands. General snorkeling spots on Besar include
Teluk Pauh(on the left of the beach in front of the PI Resort), Shark Pointand Tanjung Basi. Sharks (though usually at the bottom of the reef) are most commonly seen on boat, at a very small beach, between Shark Point and the Teluk Dalam large beach. Turtles, are most commonly viewed in the middle of the beach in front of Perhentian Island Resort, where the sandy bottom is covered with algae.
Many of the smaller resorts of the island offer buffet-style meals with a variety of Western and Malaysian dishes. Larger beaches, such as the
Pasir Panjang, offer a greater variety of eating options Meals. Since most of the island imports seafood, it is served several times on mainland. Mainly people travel to the islands by the provincial capitals Kota Bharuor Kuala Terengganu. Although the nearest railroad station is Tenah Merah, most tourists prefer Khotu Bharu for better service. Since the islands have neither roads nor airport, arriving to the islands requires a rough speedboat trip with two large outboard motors. On the islands other than from walking, the only way of transport are water taxis. Due to the eastern monsoon, the season in the Perhentian is effectively limited to the period between April and October. Beyond this, the seas can be extremely rough and most space options are closed.
"Rai Leh", or "Railay" in Thailand is, a tourist area located on the
Andaman Coastof Thailand, in Krabi Province, is largely known as a rock climbing spot, open to climbers from all over the world and for its gigantic limestone. cite web|url=http://www.tropicaldestinations.info/asia/fine-sand-beaches-and-mountains-on-rai-leh-thailand/#more-18|title=Towering limestone|accessdate=2007-06-02] A peninsula surrounded by ocean and mountains, final entrée can only be by boat. “Long-tails” leave from Ao Nang (10 minutes, 60 baht/person) and Krabi (30 minutes), whose towns are the gateways to Rai Leh. Another way of access to Rai Leh is on the regular ferries that run between Ko Lanta, Ko Phi Phi, and Phuket (mainly in the dry season: November-May )From Bangkokare flights go to Krabi and Phuket, direct bus services, and trains to Surat Thani and connections by bus.
The topography of the Rai leh is in four primary areas. Phra Nang is a one white sand beach, on the southern tip of the peninsula. Rai Leh (East) is the mangrove side of the peninsula, used by long-tails to/from Krabi. Rai Leh (West), a fine white sand beach with shallow water, where most long-tails arrive from Ao Nang. Then, Ton Sai, which is a cove around the corner from Rai Ley West; rock-climbers and backpackers and practice climbing.
Vertebrates are marked by their ability to fly. Not only are Birds able to fly, but sea animals such as Fish and
Reptilesfor years have flown. cite web|url=http://www.wildasia.net/main.cfm?parentID=2&page=article&articleID=312|title=The Flying Reptiles of Tropical Asia: Evolution Takes a Leap (part 1)|accessdate=2007-03-13] Some fish jump out of the water to escape predators, expand their large pectoral fins and glide nearly hundreds of yards. As well, many frogs have long-webbed, elongate fingers and toes that function like parachutes when they leap from the leaves and branches of trees to glide across the forest.
Several groups of Mammals, for example
bats, colugos, and rodents have developed many different ways to move through the air. The first fliers were Frigate Bird-looking pterosaurs, whom were also the first reptilescapable of flight and varied in size from chickens to giant creatures with wingspans of over 16 meters. However, the most affluent flying reptiles of all time probably were the dinosaurs and the birds today. In Southeast Asia, however, the ability to fly in modern, non-avian reptiles is out of control and has changed alone at least three, maybe four times for lizards, and once in snakes. What would draw such mammals to Tropical Asia, well there would be almost no alarming sounds or people to intimidate them?
In Southeast Asia, the
Agamidae, holds Gliding Lizardsthat are arboreal, diurnal, prominent predators who signal another by puffing out their throats and expanding their chests to show their radiant colour patterns. cite web|url=http://www.wildasia.net/main.cfm?page=article&articleID=324|title=The Flying Reptiles of Tropical Asia: Evolution Takes a Leap (part 2)|accessdate=2007-03-13] As well, they jump from branch to branch for prey or to escape predation. When threatened, Green Crested Lizards leap from one tree to next, splay out their limbs, and expand their rib cages during flight.
Open surfaces are often the place where Draco, (black bearded) gilding lizards communicate with each other. When not flying, their heads are usually seen sitting head up on the trunks of the trees; their wings creatively folded to their bodies Most of their day is spent feeding on ants up and down trees, making for the majority of their diet. Once in a while, they’ll want to change outings and leap from the tree, extend their ribs to open their wings, and glide to the next tree. The degree and speed of the glide depends on a couple of aspects: the height of the lizard on the tree and the surface area of the wing comparative to the weight of the body.
Then, there is the Orange-haired gliding lizard a thick neck and heavy body; it has small wings however, but despites it pace, it moves relatively fast. To pick up enough speed, it commonly needs to fold down its wing for a period of time. Therefore, they are seen on the tallest trees where they can safely dive to gain momentum to glide. Their flight structure helps separate them ecologically, keeping them from direct opposition with one another for some of the rainforest's resources. In some areas of the forest, up to eight different species of Draco may appear together. Generally, they are closely related species with unique, restrictive life histories living in the same area, the potential for opposition is likely. Geckos are another notable flying reptile.cite web|url=http://www.wildasia.net/main.cfm?page=article&articleID=325|title=The Flying Reptiles of Tropical Asia: Evolution Takes a Leap (part 3)|accessdate=2007-03-13] Their wings lack the elaborate thoracic (chest)
mutationof Gliding Lizards and are composed mainly of a large flap of skin along their flanks. The flaps stay rolled across the belly until the lizard leaps off a tree the time they become inertly opened by air during the fall. Additionally, the body flaps are extended flaps along the sides of the head, neck, and tail; back sides of the hind limbs; and extensive webbing on the hands and feet. In flight, all of their wings are extended and splayed, creating the parachute effect. The Frilly Gecko, the smallest of them, travel from trees uniquely on the lowest part of the same tree to avoid predators. Geckos are cryptic species that are hidden during the day and active during the night, unlike the many arboreal agamids. In addition, their color patterns normally match the substrate where they stay allowing them to go ignored.
Then, the Flat-tailed Gecko (Cosymbotus platyuurus), a species strongly related to the Frilly Gecko, is another example of intermediacy. It similarly folds skin along the head, body, limbs, and tail as the Frilly Gecko but not nearly as developed. It lays these flaps out on the trunk of the tree to prevent the curving of the body from a shadow where it meets the trunk, to give away its location. These flaps inertly open up like other geckos do when the gecko jumps from one branch to another and this imparts even a small advantage by extending the length of the jump.
Because of their lack of limbs and other adjuncts, snakes are unlikely a group of vertebrates to develop. Although, in Peninsular Malaysia, there are three, closely related species of snakes with ability to glide for significant distances. These are the Tree Snakes (genus Chrysopelea). The flat, open body works like a parasail and its rolling movements in flight, similar to a spinning frisbee, prevents it from overturning. Before leaping, Tree Snakes hang the uncoiled forepart of their body off the branch in a "like a J". Next, by shaking the body upward in tandem reaching outward by rapidly smoothing its coils and releasing, they’ll hold on the branch, the snakes take flight. They also enlarge their rib cage as a defense device to expose brightly colored markings on their scales.
* [http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ad908e/AD908E01.htm#ch1.3 Long detailed synthesis on Tropical Asia]
* [http://www.eco-tropicalresorts.com/asia.htm Eco Tropical Resorts in Asia Ecotourism in Asia]
* [http://apitmid.hawaii.edu/mission.html Asian Pacific Institute]
* [http://www.ornithology.com/Checklist/asia.html Birds of Tropical Asia]
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