- Rhenish Republic
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Rheinische Republik"
conventional_long_name = Rhenish Republic
common_name = Rhenish Republic
status = Unrecognized state
continent = Europe
country = Germany
year_start = 1923
year_end = 1924
date_start = October 21
date_end = November 26
capital = Aachen
government_type = Republic
leader1 = Josef Friedrich MatthesThe Rhenish Republic ( _de. Rheinische Republik) was proclaimed at
Aachen(Aix-la-Chapelle) in October 1923 during the Occupation of the Ruhrby troops from Franceand Belgiumbetween January 1923 and 1925. It comprised three territories, named North, South and Ruhr, with regional capitals respectively in Aachen, Koblenzand Essen.
The Rhenish Republic is best understood as the aspiration of a poorly focused liberation struggle, rather than as a 'conventional' republic. The
monikerwas one applied by the short-lived separatist movement that erupted in the German Rhinelandduring the politically turbulent years following Germany's defeat in the First World War. The objectives of the many different separatist groups ranged widely, from the foundation of an autonomous Rhenish Republic to some sort of a change of the status of the Rhineland within the Weimar Republic; others advocated full integration of the Rhineland into France. Similar political currents were stirring to the south: June 1919 had seen the proclamation by Eberhard Haaßof the 'Pfälzische Republik', centred on Speyerin the occupied territory of the Bavarian Upper Rhineland.
separatismin the 1920s should be seen in the context of resentments fostered by economic hardship and the military occupation to which the previously prosperous region was subjected. After 1919, blame for the disaster of the World War defeat was variously apportioned to the military, or more simply the French — France, like Germany, had been profoundly traumatised between 1914 and 1918, and conduct of her occupation of the left bank of the Rhine was perceived as unsympathetic, even among her western wartime allies. Increasingly, however, blame was directed against the German government itself, in far off Berlin. By 1923, when the German currency collapsed, it is apparent that the French occupation forces headquartered at Mainz, under the command of Generals Mangin and Fayolle, were having some success in their encouragement of anti-Berlin separatism in the occupied zones.
After 1924, economic hardship began slowly to diminish, and a measure of brittle stability returned to
Germanyunder the Weimar State — the appeal of Rhenish separatism, never a mass movement, was damaged by the violence employed by many of its more desperate supporters. The political temperature cooled after the French military occupation of the Ruhrregion initiated January 1923 to enforce reparation payments, attracted increasingly strident criticism from Great Britainand the United States: the French vacated the Ruhr region in the summer of 1925, following the agreement in September 1924, under the Dawes Plan, of a slightly less punitive reparations régime. The end of the Rhenish Republic can be dated at December 1924, when its leading instigator, Hans Adam Dorten (1880–1963), was obliged to flee to Nice. By 1930, when French troops also vacated the left bank of the Rhine, the concept of a Rhenish Republic, independent of Berlin, no longer featured on the popular agenda.
For later generations of English speakers, the Rhenish Republic is remembered (if at all) largely because of the active support Rhenish
separatismreceived in the 1920s from Konrad Adenauer, the mayor of Cologne and an unapologetic Rhenish partisan, who, as an old man, would campaign successfully for the installation of a provisional (West) German government at Bonnin 1949.
Cisrhenian Republic–1802 and subsequent incorporation of the region into the French Empire lasted for less than a generation, but introduced to the occupied Rhineland many of the (at the time revolutionary and widely welcomed) features of the modern state. One objective of the Congress of Viennain 1815 was to undo Napoléon's territorial changes; so the Rhinelandand Westphaliareverted to the Kingdom of Prussia, while the Upper Rhine region became a western province of Bavaria. However, throughout the 19th century Prussia's western territories adhered to the Napoleonic legal system, and in many other detailed respects the relationships involving citizens and the state had been permanently transformed under Napoleon. In addition, mutual intolerance of religious differences, stretching back centuries, endured between ProtestantPrussia and the predominantly Roman Catholicpopulations of the Rhineland. The reincorporation of most of the Rhineland into Prussia did not run smoothly, and was in some important respects incomplete more than a century later — many Rhinelanders continued to regard rule by Prussia (and after 1871 by Prussia's successor state), as a form of foreign occupation.
Dr Adenauer Calls a Meeting
1 February 1919, more than sixty of the Rhineland's civic leaders together with locally based Prussian National Assembly Members convened in Cologneat the invitation of the city's mayor, Konrad Adenauerof the Catholic Center Party. There was only one item on the agenda: "The Creation of the Rhenish Republic" ( _de. Die Gründung der Rheinischen Republik).
In addressing delegates, Adenauer identified the wreckage of Prussian hegemonistic power as the inevitable consequence "("notwendige Folge")" of the Prussian system. Prussia was viewed by opponents as "Europe's evil spirit" and was "ruled over by an unscrupulous caste of war-fixated militaristic aristocrats" (" _de. "von einer kriegslüsternen, gewissenlosen militärischen Kaste und dem Junkertum beherrscht""). The other German states should, therefore, no longer put up with Prussian supremacy. Prussia must be divided up, and her western provinces separated out to form a West German Republic. This should render impossible future domination of Germany by Prussia's eastern militaristic ethos. Adenauer was, however, keen that his West German Republic should remain inside the German Political Union.
Agreement on blaming Berlin was the easy part: the complexity of the practical issues to be addressed in defining a federalist agenda for an economically destitute territory that politically, linguistically and legally was part of
Germany, but most of which was occupied militarily by France, must have been daunting. In the end, the Colognemeeting produced a two-point resolution. The meeting asserted as valid the right of the Rhineland peoples to political self determination. The proclamation of a West German Republic was to be deferred, however, so that the Prussian state might be divided up. In this way a practical solution could first be agreed with the occupying power and her allies regarding the issue of reparations issue.
During the months following Adenauer's meeting, separatist movements with a range of priorities and agendas appeared in many
Rhinelandtowns and villages.
Hans Adam Dorten and the Wiesbaden Proclamation
Hans Adam Dorten(1880–1963) was an army reserve officer and the owner of a racing-stud. Born in Endenichand by training a lawyer, he was also a former Düsseldorf public prosecutor.
In a speech at
Wiesbaden, on 1 June 1919, Dorten proclaimed "The Independent Rhenish Republic", which was to incorporate the existing Rhineland Province along with parts of Hesseand Bavaria's Upper Rhineland. A non-violent "putsch" was also attempted across the river in Mainz. This, along with other poorly coordinated localised actions inspired by Dorten's Wiesbaden Proclamation, failed to attract significant popular support and soon failed. The Supreme Courtin Leipzigissued an arrest warrantagainst Dorten, citing High Treason, but by remaining in the French occupied territories the indicted party was protected from arrest: the warrant against Dorten was never executed.
At liberty, Dorten continued his struggle: on
22 January 1922he founded in Bopparda political party, the "Rhenish Peoples' Union" ("Rheinische Volksvereinigung"), chaired by Bertram Kastert(1868–1935), a senior Cologne pastor. Thanks to the outstanding treason indictment, Dorten and his circle found themselves shunned by members of the mainstream political parties. The Rhenish Peoples' Union stayed in the shadows, its weekly publication, "German Standpoint" ("Deutsche Warte") and its leaders' other campaigning activities depending on French sponsorship.
The Occupation of the Ruhr
Germanywas shaken by adverse international developments and by a dramatic further deterioration in the economic climate: the year was one of crises.
The German government fell into arrears with war reparations payments. In response, on
8 March 1921, French and Belgian troops moved in to occupy Duisburgand Düsseldorf. On 9 January 1923the Reparations Commission determined that Germanyhad wilfully held back from making payments due, and two days later troops occupied the rest of the Ruhr Area: thus the Rhineland's richest industrial region now bore, on behalf of Germany, the principal burden of the reparations imposed at Versailles. In the fighting that followed more than a hundred people lost their lives. More than 70,000 were turned out in order to make space for French and Belgian workers Mostly young men, those suddenly evicted and deprived of their livelihoods frequently found themselves homeless and some ended up joining one or other of the various active Rhenish separatist groups. Respectable Rhinelanders, appalled at their unkempt appearance, were inclined to dismiss the dispossessed as work-shy thieving riff-raff (" _de. "arbeitsscheues Diebsgesindel"").
Currency stability that had underpinned several decades of sustained
economic growthin much of Europe well into the second decade of the twentieth century was a casualty of the First World War. The statesmen who devised the Versailles settlement were not economists. Their aspirations did not extend to creating the balanced economic environment needed to support future growth: even at the time their approach to the economic aspects of the Versailles Peace settlement drew strident criticism from John Maynard Keynes, an eminent and closely-informed commentator. In 1923 the antebellum price stabilityremained a distant memory for Europeans, but the occupation of the Ruhr coincided with, and in the view of many commentators triggered, a tipping point for the German currency. Prices escalated: the usefulness of money collapsed and hyperinflationtook hold; commerce virtually ceased. Writing in the journal " Die Weltbühne" ("The World Stage"), from the perspective of August 1929, the distinguished political commentator Kurt Tucholskyoffered an assessment: “There was no appetite in the Rhineland for union with France, but little enthusiasm for continued union with Prussia. All that people wanted, and were entitled to, was an end to the hellish nightmare of hyperinflation and the creation of an autonomous republicwith its own currency."
A "Government" in Koblenz: Separatism across the Rhineland
, only recently incorporated into Belgium under the terms of the Versailles settlement.
Two months later, ten kilometres to the east of
Aachen, the tricolourflag of the Rhenish Republic appeared outside a house in a the small town of Eschweiler. Inside, the movement set up a communications center on 19 October 1923. A week after that, the separatists attempted a putschagainst the Rathaus. Surrender was refused however: a truce briefly ensued. The next day, the government urged resistance and eventually, on 2 November 1923, Belgian occupation troops expelled the separatists from Eschweiler.
Meanwhile in Aachen itself, separatists led by Leo Deckers and Dr Guthardt captured the Rathaus where, in the Imperial Chamber, they proclaimed the "Free and Independent Rhenish Republic" on
21 October 1923. The next day the separatists came up against counter demonstrators who surrounded and wrecked their Sekretariat in Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz, near the theatre. 23 Octoberopened with shooting in the streets: meanwhile the city fire brigadereclaimed the Rathaus, forcing the separatists to retreat to government buildings. That day Belgian troops imposed Martial Law.
25 October, the local police were placed under the command of the Belgian occupation forces after attempting to storm the separatists out of the government buildings, only to find themselves thwarted by occupation troops. Across town, changes at the Technical High School included the exclusion from Aachenof non-resident students.
2 November, the Rathaus was retaken by the separatists, now reinforced by around 1000 members of the "Rhineland protection force" ("der Rheinland-Schutztruppen"). Belgian High Commissar, Baron Rolin-Jaquemyns, responded by ordering an immediate end to the separatist government and called the troops off the streets. The City Council convened in the evening and swore loyalty to the German State (" _de. Treuebekenntnis zum Deutschen Reich").
Parallel coup attempts in many Rhenish towns blew up, most of them following much the same pattern.
Local governmentrepresentatives and officials were expelled from civic buildings which were taken over. The Rhenish tricolour was raised over the occupied Rathausen Notices were posted and leafletsdistributed informing citizens of the change of régime. However, civic putsches did not prevail everywhere: in Jülich, Mönchengladbach, Bonnand Erkelenz, separatist attempts to take over public buildings were immediately thwarted, sometimes violently: other districts remained entirely untouched by separatist agitation.
To the north, in
Duisburg, separarists inaugurated, on 22 October 1923a mini-state that would endure for five weeks. Local members of the Rhenish Independence League took to the streets, proclaiming, disingenuously, that their new republic had come into being without any input from the French: attempts to suppress the Duisburg republic more rapidly were nonetheless blocked by the French occupation forces.
Koblenz, the regional capital, separatists had tried to seize power on 21 October 1923. The next day saw hand to hand fighting involving the local police. During the night of 23 October, Koblenz Castle, which had been out of the limelight since 1914 when the Kaiser had briefly established his wartime headquarters there, was captured by separatists with French military support. The occupiers were temporarily evicted by local police the following day, only to renew their occuption that night.
26 October, the French High Commissioner, Paul Tirard, confirmed that the separatists were in possession of effective power (" _de. als Inhaber der tatsächlichen Macht"). Subject to the self-evident superior authority of the occupiers, he stated that they needed to introduce all the necessary measures ("alle notwendigen Maßnahmen einleiten"). Separatist leaders Hans Adam Dorten and Josef Friedrich Matthes interpreted Tirard's intervention as an effective " carte blanche" from the occupation forces. A cabinet was formed and Matthes, as its chairman, designated "Prime Minister of the Rhenish Republic" (" _de. Ministerpräsident der rheinischen Republik").
The new government's power was heavily dependent on finance and support from the French occupation force, as well as on the separatists' own Rhineland Protection Force, which was primarily recruited from men expelled from their homes by the French militarisation of the Ruhr. The "protection force" was poorly equipped: many members were too young to have received any military training. Their implementation of the new government's orders, in the absence of detailed instructions, was rough and ready at best, and sometimes violent. A night-time
curfewwas imposed and press freedomwas greatly curbed. The separatist government received virtually no support from Rhineland government staff who mostly refused to acknowledge its authority or simply stayed away from their desks. In view of its French military backing, the wider population offered Dorten's régime little meaningful support.
From his occupation headquarters in Mainz, General Mangin, (born 1866 in
Sarrebourg, which had become a German town less than five years after his birth), would no doubt have had a far more richly calibrated appreciation of the possibilities presented by Rhenish separatism than the ministers in far away Paris: it is possible to infer, between the approach of the French commanders on the ground and priorities of the Poincaré government, a disparity which became impossible to overlook once Dorten launched his coupin Koblenz: at the same time Paris was coming under heavy political pressure internationally over the increasingly costly French occupation of the Ruhr. In Koblenz, cabinet meetings were often combative and confused, the leaders Dorten and Matthes proving unable to contain their personal rivalries. The French power-brokers now quickly distanced themselves from the Rhenish Republic project, drastically cutting back on their financial support. The Matthes government issued Rhenish bank notes and ordered an extensive "Requisitioning" exercise: this was the signal for the Rhineland Protection Force to embark upon a level of arbitrary widespread lootingwhich greatly exceeded anything necessary simply for feeding the hungry "protection troops". In many towns and villages the situation slid towards chaos. The civil population became increasingly hostile, and the French military found themselves attempting, with increasing difficulty, to preserve some level of order.
November 6and 8 November, a force of Rhineland Protection Force members, calling themselves the Northern Flying Division (" _de. Fliegende Division Nord"), launched an attack on Maria Laach and the surrounding farmsteads. Nearby in Brohlwhere two residents, Anton Brühl and Hans Feinlinger, had set up a local force to oppose the attackers, a death squadturned up and engaged in an orgy of plunderreminiscent, according to one commentator, of the Thirty Years’ War. A father and son, belonging to the villagers' resistance force, were shot. 10 Novembersaw an outburst of looting at Linz am Rhein: the Rathaus was taken over and the Bürgermeisterwas forced from office. From here the looters moved on to Unkel, Bruchhausen and Rheinbreitbach, on the southern rim of the Siebengebirge district. All sorts of items of evident value were "requisitioned" in addition to food and vehicles.
12 November, the separatists gathered together close by in Bad Honnef, there intending to establish a new headquarters. The Rathaus was taken over and, two days later, the Rhenish Republic proclaimed. Food and liquor were seized in numerous hotels and residences and a large celebration took place in the Kurhaus ("Health and Recreation Spa center"), during which the Kurhaus furnishings went up in flames.
The Siebengebirge insurrection
The Siebengebirge district consists of a series of low wooded hills wedged between the A3 Autobahn and
Königswinter, a resort town on the east bank of the Rhine. Back in 1923, the construction of the A3 lay more than a decade in the future, and Bonn, located across the river from Königswinter, could still be described without irony as "a small townin Germany". It was the turn of the villagecalled Aegidienbergto claim a place in history. On the evening of 14 November, a large number of the residents from the various small towns and villages surrounding Bad Honnef met together in an Aegidienberg guest house and resolved to resist openly the wave of looting which, they anticipated, was moving towards the southern side of the Siebengebirge area. The district was experiencing growing food shortages. Despite the weapons ban in force, the group were able to bring together a substantial arsenal, comprising not merely axes, sticks and pitchforks, but also a number of hunting weapons and handguns and other infantryweapons, presumably left over from the war. A mining engineerand former army officer named Hermann Schneider took on leadership of this "ad hoc" militia.
It was thought that Schneider's Aegidienberg-based force now comprised about 4000 armed men. Using factory sirens and alarm bells, the local troop would be mobilised the minute separatist forces were reported or even merely rumoured to have appeared. Panic was apparent as people rushed around trying to move to safety their
cattleand other chattels.
During the afternoon of
15 November, a group of separatists drove two trucks into the Himberg quarter of Aegidienberg: here they were confronted by around 30 armed quarryworkers. Peter Staffel, an 18-year-old blacksmith, was shot dead when he forced the trucks to stop and tried to persuade the occupants to turn back. The quarry workers thereupon showered bullets on the separatists who turned and fled along the little Schmelz valley As they fled down the twisting road, back towards Bad Honnef they encountered the local militia, well dug in and waiting for them: Schneider's men seized the trucks and then routed the separatist gang.
That evening the repulsed separatists met up at the Gasthof Jagdhaus, down the Schmelz valley, and called up reinforcements. They planned a more substantial attack for the next day, in order to make an example of Aegidienberg. Accordingly, on
16 November, some 80 armed separatists found a gap in Schneider's defences at a hamletcalled Hövel: here they seized five villagers as hostages, tied them up, and placed them in the line of fire between themselves and the now-gathering militiamen. One of the hostages, Theodor Weinz, was shot in the stomach, dying soon afterwards as a result of his injuries.
Meanwhile, more local defenders hurried to the fray and set about the invaders. 14 of the separatists were killed: these were later buried in a
mass graveback in Aegidienberg, without the benefit of any identifying inscription. According to contemporaries the dead men had come originally from the Kevelaerand Krefeldareas, between the Ruhr and the Dutch border.
In order to prevent further fighting, the French installed in Aegidienberg a force of French-Moroccan soldiers for the next few weeks, while
military policearrived to conduct an on-the-spot investigation. The investigation concluded that in total around 120 people had been killed in connection with the events of those November days. More precise information on the deaths and other events of the Aegidienberg "insurrection" may survive within the archives of the French "gendarmes". Theodor Weinz, the separatists' hostage who had been fatally shot at Hövel, is buried in the Aegidienberg cemetery, near to its main entrance: the primary schoolhas been named after him. Peter Staffel, the young man who had probably been the first fatality of the Siebengebirge insurrection, is buried in the cemetery at the nearby village of Eudenbach (now incorporated within the administrative ambit of Königswinter).
The end of the Rhenish Republic
Following the events in Aegidienberg, the separatist cabinet based at the castle in Koblenz split into two camps. Across the province separatist governments were evicted from the Rathausen and in some instances arrested by the French military. Leo Deckers resigned his office on
27 November. Hans Adam Dorten had already, on 15 November, moved to Bad Ems and there established a provisional government covering the southern part of the Rhineland and the Palatinate and participated actively in the activities of the "Pfälzische Republik" movement, centred on Speyer, which would survived through till 1924. At the end of 1923, Dorten fled to Nice: later he relocated to the USA, where he published his memoirs; Dorten was still in exile when he died in 1963.
Joseph Matthes also made his way to France where he later met up with fellow journalist
Kurt Tucholsky. Despite the amnestyset out in the London Agreementof August 1924, Matthes and his wife were prevented from returning to Germany, leading Tuckolsky to publish in 1929 his essay entitled "For Joseph Matthes", from which are drawn his observations on conditions in the Rhineland in 1923, cited above.
In the towns, remaining separatist burgermeister found themselves voted out of office at the end of 1923 or accounting for their activities before the courts.
Konrad Adenauer, who during the period of the "Koblenz Government" had constantly been at odds with Dorten, presented to the French generals another proposal, for the creation of a west German autonomous federal state (" _de. die Bildung eines Autonomen westdeutschen Bundesstaates"). Adenauer’s proposal failed to impress either the French or the German government at this time, however.
* "This article is based on Rheinische Republik, the equivalent article from the
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.