- Powered lift
A powered lift (also written powered-lift) is a type of
aircraftthat can take off and land vertically but functions differently than a helicopterin horizontal flight.
United States, the Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) has designated seven categories of aircraft:
The FAA defines "powered-lift" as:::"a heavier-than-air aircraft capable of vertical takeoff, vertical landing, and low speed flight that depends principally on engine-driven lift devices or engine thrust for lift during these flight regimes and on nonrotating airfoil(s) for lift during horizontal flight." [ [http://www.airweb.faa.gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgFAR.nsf/0/7b29c0ffce0c430a86256edf00478339?OpenDocument Federal Aviation Regulations Part 1] on www.faa.gov]
The first powered-lift ratings to be issued by the FAA on a civilian pilot certificate were on
21 August 1997, to pilots Tom Macdonald of Bell Helicopter/ Boeing, William Leonard and Martin Shubert of Bell Helicopter, William Norton and Steve Grohsmeyer of Boeing, and Lt. Col. John Rudzis, Maj. Kevin Gross, and Capt. William Witzig of the United States Marine Corps. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/1997/news_release_970821a.html news release] "Osprey Pilots Receive First FAA Powered Lift Ratings" dated 21 August 1997at www.boeing.com]
Many powered lift aircraft have been tested but very few have been mass-produced. They differ in their means of achieving vertical takeoff and landing.
V-22 Ospreyuses aerodynamic lift(the aircraft is kept in the air by rotors; see aerodynamics).
Harrier Jump Jetfamily uses thrust vectoring(rising off the ground by use of vertical thrust).
"See related article:
Aircraft#Categories and classification."
V-22 Ospreyby Bell Helicopter/ Boeing, a twin-engine tiltrotordesign that has two turbine-powered engines driving three-bladed rotors. The rotors function similar to a helicopter in vertical flight, and similar to an airplane in forward flight. The aircraft first flew on 19 March 1989. Bell Boeing comprises Bell Helicopterof Fort Worth, Texas, a wholly owned subsidiary of Textron, Inc., and the BoeingAircraft Corporation in Philadelphia.
Harrier Jump Jet
Harrier Jump Jetcovers a series of a military VSTOL jet aircraft. It is capable of vertical/short takeoff and landing ( V/STOL) and is the only truly successful design of this type from the many that arose in the 1960s. These aircraft are capaple of operating from small spaces,such as fields, roads, and aviation-capable ships.
Bell/Agusta 609 Tiltrotor
Bell/Agusta BA609tiltrotor is the evolution of Bell Helicopter's V-22 Ospreyinto a civilian aircraft. The Aircraft can take off and land vertically with 2 crew and 9 passengers, and within 20 seconds, transition to forward flight (by tilting its rotorblades into a fully forward position, much like the V-22 Osprey). In forward flight it can cruise at speeds of up to convert|275|kn|km/h|0, with a range exceeding 1,000 nautical miles (with long-range fuel tanks). It is rated to fly above FL210 (21,000 ft), has a maximum payload capacity of over 5,500 pounds, thanks to two Pratt and WhitneyPT6C-67A turbines rated at 1,940 shp, each driving a convert|26|ft|m|0|sing=on diameter 3-bladed rotor blade. The aircraft is not yet in full production; however, many have expressed interest, and the waiting list for orders is already years long.
* [http://www.faa.gov/international/35Assembly/Tiltrotor_IP.pdf report "ADDRESSING THE FUTURE CHALLENGES OF THE OPERATION OF POWERED LIFT CATEGORY/TILTROTOR CLASS AIRCRAFT IN INTERNATIONAL AIR NAVIGATION"] , report by "ASSEMBLY – 35 SESSION EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE", at www.faa.gov
* [http://testimony.ost.dot.gov/test/pasttest/01test/Wallace1.htm "VERTICAL FLIGHT TECHNOLOGY IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM"] , Testimony of
William Wallacethe NATIONAL RESOURCE SPECIALIST FOR ROTORCRAFT OPERATIONS of the Federal Aviation Administration, BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON SPACE AND AERONAUTICS, 9 May 2001, at http://testimony.ost.dot.gov
F-35 Lightning II
*vertical take-off and landing
Pilot certification in the United States
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